M Honda

The University of Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (270)669.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes for the neutrino experiments proposed at INO, South Pole and Pyhäsalmi. Neutrino fluxes have been obtained using ATMNC, a simulation code for cosmic ray in the atmosphere. Even using the same primary flux model and the interaction model, the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes are different for the different sites due to the geomagnetic field. The prediction of these fluxes in the present Letter would be quite useful in the experimental analysis.
    Physics Letters B 01/2013; 718(s 4–5):1375–1380. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:554. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes for the neutrino experiments proposed at INO, South Pole and Pyh\"asalmi. Neutrino fluxes have been obtained using ATMNC, a simulation code for cosmic ray in the atmosphere. Even using the same primary flux model and the interaction model, the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes are different for the different sites due to the geomagnetic field. The prediction of these fluxes in the present paper would be quite useful in the experimental analysis.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Interest has continued in the neural substrates of language switch, which allows multilingual people to select an appropriate language. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural substrates for switching between different languages (cross-language switch) in comparison with those for switching between different tasks or between different action sequences. Subjects were 20 native Japanese (L1) speakers with moderate to high proficiency in English (L2). They were asked to judge pronunciation of visually presented Arabic numerals in either L1 or L2 (phonological judgment task) or the numerical meaning of the same stimuli (numerical judgment task). The switching of the tasks was semi-randomly cued by a background color change. Several brain regions showed significantly greater activity for the forward cross-language switching (L1 to L2) than the backward cross-language switching (L2 to L1). Such cross-language switch regions included the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), left superior temporal/supramarginal gyrus (STG/SMG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and caudate nucleus. Among these cross-language switch regions, the left IFG and caudate nucleus were also involved in the task switching (switching between the phonological and numerical tasks). These findings were supported by an action-sequence switch experiment examining brain activity during switching among different tapping sequences. In the right PFC, moreover, activity during the forward cross-language switching was positively correlated with the subjects’ proficiency in L2. The present study suggests that the right PFC, left IFG, left STG/SMG, ACC, and caudate nucleus might subserve differential aspects of cross-language switch in late bilinguals.
    J Neuroling. 01/2012; 25(1):44-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2011; 183(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [ K. Niita et al. Radiation Measurements 41 1080 (2006)]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [ Astropart. Phys. 30 124 (2008)] a little better than DPMJET-III [S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [ T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara and S. Midorikawa Phys. Rev. D 75 043005 (2007)][ M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa and T. Sanuki Phys. Rev. D 75 043006 (2007)]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 06/2011; 83(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may advance the understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms of TMS. However, it remains unclear if TMS induces fMRI signal changes consistent with the standard hemodynamic response function (HRF) in both local and remote regions. To address this issue, we delivered single-pulse TMS to the left M1 during simultaneous recoding of electromyography and time-resolved fMRI in 36 healthy participants. First, we examined the time-course of fMRI signals during supra- and subthreshold single-pulse TMS in comparison with those during voluntary right hand movement and electrical stimulation to the right median nerve (MNS). All conditions yielded comparable time-courses of fMRI signals, showing that HRF would generally provide reasonable estimates for TMS-evoked activity in the motor areas. However, a clear undershoot following the signal peak was observed only during subthreshold TMS in the left M1, suggesting a small but meaningful difference between the locally and remotely TMS-evoked activities. Second, we compared the spatial distribution of activity across the conditions. Suprathreshold TMS-evoked activity overlapped not only with voluntary movement-related activity but also partially with MNS-induced activity, yielding overlapped areas of activity around the stimulated M1. The present study has provided the first experimental evidence that motor area activity during suprathreshold TMS likely includes activity for processing of muscle afferents. A method should be developed to control the effects of muscle afferents for fair interpretation of TMS-induced motor area activity during suprathreshold TMS to M1.
    NeuroImage 03/2011; 56(3):1469-79. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Neurophysiology - CLIN NEUROPHYSIOL. 01/2011; 122.
