Sivi Carson

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States

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Publications (18)55.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the agreement of bone mineral density (BMD) between lumbar (L) and individual thoracic (T) vertebrae and identify a standard thoracic spine level for BMD assessment in cardiac computed tomography (CT) images. Three hundred subjects who underwent simultaneous chest and abdomen CT scans for clinical indications were included. A calibration phantom that extended from the first thoracic spine (T(1)) to the fifth lumbar (L(5)) was employed. Vertebral BMD were measured by QCT 5000 and NVivo systems. The association between three consecutive lumbar (L1-L3) and thoracic BMD (3T, initiation site equivalent to left main coronary caudally) was evaluated. There was a gradual decrease in BMD values from T(1) to L(3,) subsequently increasing in L(4) and L(5) in both genders. When stratified by gender, 3T BMD was significantly higher versus L(1-3) BMD (156.9 versus 141.9vmg/cm(3), P < .001) for women as well as for men (164.8 versus 151.0 mg/cm(3), P < .001). There is good correlation between 3T and L(1-3) BMD, the Pearson's correlation coefficients are 0.91 and 0.93 for women and men, respectively. We further analyzed the associations between L(1-3) and any individual spine of T(1)-L(5) and similar relationships were observed (r value, 0.62-0.98). The intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variation measurement of thoracic quantitative CT was 2.5 (1.0, 95% CI 0.099-1.004); 2.6 (1.0, 95CI% 0.992-1.007), and 2.8% (1.0,95% 0.0994-1.008), respectively. The 3T BMD was highly correlated with L(1-3) BMD. Thoracic BMD can be measured during cardiac and lung CT imaging without need for additional participant burden or radiation dose. This highly reproducible methodology is actively being applied to large cohort studies to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis and track BMD over time.
    Academic radiology 11/2011; 19(2):179-83. DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2011.10.006 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To create standard thoracic bone mineral density (BMD) values for patients undergoing cardiac computed tomography (CT) by using thoracic quantitative CT and to compare these BMDs (in a subpopulation) with those obtained by using lumbar spine quantitative CT. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 9585 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 56 years; age range, 30-90 years) who underwent coronary artery calcium scanning, including 4131 women, were examined. Patients with vertebral deformities or fractures were excluded. Six hundred forty-four subjects (322 of whom were female) also underwent lumbar quantitative CT. The mean thoracic vertebral BMDs for both sexes were reported separately in a subgroup of subjects aged 30 years and in 29 age-based subgroups in 2-year intervals from ages 30 to 90 years. The formulas used to calculate the female T score (T(f)) and the male T score (T(m)) on the basis of thoracic quantitative CT measurements were as follows: T(f) = (BMD(im) - 222)/36, and T(m) = (BMD(im) - 215)/33, where BMD(im) is the individual mean BMD. Comparisons between thoracic quantitative CT and lumbar quantitative CT measurements, as well as analyses of intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variability, were performed. The young-subgroup mean BMD was 221.9 mg/mL ± 36.2 (standard deviation) for the female subjects and 215.2 mg/mL ± 33.2 for the male subjects. The mean thoracic BMDs for the female and male subjects were found to be 20.7% higher and 17.0% higher, respectively, than the values measured with lumbar quantitative CT (P < .001 for both comparisons). A significant positive association between the thoracic and lumbar quantitative CT measurements (r > 0.85, P < .001) was found. Intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variabilities in thoracic quantitative CT measurements were 2.5%, 2.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. There was a significant association between the mean thoracic and lumbar BMDs. Therefore, standard derived measurements (young-subgroup BMD ± standard deviation) based on these data can be used with thoracic CT images to estimate the bone mineral status.
