[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates mood, emotion and stress coping, and dysregulation of the eCB system is critically involved in pathophysiology of depression. The eCB ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is inactivated by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). Using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUS) as a mouse model of depression, we examined how 2-AG signaling in the hippocampus was altered in depressive-like states and how this alteration contributed to depressive-like behavior. We report that CUS led to impairment of depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, and this deficiency in 2-AG mediated retrograde synaptic depression was rescued by MAGL inhibitor JZL184. CUS induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in the hippocampus, and these biochemical and behavioral abnormalities were ameliorated by chronic JZL184 treatments. The effects of JZL184 were mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Genetic deletion of mTOR with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-carrying the Cre recombinase gene in the hippocampus of mTORf/f mice recapitulated depressive-like behaviors induced by CUS and abrogated the antidepressant-like effects of chronic JZL184 treatments. Our results suggest that CUS decreases eCB-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus, leading to depressive-like behaviors, whereas MAGL inhibitor JZL184 produces antidepressant-like effects through enhancement of eCB-mTOR signaling.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 30 January 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.24.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2014; · 6.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of α-ketooxazoles incorporating electrophiles at the C5 position of the pyridyl ring of 2 (OL-135) and related compounds were prepared and examined as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that additionally target the cytosolic port Cys269. From this series, a subset of the candidate inhibitors exhibited time-dependent FAAH inhibition and noncompetitive irreversible inactivation of the enzyme, consistent with the targeted Cys269 covalent alkylation or addition, and maintained or enhanced the intrinsic selectivity for FAAH versus other serine hydrolases. A preliminary in vivo assessment demonstrates that these inhibitors raise endogenous brain levels of anandamide and other FAAH substrates upon intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration to mice, with peak levels achieved within 1.5-3 h, and that the elevations of the signaling lipids were maintained >6 h, indicating that the inhibitors effectively reach and remain active in the brain, inhibiting FAAH for a sustained period.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavaglines are a class of natural products with potent insecticidal and anticancer activities. Beta-Lactones are a privileged structural motif found in both therapeutic agents and chemical probes. Herein, we report the synthesis, unexpected light-driven di-epimerization, and activity-based protein profiling of a novel rocaglate-derived beta-lactone. In addition to in vitro inhibition of the serine hydrolases ABHD10 and ACOT1/2, the most potent beta-lactone enantiomer was found to inhibit ABHD10 in PC3 cells, suggesting that derivatives of this beta-lactone may serve as valuable chemical probes.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delineation of the natural substrate scope of proteases is important for understanding the functions of proteolytic pathways in physiology and disease. Herein we describe the protocol for PROTOMAP, a technique that combines SDS-PAGE with tandem mass spectrometry to globally identify shifts in protein migration indicative of proteolytic processing. When applied to cells undergoing apoptosis, this unbiased global method provides a snapshot of the topography and magnitude of proteolytic events associated with programmed cell death.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1133:61-70.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic screening is making a comeback in drug discovery as the maturation of chemical proteomics methods has facilitated target identification for bioactive small molecules. A limitation of these approaches is that time-consuming genetic methods or other means are often required to determine the biologically relevant target (or targets) from among multiple protein-compound interactions that are typically detected. Here, we have combined phenotypic screening of a directed small-molecule library with competitive activity-based protein profiling to map and functionally characterize the targets of screening hits. Using this approach, we identify carboxylesterase 3 (Ces3, also known as Ces1d) as a primary molecular target of bioactive compounds that promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We further show that Ces3 activity is markedly elevated during adipocyte differentiation. Treatment of two mouse models of obesity-diabetes with a Ces3 inhibitor ameliorates multiple features of metabolic syndrome, illustrating the power of the described strategy to accelerate the identification and pharmacologic validation of new therapeutic targets.
