[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is elevated by obesity and dietary fat intake. Whether FBPase functions only to regulate glucose or has other metabolic consequences is not clear; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the importance of liver FBPase in body weight regulation. To this end we performed comprehensive physiologic and biochemical assessments of energy balance in liver-specific transgenic FBPase mice and negative control littermates of both sexes. In addition, hepatic branch vagotomies and pharmacologic inhibition studies were performed to confirm the role of FBPase. Compared with negative littermates, liver-specific FBPase transgenic mice had 50% less adiposity and ate 15% less food but did not have altered energy expenditure. The reduced food consumption was associated with increased circulating leptin and cholecystokinin, elevated fatty acid oxidation, and 3-β-hydroxybutyrate ketone levels, and reduced appetite-stimulating neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide. Hepatic branch vagotomy and direct pharmacologic inhibition of FBPase in transgenic mice both returned food intake and body weight to the negative littermates. This is the first study to identify liver FBPase as a previously unknown regulator of appetite and adiposity and describes a novel process by which the liver participates in body weight regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) predominantly from the liver is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes, which positively correlates with fasting hyperglycemia. Gluconeogenesis is the biochemical pathway shown to significantly contribute to increased EGP in diabetes. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulated enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is increased in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. However, whether a specific increase in liver FBPase can result in increased EGP has not been shown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of upregulated liver FBPase in glucose homeostasis. To achieve this goal, we generated human liver FBPase transgenic mice under the control of the transthyretin promoter, using insulator sequences to flank the transgene and protect it from site-of-integration effects. This resulted in a liver-specific model, as transgene expression was not detected in other tissues. Mice were studied under the following conditions: 1) at two ages (24 wk and 1 yr old), 2) after a 60% high-fat diet, and 3) when bred to homozygosity. Hemizygous transgenic mice had an approximately threefold increase in total liver FBPase mRNA with concomitant increases in FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels. After high-fat feeding, hemizygous transgenics were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates (P < 0.02). Furthermore, when bred to homozygosity, chow-fed transgenic mice showed a 5.5-fold increase in liver FBPase levels and were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates, with a significantly higher rate of EGP (P < 0.006). This is the first study to show that FBPase regulates EGP and whole body glucose homeostasis in a liver-specific transgenic model. Our homozygous transgenic model may be useful for testing human FBPase inhibitor compounds with the potential to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type 2 diabetes, increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) as a result of elevated gluconeogenesis contributes to hyperglycemia. An increase in glycerol gluconeogenesis has led to the suggestion that, in obese human subjects with type 2 diabetes, there may be an increase in the activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice that overexpress human liver FBPase in the liver and assess the consequences to whole-body and hepatic glucose metabolism. FBPase transgenic mice had significantly higher levels of transgene expression in the liver and, as a result, had increased FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels in the liver. This resulted in an increase in the rate of glycerol conversion to glucose but not in EGP. The increased expression of FBPase in the liver did not result in any significant differences compared with littermate control mice in insulin or glucose tolerance. Therefore, it appears that, on its own, an increase in FBPase does not lead to impaired regulation of EGP and hence does not affect whole-body glucose metabolism. This suggests that, for EGP to be increased, other factors associated with obesity are also required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by islet dysfunction resulting in hyperglycemia, which can then lead to further deterioration in islet function. A possible mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced islet dysfunction is the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). The DBA/2 mouse develops pancreatic islet dysfunction when exposed to a high glucose environment and/or obesity-induced insulin resistance. To determine the biochemical cause of dysfunction, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 control islets were incubated in 11.1 mM or 40 mM glucose in the absence or presence of the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) for 10 days. Basal (2.8 mM glucose) insulin release was increased in both DBA/2 and C57BL/6 islets incubated with 40 mM vs 11.1 mM glucose for 10 days. Chronic exposure to hyperglycemia decreased glucose (20 mM)-stimulated insulin secretion in DBA/2 but not in C57BL/6 islets. AG significantly increased fold-induced insulin release in high glucose cultured DBA/2 mouse islets, but did not affect C57BL/6 islet function. DBA/2 islet glucokinase was significantly reduced following 40 mM glucose culture, compared with 11.1 mM glucose cultured DBA/2 islets and 40 mM glucose cultured C57BL/6 islets. Incubation of islets with AG resulted in a normalization of DBA/2 islet glucokinase levels. In conclusion, chronic high glucose-induced increases in AGE can result in islet dysfunction and this is associated with reduced glucokinase levels in a mouse model with susceptibility to islet failure.