    Radiology 11/2010; 257(2):434-40. DOI:10.1148/radiol.10100132 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because almost all data currently available with coronary calcium scanning are from electron beam tomography (EBT), we assessed whether scores obtained with 64-multidetector computed tomography (CT; MDCT) are similar. We evaluated the interscan variation in coronary artery calcium (CAC), Agatston score (AS), and volume score (VS) between EBT and 64-MDCT (VCT; GE, Milwaukee, Wis). One hundred two patients (mean age, 61.1 years; 27 women) underwent dual CAC scanning with both EBT and 64-MDCT. The AS and VS were measured with the Aquarius workstation (TeraRecon, Inc, San Mateo, Calif). The correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, interscanner variation, and agreement in AS and VS scores between EBT and 64-MDCT were computed. Interscan agreement for presence of CAC was 99%. Median values were 286 and 268 mm for AS and 243 and 213 mm for VS with EBT and 64-MDCT, respectively (P > 0.05). There was significant linear relationship between scores from the 2 scanners (R = 0.98 in AS and R = 0.99 in VS; P < 0.001). The interscanner variability between EBT and 64-MDCT was 20.9% and 17.6% in AS and VS, respectively (P = NS). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean difference in scores of 8.3% for AS and 7.8% by VS. When compared with EBT, there were larger and more prevalent motion artifacts (P < 0.001) and larger mean Hounsfield units using 64-MDCT (P < 0.001). At CAC scanning, 64-MDCT and EBT were comparable in AS and VS. The interscan variability between scanners is similar to interscan variability of 2 calcium scores done on the same equipment. However, heart rate control was achieved for this study for calcium scores. Whether these results are repeatable without heart rate control needs to be further assessed.
    Journal of computer assisted tomography 02/2009; 33(2):175-8. DOI:10.1097/RCT.0b013e31817579ee · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Aging plays an important role in vascular atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. We investigate whether coronary artery calcification (CAC) is correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in an asymptomatic population. METHOD AND MATERIALS 3988 subjects (age 58±12, 40% female) who underwent CAC scanning were studied. The electron beam CT (C300 and eSpeed, GE Imatron) and Multi-detector row CT (GE, Milwaukee, WI) with a calibration phantom were used. The CAC Agatston scores (AS) were measured with Insight computer (Neo Imagery, Inc, CA, industry) and GE system computer (GE, Milwaukee, WI). The bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cc) of four consecutive thoracic vertebrae at and below the slice level of left main coronary artery were measured using QCT 5000 (Image analysis, Kentucky) in all cases. RESULTS There was no significant correlation between CAC and thoracic BMD in both genders (p>0.05). There was significant negative correlation between BMD and age (R = -0.57 and R= -0.46, P<0.001), but CAC was directly correlated with age (R=0.32 and R= 0.28, P<0.05) in female and male respectively. CONCLUSION This study suggests although BMD and CAC have an aging component but there is no association between osteoporosis and CAC. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION By using CAC thoracic image, one can obtain BMD information. It was an additional utility of cardiac image.
    Radiological Society of North America 2008 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 12/2008

  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2007; 14(2):S92. DOI:10.1016/j.nuclcard.2007.01.024 · 2.94 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2007; 14(2):S92. DOI:10.1016/j.nuclcard.2007.01.025 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electron beam angiography is a minimally invasive imaging technique. Adequate vascular opacification throughout the study remains a critical issue for image quality. We hypothesized that vascular image opacification and uniformity of vascular enhancement between slices can be improved using multiphase contrast medium injection protocols. We enrolled 244 consecutive patients who were randomized to three different injection protocols: single-phase contrast medium injection (Group 1), dual-phase contrast medium injection with each phase at a different injection rate (Group 2), and a three-phase injection with two phases of contrast medium injection followed by a saline injection phase (Group 3). Parameters measured were aortic opacification based on Hounsfield units and uniformity of aortic enhancement at predetermined slices (locations from top [level 1] to base [level 60]). In Group 1, contrast opacification differed across seven predetermined locations (scan levels: 1st versus 60th, P < .05), demonstrating significant nonuniformity. In Group 2, there was more uniform vascular enhancement, with no significant differences between the first 50 slices (P > .05). In Group 3, there was greater uniformity of vascular enhancement and higher mean Hounsfield units value across all 60 images, from the aortic root to the base of the heart (P < .05). The three-phase injection protocol improved vascular opacification at the base of the heart, as well as uniformity of arterial enhancement throughout the study.