Nature Chemical Biology 12/2013; · 12.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme peroxidase that catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid. Despite a high level of interest in MPO as a therapeutic target, there have been limited reports about MPO inhibitors that are suitable for evaluating MPO in pharmacological studies. 2-Thioxanthine, 3-(2-ethoxypropyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-purin-6(9H)-one (A), has recently been reported to inhibit MPO by covalently modifying the heme prosthetic group. Here we report a detailed mechanistic characterization demonstrating that A possesses all the distinguishing features of a mechanism-based inactivator. A is a time-dependent MPO inhibitor and displays saturable inactivation kinetics consistent with a two-step mechanism of inactivation and a potency (kinact/KI ratio) of 8450 ± 780 M(-1) s(-1). MPO inactivation by A is dependent on MPO catalysis and is protected by substrate. A reduces MPO compound I to compound II with a second-order rate constant of (0.801 ± 0.056) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), and its irreversible inactivation of MPO occurs prior to release of the activated inhibitory species. Despite its relatively high selectivity against a broad panel of more than 100 individual targets, including enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, we demonstrate that A labels multiple other protein targets in the presence of MPO. By synthesizing an alkyne analogue of A and utilizing click chemistry-activity-based protein profiling, we present that the MPO-activated inhibitory species can diffuse away to covalently modify other proteins, as reflected by the relatively high partition ratio of A, which we determined to be 15.6. This study highlights critical methods that can guide the discovery and development of next-generation MPO inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbation of calcium signaling that occurs during cell injury and disease, promotes cell death. In mouse lung fibroblasts A23187 triggered mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) formation, LDH release and necrotic cell death that were blocked by cyclosporin A (CsA) and EGTA. LDH release temporally correlated with arachidonic acid release but did not involve cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) or calcium independent PLA2. Surprisingly, release of arachidonic acid and LDH from cPLA2α-deficient fibroblasts was inhibited by the cPLA2α inhibitor pyrrophenone, and another serine hydrolase inhibitor KT195, by preventing mitochondrial calcium uptake. Inhibitors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) regulator, also prevented MPTP formation and arachidonic acid release induced by A23187 and by H2O2. Pyrrophenone blocked MCU-mediated mitochondrial calcium uptake in permeabilized fibroblasts but not in isolated mitochondria. Unlike pyrrophenone, the diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) and CsA blocked cell death and arachidonic acid release not by preventing mitochondrial calcium uptake but by inhibiting MPTP formation. In fibroblasts stimulated with thapsigargin, which induces MPTP formation by a direct effect on mitochondria, LDH and arachidonic acid release were blocked by CsA and OAG but not by pyrrophenone or EGTA. Therefore serine hydrolase inhibitors prevent necrotic cell death by blocking mitochondrial calcium uptake but not the enzyme releasing fatty acids that occurs by a novel pathway during MPTP formation. This work reveals the potential for development of small molecule cell permeable serine hydrolase inhibitors that block MCU-mediated mitochondrial calcium overload, MPTP formation and necrotic cell death.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells produce electrophilic products with the potential to modify and affect the function of proteins. Chemoproteomic methods have provided a means to qualitatively inventory proteins targeted by endogenous electrophiles; however, ascertaining the potency and specificity of these reactions to identify the sites in the proteome that are most sensitive to electrophilic modification requires more quantitative methods. Here we describe a competitive activity-based profiling method for quantifying the reactivity of electrophilic compounds against >1,000 cysteines in parallel in the human proteome. Using this approach, we identified a select set of proteins that constitute 'hot spots' for modification by various lipid-derived electrophiles, including the oxidative stress product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). We show that one of these proteins, ZAK kinase, is labeled by HNE on a conserved, active site-proximal cysteine and that the resulting enzyme inhibition creates a negative feedback mechanism that can suppress the activation of JNK pathways normally induced by oxidative stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or "pyrethrome." Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid composition is expected to play an important role in modulating membrane enzyme activity, in particular if the substrates are themselves lipid molecules. A paradigmatic case is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a critical enzyme in terminating the endocannabinoid signalling and an important therapeutic target. Here, using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that membrane lipids modulate structure, subcellular localization and activity of FAAH. We report that FAAH dimer is stabilized by the lipid bilayer and shows higher membrane binding affinity and enzymatic activity within membranes containing both cholesterol and the natural FAAH substrate, anandamide (AEA). Additionally, colocalization of cholesterol, AEA, and FAAH in mouse neuroblastoma cells suggests a mechanism through which cholesterol increases the substrate accessibility of FAAH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α/β-Hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) is a transmembrane serine hydrolase that hydrolyzes the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to regulate certain forms of cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling in the nervous system. The full spectrum of ABHD6 metabolic activities and functions is currently unknown and would benefit from selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we report the development and characterization of an advanced series of irreversible (2-substituted)-piperidyl-1,2,3-triazole urea inhibitors of ABHD6, including compounds KT182 and KT203, which show exceptional potency and selectivity in cells (<5 nM) and, at equivalent doses in mice (1 mg kg(-1)), act as systemic and peripherally restricted ABHD6 inhibitors, respectively. We also describe an orally bioavailable ABHD6 inhibitor, KT185, that displays excellent selectivity against other brain and liver serine hydrolases in vivo. We thus describe several chemical probes for biological studies of ABHD6, including brain-penetrant and peripherally restricted inhibitors that should prove of value for interrogating ABHD6 function in animal models.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that 1,2,3-triazole ureas (1,2,3-TUs) act as versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be tuned to create selective probes for diverse members of this large enzyme class, including diacylglycerol lipase-β (DAGLβ), a principal biosynthetic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we provide a detailed account of the discovery, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of (2-substituted)-piperidyl-1,2,3-TUs that selectively inactivate DAGLβ in living systems. Key to success was the use of activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) with broad-spectrum and tailored activity-based probes to guide our medicinal chemistry efforts. We also describe an expanded repertoire of DAGL-tailored activity-based probes that includes biotinylated and alkyne agents for enzyme enrichment coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and assessment of proteome-wide selectivity. Our findings highlight the broad utility of 1,2,3-TUs for serine hydrolase inhibitor development and their application to create selective probes of endocannabinoid biosynthetic pathways.