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    ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific mucosal immunity is generally induced by the stimulation of inductive mucosal sites. In this study, we found that the replication-deficient vaccinia virus vector, DIs, generates antigen-specific mucosal immunity and systemic responses. Following intradermal injection of recombinant DIs expressing simian immunodeficiency virus gag (rDIsSIVgag), we observed increased levels of SIV p27-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in faecal extracts and plasma samples, and antibody-forming cells in the intestinal mucosa and spleen of C57BL/6 mice. Antibodies against p27 were not detected in nasal washes, saliva, and vaginal washes. The enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity persisted for 1 year of observation. Induction of Gag-specific IFN-gamma spot-forming CD8(+) T cells in the spleen, small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, and submandibular lymph nodes was observed in the intradermally injected mice. Heat-inactivated rDIsSIVgag rarely induced antigen-specific humoral and T-helper immunity. Moreover, rDIsSIVgag was detected in MHC class II IA antigen-positive (IA(+)) cells at the injection site. Consequently, intradermal delivery of rDIs effectively induces antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity in gut-mucosal tissues of mice. Our data suggest that intradermal injection of an rDIs vaccine may be useful against mucosally transmitted pathogens.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 72(2):98-105. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Recently, as a measuring technique of human brain functions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been introduced and applied to examine brain mechanisms of physiological movement with high spatial and temporal resolutions. To evaluate brain functions during movement, it is also important to measure muscle activity quantitatively during fMRI. For example, in some studies that investigated brain activity during finger movement, a simultaneous measurement of fMRI and surface electromyography (EMG) was performed. However, there are no such studies on brain controlling mechanisms of jaw movement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate brain activity during tooth tapping with simultaneous fMRI and surface EMG measurements and identify the difference in cortical activity between incisor and molar tapping. Methods: Six healthy volunteers performed a tooth tapping tasks with incisors and molars during a simultaneous measurement of fMRI scanning and EMG recording from the masseter and temporalis muscles. Each fMRI run task contained 10 rest and 9 tapping conditions alternately, and the subjects performed tooth tapping with a uniform frequency by following the visual cues. Functional imaging data were analyzed to identify the brain areas with task-related signal changes, and the EMG data were full-wave rectified and then integrated to quantify the muscle activity after eliminating imaging artifacts. Results: The EMG activity during molar taping was 1.840.45 times greater than during incisor tapping. The activity recorded in the right inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule was stronger during incisor tapping than during molar tapping. In contrast, no region showed stronger activation during molar tapping than during incisor tapping. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the right inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule might be important for motor control during incisor tapping. (This research is supported by JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.)
    IADR General Session 2010; 07/2010
  • Clinical Neurophysiology - CLIN NEUROPHYSIOL. 01/2010; 121.
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    Retrovirology 01/2009; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the data of the gravitational microlensing survey carried out by the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) group during 2000 toward the Galactic bulge (GB). Our observations are designed to detect efficient high-magnification events with faint source stars and short-timescale events, by increasing the sampling rate up to ~6 times per night and using Difference Image Analysis (DIA). We detect 28 microlensing candidates in 12 GB fields corresponding to 16 deg2. We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate our microlensing event detection efficiency, where we construct the I-band extinction map of our GB fields in order to find dereddened magnitudes. We find a systematic bias and large uncertainty in the measured value of the timescale tE,out in our simulations. They are associated with blending and unresolved sources, and are allowed for in our measurements. We compute an optical depth τ = 2.59 × 10-6 toward the GB for events with timescales 0.3 < tE < 200 days. We consider disk-disk lensing, and obtain an optical depth τbulge = 3.36 × 10-6[0.77/(1 - fdisk)] for the bulge component assuming a 23% stellar contribution from disk stars. These observed optical depths are consistent with previous measurements by the MACHO and OGLE groups, and still higher than those predicted by existing Galactic models. We present the timescale distribution of the observed events, and find there are no significant short events of a few days, in spite of our high detection efficiency for short-timescale events down to tE ~ 0.3 days. We find that half of all our detected events have high magnification (>10). These events are useful for studies of extrasolar planets.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 591(1):204. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the immunogenicity of completely replication-deficient vaccinia virus Dairen I strain recombinant encoding simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag/pol (rDIs) in both mucosal and systemic compartments. When administered either intranasally or intragastrically, rDIs elicited enhanced levels of both SIV Gag p27-specific IgA antibodies and specific plasma antibodies, and the enhanced immunity persisted for the 1-year of observation by intranasal immunization. Increases were observed in antigen-specific IgA antibody-forming cells (AFC) in intestinal mucosal tissues and in IgG AFC in spleens. Furthermore, induction of type 1 and 2 helper cytokines in CD4+ spleen T cells and of CD8+ IFN-gamma spot-forming cells in mucosal tissues was observed in the intranasally immunized mice. Moreover, not even high-dose rDIs generated an SIV gene signal in the brain tissues of immunized mice. These findings suggest that mucosal immunization with the DIs recombinant hold promise as a safe mucosal vector.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 68(5):476-83. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The atmospheric neutrino is still an important tool in the study of neutrino physics. The uncer-tainty of the predicted atmospheric neutrino flux is caused by the uncertainties in the physical assumptions and in the calculation scheme. We discuss them quantitatively, and present the works to reduce them. The uncertainty related to the hadronic interaction model was discussed before, therefore, we mainly study other uncertainty sources than the hadronic interaction model here.