    Academic Radiology 03/2006; 13(2):159-65. DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2005.09.087 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coronary venous system can provide vascular access for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Visualization of the coronary veins and their relationship to other cardiac structures may play an important role in facilitating these procedures. We sought to assess the ability of electron beam computed tomographic angiography (EBCTA) to characterize 3-dimensional (3-D) coronary venous anatomy. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive EBCTA coronary studies were analyzed. The coronary venous system was mapped and analyzed using 2- and 3-D images with definition of diameter and angulations of branch vessels and distance from CS os. The coronary sinus (CS), great cardiac, middle cardiac, left ventricular (LV) anterior interventricular, LV marginal, LV posterior, left atrial, and right atrial veins were visualized in 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 78%, 81%, 6%, and 8% of the studies, respectively, with definition of diameter and angulations of branch vessels and distance from CS os. There was a significant linear correlation between CS diameter and right atrial end systolic volume (R = 0.244, n = 81, P < .05). No significant correlation existed between CS os diameter and other cardiac size or function parameters. The 3-D spatial arrangements between the coronary veins and the coronary arteries in relation to the epicardium were able to be defined, on the basis of the vessel closer to the epicardium in overlapping segments. EBCTA can provide 3-D visualization of most components of the coronary venous system and definition of the spatial relationships with coronary arteries. EBCTA may potentially serve as a useful noninvasive tool for coronary venous imaging for procedures involving coronary veins, such as resynchronization therapy.
    American heart journal 08/2005; 150(2):315-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2004.09.050 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The newest generation of electron beam tomographic scanner (e-Speed) has increased spatial and temporal resolution compared with the C-150 XP scanner. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium screening image quality between the e-Speed and C-150 scanners (GE Imatron, San Francisco, CA). Studies from 41 patients (14 women and 27 men) who underwent serial coronary artery calcium screening with the C-150 (first study) and the e-Speed (second study) were analyzed. Individual computed tomography (CT) slices were assessed for coronary artery motion artifacts, and CT Hounsfield units (HU) and noise values (CT HU standard deviation) at 16 discrete cardiac sites were measured and averaged. With the e-Speed scanner, there were significant decreases in right coronary artery motion artifacts compared with the C-150 scanner (0.3% versus 1.8%, P < .001) as well as decreased noise values (24.3 versus 32.0 HU, P < .001). Image quality is significantly improved with use of the e-Speed scanner, due to its improved temporal and spatial resolution, compared with the C-150 scanner.
    Academic Radiology 03/2005; 12(3):309-12. DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2004.09.014 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering (group 1, 53 patients) was compared with baseline heart rate-adjusted ECG triggering (group 2, 54 patients) for coronary artery electron-beam computed tomographic (CT) angiography. CT angiographic data sets were compared blindly with conventional angiograms according to segment. Nonassessability of coronary artery segments was reduced from 35% in group 1 to 13% in group 2 (P < .001). More motion-free coronary artery images were obtained in group 2 than in group 1, especially in the right coronary artery (95% vs 67%, P < .001). Overall sensitivity and specificity for luminal stenosis (> or =50%) were 69% and 82% (group 1) and 76% and 92% (group 2) (P > .05 and P < .001, respectively). Baseline heart rate-adjusted ECG triggering improves image quality at coronary artery CT angiography for detection of coronary artery disease.
    Radiology 12/2004; 233(2):590-5. DOI:10.1148/radiol.2332030953 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive angiography is a promising technique for visualization of the coronary lumen; however, current methodologies lead to limited accuracy. We assessed the accuracy of electron beam computed tomographic angiography (EBA) for detection of coronary stenoses, using improved triggering techniques and thinner slice collimation. Eighty-six patients with suspected coronary disease were studied with EBA and conventional invasive coronary angiography. Electrocardiographic triggering was performed at a fixed time in end systole to reduce cardiac motion. Thin (1.5 mm) slices were obtained with 1.5 mm table incrementation. In axial (2-dimensional) EBA images and 3-dimensional reconstructions, all coronary arteries and side branches with a diameter of >or=1.5 mm were assessed for the presence of stenoses with >50% diameter reduction. Both EBA and invasive angiographic images were assessed in a blinded manner. In comparison to invasive coronary angiography, EBA correctly classified 49 of 53 patients (92%) as having at least 1 coronary stenosis. Overall, 103 stenoses with >50% diameter reduction were present, and 93 of these lesions were correctly detected by EBA (sensitivity 90%, specificity 93%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 96%). Only 5% of vessels could not be assessed, predominantly due to significant calcification. Thinner slice collimation and end-systolic electrocardiographic triggering improves accuracy and assessment of coronary EBA for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease, making this study clinically useful in the evaluation of obstructive coronary artery disease.
