Hannah L F Cooper

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (57)154.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional and ecologic studies suggest that place characteristics influence sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using data from a predominately substance-misusing cohort of African American adults relocating from US public housing complexes, this multilevel longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that participants who experienced greater postrelocation improvements in neighborhood conditions (i.e., socioeconomic disadvantage, social disorder, STI prevalence, and male/female sex ratios) would have reduced the odds of testing positive for an STI over time.
    Sexually transmitted diseases. 10/2014; 41(10):573-579.
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    ABSTRACT: Ecologic and cross-sectional multilevel analyses suggest that characteristics of the places where people live influence their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). Using data from a predominately substance-misusing cohort of African-American adults relocating from US public housing complexes, this multilevel longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that participants who experienced greater post-relocation improvements in economic disadvantage, violent crime, and male:female sex ratios would experience greater reductions in perceived partner risk and in the odds of having a partner who had another partner (i.e., indirect concurrency). Baseline data were collected from 172 public housing residents before relocations occurred; three waves of post-relocation data were collected every 9 months. Participants who experienced greater improvements in community violence and in economic conditions experienced greater reductions in partner risk. Reduced community violence was associated with reduced indirect concurrency. Structural interventions that decrease exposure to violence and economic disadvantage may reduce vulnerability to HIV/STIs.
    AIDS and Behavior 08/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine associations of homophobia, racism, and resiliency with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white MSM. The Involve[ment]t study is a cohort of black and white MSM aged 18-39 years in Atlanta, GA designed to evaluate individual, dyadic, and community level factors that might explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Participants were recruited irrespective of HIV serostatus from community-based venues and from Internet ads and were tested for HIV. We assessed respondents' demographics, whether they had engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the past 6 months, and attitudes about perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and personal resiliency. Compared to white MSM, black MSM were less likely to report UAI in the past 6 months (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.44-0.80), more likely to be HIV-positive (OR = 5.05, CI = 3.52-7.25) and, among-those HIV-positive-more likely to report not being aware of their HIV infection (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.18-5.65). Greater perceived racism was associated with UAI in the black sample (partial odds ratio [pOR] = 1.48, CI = 1.10-1.99). Overall, perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and resilience were not associated with prevalent HIV infection in sample. Greater resilience was associated with less perceived homophobia in both black and white samples (Spearman r = -.27, p < .001, for both). Future studies of social discrimination at the institutional and network level, than at the individual level, may explain differences in HIV infection in black and white MSM.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young black MSM, are disproportionately affected in the United States’ HIV epidemic. Drug use may contribute to these disparities, yet previous studies have failed to provide evidence of elevated use among black MSM, relying exclusively on self-reported usage. This study uses biological assays to validate self-reports of drug use and explore the potential for misclassification to distort findings on racial patterns of use in this population. Methods From an Atlanta-based cohort study of 454 black and 349 white MSM from 2010 to 2012, participants’ self-reported drug use was compared to urine drug screening findings. The sensitivity of self-report was calculated as the proportion reporting recent usage among those who screened positive. Multivariable regression models were constructed to examine racial patterns in self-report, urine-detection, and self-report sensitivity of marijuana and cocaine usage, adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results In analyses that adjusted for age, education, income, sexual orientation, and history of arrest, black MSM were less likely to report recent use of marijuana (P < 0.001) and cocaine (P = 0.02), but equally likely to screen positive for either drug. This discrepancy between self-reported and urine-detected drug use was explained by significantly lower sensitivity of self-report for black participants (P < 0.001 for marijuana, P < 0.05 for cocaine). Conclusions The contribution of individual drug-related risk behaviors to the HIV disparities between black and white MSM should be revisited with methods that validate self-reports of illegal drug use.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 05/2014; 138:146-153. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Hannah L F Cooper, Barbara Tempalski
    The International journal on drug policy 04/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has reached 16% among non-injecting drug users (NIDU) in New York City, an unusually high prevalence for a predominantly heterosexual population that does not inject drugs. Using a long-term study (1983-2011, >7,000 subjects) among persons entering the Beth Israel drug-treatment programs in New York City, we identified factors that contributed to this high prevalence: a preexisting HIV epidemic among injectors, a crack cocaine epidemic, mixing between injectors and crack users, policy responses not centered on public health, and herpes-simplex virus 2 facilitating HIV transmission. Implications for avoiding high prevalence among NIDU in other areas are discussed.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 02/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2)/HIV co-infection as a contributing factor in the increase in HIV infection among non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in New York City. Subjects were recruited from the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone maintenance programs in New York City in 1995-1999 and 2005-2011. All reported current heroin and/or cocaine use and no injection drug use. A structured questionnaire was administered and serum samples collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Population-attributable risk percentages (PAR%s) were estimated for associations between HSV-2 and increased susceptibility to and increased transmissibility of HIV among female NIDUs. 785 subjects were recruited from 1995-1999, and 1764 subjects from 2005-2011. HIV prevalence increased from 7% to 13%, with nearly uniform increases among all demographic subgroups. HSV-2/HIV co-infection was common in both time periods, with an average (over the two time periods) of 80% of HIV negative females infected with HSV-2, an average of 43% of HIV negative males infected with HSV-2; an average of 97% of HIV positive females also infected with HSV-2 and an average of 67% of HIV positive males also infected with HSV-2. The increase in HIV prevalence was predominantly an increase in HSV-2/HIV co-infection, with relatively little HIV mono-infection in either time period. The estimated PAR%s indicate that approximately half of HIV acquisition among females was caused by HSV-2 infection and approximately 60% of HIV transmission from females was due to HSV-2 co-infection. The increase in HIV infection among these non-injecting drug users is better considered as an increase in HSV-2/HIV co-infection rather than simply an increase in HIV prevalence. Additional interventions (such as treatment as prevention and suppressing the effects of HSV-2 on HIV transmission) are needed to reduce further HIV transmission from HSV-2/HIV co-infected non-injecting drug users.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87993. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated race/ethnicity-specific incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess the change in disparities after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dissemination. We compared IARs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID with those of white PWID in 93 of the most populous MSAs. We selected two three-year periods from the years immediately preceding HAART (1993-1995) and the years with the most recent available data (2005-2007). To maximize stability, we aggregated data across three-year periods, and we aggregated data for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID for most comparisons with data for white PWID. We assessed disparities by comparing IAR 95% CIs for overlap. IARs were significantly higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in 81% of MSAs in 1993-1995 and 77% of MSAs in 2005-2007. MSAs where disparities became non-significant over time were concentrated in the West. Significant differences were more frequent in comparisons between black/African American and white PWID (85% of MSAs in 1993-1995, 79% of MSAs in 2005-2007) than in comparisons between Hispanic/Latino and white PWID (53% of MSAs in 1993-1995, 56% of MSAs in 2005-2007). IARs declined modestly across racial/ethnic groups in most MSAs. AIDS diagnosis rates continue to be substantially higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in most large MSAs. This finding suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs, as well as research on MSA-level conditions that may serve to maintain the disparities.
    Public Health Reports 01/2014; 129(3):267-279. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework. From July 2010-Decemeber 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white) were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43%) versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-4.4). Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL) than white (577 cells/µL) MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time) partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates. Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90514. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: USA is experiencing a paradigm shift in public housing policy: while policies used to place people who qualified for housing assistance into spatially concentrated housing complexes, they now seek to geographically disperse them, often to voucher-subsidized rental units in the private market. Programs that relocate residents from public housing complexes tend to move them to neighborhoods that are less impoverished and less violent. To date, studies have reached conflicting findings about the relationship between public housing relocations and depression among adult relocaters. The present longitudinal multilevel analysis tests the hypothesis that pre-/postrelocation improvements in local economic conditions, social disorder, and perceived community violence are associated with declines in depressive symptoms in a cohort of African-American adults; active substance misusers were oversampled. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 172 adults who were living in one of seven public housing complexes scheduled for relocation and demolition in Atlanta, GA; by design, 20 % were dependent on substances and 50 % misused substances but were not dependent. Baseline data captured prerelocation characteristics of participants; of the seven census tracts where they lived, three waves of postrelocation data were gathered approximately every 9 months thereafter. Surveys were administered at each wave to assess depressive symptoms measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), perceived community violence, and other individual-level covariates. Participants' home addresses were geocoded to census tracts at each wave, and administrative data sources were used to characterize tract-level economic disadvantage and social disorder. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel models. Between waves 1 and 2, participants experienced significant improvements in reported depressive symptoms and perceived community violence and in tract-level economic disadvantage and social disorder; these reductions were sustained across waves 2-4. A 1 standard deviation improvement in economic conditions was associated with a 1-unit reduction in CES-D scores; the magnitude of this relationship did not vary by baseline substance misuse or gender. Reduced perceived community violence also predicted lower CES-D scores. Our objective measure of social disorder was unrelated to depressive symptoms. We found that relocaters who experienced greater pre-/postrelocation improvements in economic conditions or in perceived community violence experienced fewer depressive symptoms. Combined with past research, these findings suggest that relocation initiatives should focus on the quality of the places to which relocaters move; future research should also identify pathways linking pre-/postrelocation changes in place characteristics to changes in mental health.
    Journal of Urban Health 12/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using condoms with primary partners were using the NYC Condom, and 47 % of those consistently using condoms with casual partners were using the NYC Condom. The NYC Condom is an important tool for reducing sexual transmission of HIV and STI among persons who use drugs in the city. Given the strong relationship between using the NYC Condom and consistent condom use, further efforts to promote the NYC Condom brand would be easily justified.
    Journal of Urban Health 12/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Examine long term sexual risk behaviors among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City following implementation of "combined" prevention programming, including condom social marketing. Quantitative interviews and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing were conducted among PWID entering Beth Israel Medical Center drug treatment programs 1990-2012. Data were analyzed by four time periods corresponding to the cumulative implementation of HIV prevention interventions. 7,132 subjects were recruited from 1990 to 2012; little change in sexual behavior occurred among HIV seronegative subjects, while HIV seropositive subjects reported significant decreases in being sexually active and significant increases in consistent condom use. HIV transmission risk (being HIV positive and engaging in unprotected sex) declined from 14 % in 1990-1995 to 2 % in 2007-2012 for primary sexual partners and from 6 to 1 % for casual partners. Cumulative implementation of combined prevention programming for PWID was associated with substantial decreases in sexual risk behavior among HIV seropositives.
    AIDS and Behavior 11/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transitions from injecting to non-injecting drug use have been reported from many different areas, particularly in areas with large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. The extent to which such transitions actually protect against HIV and HCV has not been determined. A cross-sectional survey with HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) testing was conducted with 322 former injectors (persons who had injected illicit drugs but permanently transitioned to non-injecting use) and 801 current injectors recruited in New York City between 2007 and 2012. There were no differences in HIV prevalence, while HCV prevalence was significantly lower among former injectors compared to current injectors. Years injecting functioned as a mediating variable linking former injector status to lower HCV prevalence. Transitions have continued well beyond the reduction in the threat of AIDS to injectors in the city. New interventions to support transitions to non-injecting drug use should be developed and supported by both drug treatment and syringe exchange programs.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 10/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several cross-sectional studies have examined relationships between neighborhood characteristics and substance misuse. Using data from a sample of African-American adults relocating from US public housing complexes, we examined relationships between changes in exposure to local socioeconomic conditions and substance misuse over time. We tested the hypothesis that adults who experienced greater post-relocation improvements in local economic conditions and social disorder would have a lower probability of recent substance misuse. Data were drawn from administrative sources to describe the census tracts where participants lived before and after relocating. Data on individual-level characteristics, including binge drinking, illicit drug use, and substance dependence, were gathered via survey before and after the relocations. Multilevel models were used to test hypotheses. Participants (N=172) experienced improvements in tract-level economic conditions and, to a lesser degree, in social disorder after moving. A one standard-deviation improvement in tract-level economic conditions was associated with a decrease in recent binge drinking from 34% to 20% (p=0.04) and with a decline in using illicit drugs weekly or more from 37% to 16% (p=0.02). A reduction in tract-level alcohol outlet density of >3.0 outlets per square mile predicted a reduction in binge drinking from 32% to 18% at p=0.05 significance level. We observed relationships between improvements in tract-level conditions and declines in substance misuse, providing further support for the importance of the local environment in shaping substance misuse. These findings have important implications for public housing policies and future research.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 07/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People who inject drugs (PWID) have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We update and present estimates and trends of the prevalence of current PWID and PWID subpopulations in 96 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 1992-2007. Current estimates of PWID and PWID subpopulations will help target services and help to understand long-term health trends among PWID populations. We calculated the number of PWID in the US annually from 1992-2007 and apportioned estimates to MSAs using multiplier methods. We used four types of data indicating drug injection to allocate national annual totals to MSAs, creating four distinct series of component estimates of PWID in each MSA and year. The four component estimates are averaged to create the best estimate of PWID for each MSA and year. We estimated PWID prevalence rates for three subpopulations defined by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. We evaluated trends using multi-level polynomial models. PWID per 10,000 persons aged 15-64 years varied across MSAs from 31 to 345 in 1992 (median 104.4) to 34 to 324 in 2007 (median 91.5). Trend analysis indicates that this rate declined during the early period and then was relatively stable in 2002-2007. Overall prevalence rates for non-Hispanic black PWID increased in 2005 as compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic prevalence, in contrast, declined across time. Importantly, results show a worrisome trend in young PWID prevalence since HAART was initiated - the mean prevalence was 90 to 100 per 10,000 youth in 1992-1996, but increased to >120 PWID per 10,000 youth in 2006-2007. Overall, PWID rates remained constant since 2002, but increased for two subpopulations: non-Hispanic black PWID and young PWID. Estimates of PWID are important for planning and evaluating public health programs to reduce harm among PWID and for understanding related trends in social and health outcomes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e64789. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Puerto Rican college-aged individuals experience high rates of sexually transmitted infections. Understanding how and why these individuals search for safer sex information will allow to effectively reach them through appropriate communication channels. This study explored the safer sex information-seeking behaviors of 20 Puerto Rican undergraduate college students at the University of Puerto Rico’s Río Piedras campus through semi-structured, one-on-one in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis revealed that students were motivated to seek information for both personal reasons (e.g., being sexually active) and external reasons (e.g., a high school assignment). Results also suggest that source characteristics were more important than the sources themselves when searching for specific information. These findings align with Johnson’s Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson, 1997), adding “external factors” to the model's antecedents. By adding this component, the model takes into consideration the unique information-seeking behaviors of college students. Our findings may help develop effective and appropriate health communication strategies and policies that target sexual health and safer sex behaviors among this understudied population, contributing to the scarce literature available on the topics of sexual health and health communications in the Puerto Rican community as a whole.
    Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC 01/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57201. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the potential contribution of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection to female/male and racial/ethnic disparities in HIV among non-injecting heroin and cocaine drug users. HSV-2 infection increases susceptibility to HIV infection by a factor of two to three. Subjects were recruited from entrants to the Beth Israel drug detoxification program in New York City 2005-11. All subjects reported current use of heroin and/or cocaine and no lifetime injection drug use. A structured questionnaire was administered and serum samples collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Population-attributable risk percentages (PAR%s) were calculated for associations between HSV-2 infection and increased susceptibility to HIV. 1745 subjects were recruited from 2005-11. Overall HIV prevalence was 14%. Females had higher prevalence than males (22% vs. 12%) (p<0.001), African-Americans had the highest prevalence (15%), Hispanics an intermediate prevalence (12%), and Whites the lowest prevalence (3%) (p<.001). There were parallel variations in HSV-2 prevalence (females 86%, males 51%, African-Americans 66%, Hispanics 47%, Whites 36%), HSV-2 prevalence was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (OR = 3.12 95% CI 2.24 to 4.32). PAR%s for HSV-2 as a cause of HIV ranged from 21% for Whites to 50% for females. Adjusting for the effect of increased susceptibility to HIV due to HSV-2 infection greatly reduced all disparities (adjusted prevalence = males 8%, females 11%; Whites 3%, African-Americans 10%, Hispanics 9%). Female/male and racial/ethnic variations in HSV-2 infection provide a biological mechanism that may generate female/male and racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in New York City. HSV-2 infection should be assessed as a potential contributing factor to disparities in sexually transmitted HIV throughout the US.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66874. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are significant relationships between racial residential segregation (RRS) and a range of health outcomes, including cancer-related outcomes. This study explores the contribution of metropolitan area RRS, census tract racial composition and breast cancer and all-cause mortality among black and white breast cancer patients. This study has three units of analysis: women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 22,088), census tracts where they lived at diagnosis (n = 1,373), and the metropolitan statistical area (MSA)/micropolitan statistical area (MiSA) where they lived at diagnosis (n = 37). Neighborhood racial composition was measured as the percent of black residents in the census tract. Metropolitan area RRS was measured using the Information Theory Index. Multilevel Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of metropolitan area RRS and census tract racial composition with breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Survival analysis explored and compared the risk of death in women exposed to environments where a higher and lower proportion of residents were black. Breast cancer mortality disparities were largest in racially mixed tracts located in high MSA/MiSA segregation areas (RR = 2.06, 95 % CI 1.70, 2.50). For black but not white women, as MSA/MiSA RRS increased, there was an increased risk for breast cancer mortality (HR = 2.20, 95 % CI 1.09, 4.45). For all-cause mortality, MSA/MiSA segregation was not a significant predictor, but increasing tract percent black was associated with increased risk for white but not black women (HR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.58). Racial residential segregation may influence health for blacks and whites differently. Pathways through which RRS patterns impact health should be further explored.
    Cancer Causes and Control 07/2012; 23(9):1519-27. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Urban Health 06/2012; 89(5):873. · 1.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

672 Citations
154.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Emory University
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • National Development and Research Institutes, Inc.
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • New York Academy of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • NDRI-USA, Inc.
      New York City, New York, United States