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Optical photometry and H I synthesis observations of the southern edge-on Sc/Sd galaxy IC 5249 are reported. The rotation curve rises linearly out to a radius of 7 kpc and then appears to flatten out at ~100 km s-1. The H I mass out to 24.5 kpc is ~6 × 109 M, or 10% of the total mass out to this radius. The color, central surface brightness, scale height, and scale length of the disk of IC 5249 are R - I ≈ 0.4, μ = 20.6 ± 0.1RC mag arcsec-2, 600 ± 40 pc, and 11 ± 2 kpc, respectively. Additional light to that predicted by an exponential disk is present at distances greater than 3 kpc from the disk. At 5 kpc the surface brightness is 27–28RC mag arcsec-2. The measured distribution of surface brightness is used to constrain the abundance of low-mass main-sequence stars in the halo of the galaxy. A halo made up entirely of main-sequence stars heavier than 0.13 M is excluded. We also find that less than 20% of the halo can be composed of main-sequence stars heavier than 0.30 M. Further observations are required to determine the rotation curve of IC 5249 to large radii and to determine precisely the abundance of low-mass main-sequence stars in the halo of the galaxy.
    The Astronomical Journal 12/2007; 118(1):261. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether cognitive slowing in Parkinson disease (PD) reflects disruption of the basal ganglia or dysfunction of the frontal lobe by excluding an influence of abnormal brain activity due to motor deficits. We measured neuronal activity during a verbal mental-operation task with H(2)(15)O PET. This task enabled us to evaluate brain activity change associated with an increase in the cognitive speed without an influence on motor deficits. As the speed of the verbal mental-operation task increased, healthy controls exhibited proportional increase in activities in the anterior striatum and medial premotor cortex, suggesting the involvement of the corticobasal ganglia circuit in normal performance of the task. By contrast, patients with PD lacked an increase in the striatal activity, whereas the medial premotor cortex showed a proportional increase. Although the present study chose a liberal threshold and needs subsequent confirmation, the findings suggest that striatal disruption resulting in abnormal processing in the corticobasal ganglia circuit may contribute to cognitive slowing in Parkinson disease, as is the case in motor slowing.
    Neurology 04/2007; 68(13):1062-8. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the ``modified DPMJET-III'' model explained in the previous paper, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 \cite{HKKM2004}, but the usage of the ``virtual detector'' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of $K$-production in the interaction model is estimated by modifying FLUKA'97 and Fritiof 7.02 so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly, and the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux with those modified interaction models. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 12/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the $\pi$-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 code with experimental measurements. The $\mu^++\mu^-$ data show good agreement in the 1$\sim$30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The the $\mu^+/\mu^-$ ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 12/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization involving a DNA vaccine prime followed by an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) boost elicited a protective immune response against SHIV challenge in monkeys. However, the hepatocellular tropism of Ad5 limits the safety of this viral vector. This study examines the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-defective chimeric Ad5 vector with the Ad35 fiber (Ad5/35) in BALB/c mice and rhesus monkeys. This novel Ad5/35 vector showed minimal hepatotoxicity after intramuscular administration with the novel Ad5/35 vector. In addition, an Ad5/35 vector expressing HIV Env gp160 protein (Ad5/35-HIV) generated strong HIV-specific immune responses in both animal models. Priming with a DNA vaccine followed by Ad5/35-HIV boosting yielded protection against a gp160-expressing vaccinia virus challenge in BALB/c mice. The Ad5/35-HIV vector was significantly less susceptible to the pre-existing Ad5 immunity than a comparable Ad5 vector. These findings indicate that an Ad5/35 vector-based HIV vaccine may be of considerable value for clinical use.
    Gene Therapy 01/2006; 12(24):1769-77. · 4.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
669.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2010–2012
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      • Department of Functional Brain Research
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2010
    • Iwate Medical University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Morioka, Iwate, Japan
    • Waseda University
      • Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1997–2010
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
      • Department of Medical Sciences
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1997–2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Intramural Research (Dental Research)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000–2002
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Division of Cerebral Integration
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1998–2002
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2001
    • Shibaura Institute of Technology
      • Department of Electronic Information Systems
      Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Newark, DE, United States
  • 1997–1999
    • Kyoto University
      • • Graduate School of Medicine / Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Brain Pathophysiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1996–1999
    • Chiba University Hospital
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
    • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990–1998
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Tokyo Gakugei University
      Koganei, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1995–1997
    • Nara Medical University
      Kashihara, Nara, Japan
    • Fukuoka Institute of Technology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1995–1996
    • National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1994
    • Saga University
      • Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
      Saga-shi, Saga-ken, Japan