    American heart journal 12/2004; 148(6):1085-90. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2004.04.043 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Measurement of cardiac function and size parameters by ejection fraction, stroke volume, and ventricular volume is important to comprehensive cardiac assessment in electron beam computed tomography (EBT). A method of measuring these parameters from e-Speed coronary angiography study images was compared to EBT cine assessment. METHOD AND MATERIALS In 22 cases with both EBT cine and coronary angiography studies (e-Speed, GE Imatron, San Francisco, CA) measures of cardiac function and size were compared. In the cine study, 12 slice levels with 9 mm thickness and 15 images per slice level were scanned with 50 msec per image. The EBT coronary angiography studies had been performed with a FlexPhase protocol (triggering times adapted to center the acquired phases at end systole and end diastole). The EBA techniques were: 140 kvp, 1000 mA, 100 or 50 msec and 1.5 mm in slice thickness. The images were contrast enhanced using 125-150 ml of non-ionic contrast administered with a multiple phase computed injection rate scheme. The data (cine and coronary angiography) were transferred to a workstation (AW, GE). The data was reformatted into the short axis view and left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, stroke volume were calculated with both cine and EBA images. The results were computed and compared with paired T-test. RESULTS The parameters of left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume and ejection fraction were: 156.0 ml, 89.3 ml and 57.2% respectively with cine measurement and 164.4 ml, 93.5 ml and 56.9% with EBT coronary angiography measurement. No significant difference were found between parameters by these two methods, (P>0.05). There was significant linear correlation between measurement parameters by both methodologies (R <0.94, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS EBT using adaptive triggering techniques allows for measurement of parameters of cardiac function and size from coronary artery angiography images.
    Radiological Society of North America 2004 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 11/2004
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering on the accuracy of coronary electron-beam angiography (EBA) as compared with invasive angiography. One hundred thirty-three patients with suspected coronary disease were studied with intravenous coronary EBA and conventional coronary angiography. Patients were divided into 2 groups based upon ECG triggering on the EBA study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based upon different ECG triggering used: 80% R-R interval trigger method (group 1, n = 53) and end-systolic triggering (group 2, n = 80). End-systolic ECG triggering, which started at the end of the T wave in each study, was based on baseline heart rate. Overall sensitivity to detect a > or = 50% luminal stenosis was 69% in group 1 and 91% in group 2 (P = 0.002); specificity was 82% and 94% in group 1 and group 2, respectively (P < 0.001). Using newer triggering techniques (group 2) with EBA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for patients with disease of the left main coronary artery or 3 vessel disease was 100%, 94%, and 98%, respectively. Nonassessability of coronary segments on 3D-EBA images was reduced from 35% in group 1 to 9% in group 2 patients (P < 0.001). The number of motion-free coronary images increased from 67% to 95% from group 1 to group 2 (P < 0.0001). End-systolic ECG triggering improves accuracy, image quality, and assessability of segments of coronary EBA for the detection of angiographic coronary artery disease.
    Investigative Radiology 02/2004; 39(2):73-9. DOI:10.1097/01.rli.0000105330.17743.c5 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the variation of left ventricular (LV) mass and volume measurement with cine and angiography by electron beam tomography (EBT). Sixty-three consecutive patients (41 men, 22 women; age range 46-91) referred for cardiac imaging for clinical indications underwent cine and coronary artery electron beam angiography (EBA) studies on the same day. The cine images consisted of 144 images (12 slices/level x 12 levels), taken 12 frames/s for a full cardiac cycle. The EBA images consisted of 50-70 slices triggered at end-systole, with an acquisition time of 100 ms/slice. Slice thickness was 8 mm for the cine images and 1.5 mm for the EBA images. A total volume of 120-180 ml of nonionic contrast was used for each subject. The LV mass (myocardial tissue volume), LV cavity volume and total LV volume (tissue + cavity) measurements were completed using the software from the EBT computer console (G.E., S. San Francisco, CA). The LV mass, cavity volume and total LV volumes at end-systole were 124.11 g, 45.66 and 163.86 ml when derived from the cine images and 130.74 g, 41.31 and 165.82 ml when derived from the EBA images. There were no significant differences between the cine and EBA-derived measurements, however the EBA-derived measurements showed slightly larger LV mass (mean 6.63 g), smaller cavity volume (mean -4.35 ml) and larger total LV volume (mean 1.96 ml, all p > 0.05) than did the cine-derived measurements. Based on case-by-case observations, these differences appear to be related to the higher spatial resolution of the thinner EBA images which allows better discrimination between papillary and trabecular muscle and LV. This leads to slightly smaller cavity size estimations and greater LV mass measurements. There was significant correlation between cine and EBA-derived measurements. Formulas were developed for relating the measurements made from the two modalities as follows: For LV mass: EBA value = 0.91 x cine value + 17.09, R = 0.95, p < 0.001; For LV cavity volume: EBA value = 1.06 x cine value - 6.91, R = 0.96, p < 0.001; For total LV volume: EBA value = 0.98 x cine value + 5.09 in ml, p < 0.001. The mean differences in measurements using the two modalities were 8.1, 18.2 and 6.5% for LV mass, LV cavity volume and total LV volume, respectively. Both cine and EBA images were useful for measuring LV mass and volume with good intertest agreement. Cardiac volume and mass measurements derived from cine EBT studies probably slightly underestimate LV mass and overestimate LV volume.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 10/2003; 19(5):439-45. DOI:10.1023/A:1025884519153 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the sensitivity to find small coronary artery calcium lesions with use of different slice widths with electron beam tomography. Two studies were performed. Study 1 utilized double scanning of a stationary cork phantom with three different slice thickness (1.5, 3, and 6 mm). Fifty different calcific lesions (all <20 mm2 in area) fitted in 10 cork coronary arteries were utilized. The calcium foci area, peak value and score were measured and compared. In group 2, 30 patients underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) screen studies. Each patient was scanned with both 3-mm and 6-mm scan widths in a same study time. Lesions with < 20 mm2 of area of CAC were measured on both 3-mm and 6-mm images. The mean and peak Hounsfield unit measure, and Agatston score were compared between both images. In the cork study, the sensitivity to detect small calcium foci were 96% (48/50), 82% (41/50), and 34% (17/50) in images with 1.5-, 3-, and 6-mm slice thickness, respectively. There is a smaller value in mass, and calcium volume in 6-mm images than 1.5-mm and 3-mm images ( P< 0.001). There was no significant difference between the true value and measured value from 1.5-mm and 3-mm images. In the human study, 18 (30%) of 60 CAC lesions with an area < 20 mm2 defined on 3 mm images were not visible on 6-mm images. Sensitivity of small lesions (P< 5 mm2) was 48% using 6-mm slices. There was a smaller value in CAC area, mean and peak Hounsfield units and score measured from 6-mm images, as compared with 3 mm slices ( P< 0.05). Thinner slice imaging has a higher sensitivity to detect small calcium focus. There was no significant change in score between 3 mm and 1.5 mm on the cork phantom study. However, the use of 6-mm slices should be discouraged, as this protocol both underestimates calcific mass and misses a significant number of calcific lesions in both a phantom and human study.
    Investigative Radiology 04/2003; 38(3):183-7. DOI:10.1097/01.RLI.0000055289.97726.B1 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that a calibration phantom would improve interpatient and interscan variability in coronary artery calcium (CAC) studies. We scanned 144 patients twice with or without the calibration phantom and then scanned 93 patients with a single calcific lesion twice and, finally, scanned a cork heart with calcific foci. There were no linear correlations in computed tomography Hounsfield unit (CT HU) and CT HU interscan variation between blood pool and phantom plugs at any slice level in patient groups (p > 0.05). The CT HU interscan variation in phantom plugs (2.11 HU) was less than that of the blood pool (3.47 HU; p < 0.05) and CAC lesion (20.39; p < 0.001). Comparing images with and without a calibration phantom, there was a significant decrease in CT HU as well as an increase in noise and peak values in patient studies and the cork phantom study. The CT HU attenuation variations of the interpatient and interscan blood pool, calibration phantom plug, and cork coronary arteries were not parallel. Therefore, the ability to adjust the CT HU variation of calcific lesions by a calibration phantom is problematic and may worsen the problem.
    Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 11/2002; 26(6):886-91. DOI:10.1097/00004728-200211000-00005 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that computed tomographic (CT) scanning during optimal electrocardiographic (EKG) triggering can minimize image motion artifact and reduce interexamination variation of coronary arterial calcification (CAC) score at electron-beam CT. Two hundred patients underwent electron-beam CT once and again 5 minutes later to evaluate interexamination variability of CAC score. Group 1 (104 patients) underwent scanning with use of an optimal EKG-triggering protocol (EKG triggering performed individually at the time of least coronary arterial motion during the cardiac cycle); group 2 (96 patients) underwent scanning with use of conventional 80% R-R interval triggering (the most common protocol with the electron-beam CT scanner). Interexamination, intraobserver, and interobserver variations of CAC measurements were compared between groups by using unpaired t tests for both Agatston and volumetric scores (in square millimeters). Coronary arterial motion artifacts were found in 26% (27 of 104) versus 80% (77 of 96) of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P <.0001). Intraobserver, interobserver, and interexamination variabilities in volumetric score were derived, with values of 1.2%, 9.2%, and 15.9% in group 1 and 2.1%, 11.3%, and 25.9% in group 2, respectively. Interexamination variabilities in both Agatston and volumetric score were significantly reduced with individualized EKG triggering, as compared with conventional triggering (P <.05), but intra- and interobserver variabilities were not (P >.05). Optimal EKG triggering improves the reproducibility of CAC measurement by reducing coronary arterial motion artifacts.
    Radiology 09/2002; 224(3):838-44. DOI:10.1148/radiol.2242011332 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors performed this study to investigate the causes of interscan variability of coronary artery calcium measurements at electron-beam computed tomography (CT). Two sets of electron-beam CT scans were obtained in 298 consecutive patients who underwent electron-beam CT to screen for coronary artery calcium. Interscan variations of coronary artery calcium characteristics and the effects of heart rate, electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering method, image noise, and coronary motion on interscan variability were analyzed. The interscan mean variabilities were 21.6% (median, 11.7%) and 17.8% (median, 10.8%) with the Agatston and volumetric score, respectively (P < .01). Variability decreased with increasing calcification score (34.6% for a score of 11-50 and 9.4% for a score of 400-1,000, P < .0001). The absolute difference in Agatston score between scans was 44.1 +/- 95.6. The correlation coefficient between the first and second sets of scans was 0.99 (P < .0001). Lower interscan variability was found in younger patients (<60 years), patients with stable heart rates (heart rate changing less than 10 beats per minute during scanning), patients with no visible coronary motion, and those with an optimal ECG triggering method (P < .05 for all). Results of multivariate logistic analysis showed that changes in calcium volume, mean attenuation, and peak attenuation were significant predictors of interscan variability and caused the interscan variations of the coronary artery calcium measurements (r2 = 0.83, P < .0001). Coronary calcification at electron-beam CT varies from scan to scan. Volumetric scoring and optimal ECG triggering should be used to reduce interscan variability. Baseline calcium score and interscan variability must be considered in the evaluation of calcium progression.
    Academic Radiology 06/2002; 9(6):654-61. DOI:10.1016/S1076-6332(03)80310-0 · 1.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

304 Citations
55.92 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2011
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States