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serine hydrolase α/β hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) has recently been implicated as a key lipase for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain. However, the biochemical and physiological function for ABHD6 outside of the central nervous system has not been established. To address this, we utilized targeted antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to selectively knock down ABHD6 in peripheral tissues in order to identify in vivo substrates and understand ABHD6's role in energy metabolism. Here, we show that selective knockdown of ABHD6 in metabolic tissues protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and systemic insulin resistance. Using combined in vivo lipidomic identification and in vitro enzymology approaches, we show that ABHD6 can hydrolyze several lipid substrates, positioning ABHD6 at the interface of glycerophospholipid metabolism and lipid signal transduction. Collectively, these data suggest that ABHD6 inhibitors may serve as therapeutics for obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type II diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and cataracts) is a recently described autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the α-β-hydrolase domain-containing 12 gene (ABHD12). Only five homozygous ABHD12 mutations have been reported and the pathogenesis of PHARC remains unclear. We evaluated a woman who manifested short stature as well as the typical features of PHARC. Sequence analysis of ABHD12 revealed a novel heterozygous c.1129A>T (p.Lys377X) mutation. Targeted comparative genomic hybridization detected a 59-kb deletion that encompasses exon 1 of ABHD12 and exons 1-4 of an adjacent gene, GINS1, and includes the promoters of both genes. The heterozygous deletion was also carried by the patient's asymptomatic mother. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated ∼50% decreased expression of ABHD12 RNA in lymphoblastoid cell lines from both individuals. Activity-based protein profiling of serine hydrolases revealed absence of ABHD12 hydrolase activity in the patient and 50% reduction in her mother. This is the first report of compound heterozygosity in PHARC and the first study to describe how a mutation might affect ABHD12 expression and function. The possible involvement of haploinsufficiency for GINS1, a DNA replication complex protein, in the short stature of the patient and her mother requires further studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive knowledge of the platelet proteome is necessary for understanding thrombosis and for envisioning antiplatelet therapies. To discover other biochemical pathways in human platelets, we screened platelets with a carbamate library designed to interrogate the serine hydrolase subproteome and used competitive activity-based protein profiling to map the targets of active carbamates. We identified an inhibitor that targets arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1), a lipid deacetylase originally identified in invasive cancers. Using this compound, along with highly selective second-generation inhibitors of AADACL1, metabolomics, and RNA interference, we show that AADACL1 regulates platelet aggregation, thrombus growth, RAP1 and PKC activation, lipid metabolism, and fibrinogen binding to platelets and megakaryocytes. These data provide evidence that AADACL1 regulates platelet and megakaryocyte activation and highlight the value of this chemoproteomic strategy for target discovery in platelets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The posttranslational modification of proteins and their regulation by metabolites represent conserved mechanisms in biology. At the confluence of these two processes, we report that the primary glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) reacts with select lysine residues in proteins to form 3-phosphoglyceryl-lysine (pgK). This reaction, which does not require enzyme catalysis, but rather exploits the electrophilicity of 1,3-BPG, was found by proteomic profiling to be enriched on diverse classes of proteins and prominently in or around the active sites of glycolytic enzymes. pgK modifications inhibit glycolytic enzymes and, in cells exposed to high glucose, accumulate on these enzymes to create a potential feedback mechanism that contributes to the buildup and redirection of glycolytic intermediates to alternate biosynthetic pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small molecule probes have been used extensively to explore biologic systems and elucidate cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we use an inhibitor of bacterial communication to monitor changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with the aim of discovering unrecognized processes regulated by AI-2-based quorum-sensing (QS), a mechanism of bacterial intercellular communication that allows for the coordination of gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. In S. typhimurium, this system regulates the uptake and catabolism of intercellular signals and has been implicated in pathogenesis, including the invasion of host epithelial cells. We demonstrate that our QS antagonist is capable of selectively inhibiting the expression of known QS-regulated proteins in S. typhimurium, thus attesting that QS inhibitors may be used to confirm proposed and elucidate previously unidentified QS pathways without relying on genetic manipulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has been firmly established as the predominant catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a great need has emerged for the development of highly selective MAGL inhibitors. Here, we tested the in vivo effects of one such compound, KML29.
In the present study, we tested KML29 in murine inflammatory (i.e. carrageenan) and sciatic nerve injury pain models, as well as the diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhage model. KML29 was also evaluated for cannabimimetic effects, including measurements of locomotor activity, body temperature, catalepsy, and cannabinoid interoceptive effects in the drug discrimination paradigm.
KML29 attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema and completely reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical allodynia. These effects underwent tolerance after repeated administration of high-dose KML29, which were accompanied by CB1 receptor desensitization. Acute or repeated KML29 administration increased 2-AG levels and concomitantly reduced arachidonic acid levels, but without elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in the whole brain. Furthermore, KML29 partially reversed allodynia in the sciatic nerve injury model and completely prevented diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhages. CB1 and CB2 receptors played differential roles in these pharmacological effects of KML29. In contrast, KML29 did not elicit cannabimimetic effects, including catalepsy, hypothermia, and hypomotility. Although KML29 did not substitute for THC in C57BL/6J mice, it fully and dose-dependantly substituted for AEA in FAAH(‱/‱) mice, consistent with previous work showing that dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition produces THC-like subjective effects.
These results indicate that KML29, a highly selective MAGL inhibitor, reduces inflammatory and neuropathic nociceptive behavior without occurrence of cannabimimetic side effects.
British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor