[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a fourth approach of quinoxaline N,N'-dioxides as anti-trypanosomatid agents against T. cruzi and Leishmania, we found extremely active derivatives. The present study allows us to state the correct requirements for obtaining optimal in vitro anti-T. cruzi activity. Derivatives possessing electron-withdrawing substituents in the 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-positions were the most active compounds. With regard to these features and taking into account their mammal cytotoxicity, some trifluoromethylquinoxaline N,N'-dioxides have been proposed as candidates for further clinical studies. Consequently, mutagenicity and in vivo analyses were performed with the most promising derivatives. In addition, with regard to the mechanism of action studies, it was demonstrated that mitochondrial dehydrogenases are involved in the anti-T. cruzi activity of the most active derivatives.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2011; 54(10):3624-36. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of novel quinoxaline and quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. Microwave-assisted methods have been used to optimize reaction times and to improve yields. The tested compounds presented important scavenging activities and promising in vitro inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase (LOX). Two of the best LOX inhibitors (compounds 7b and 8f) were evaluated as in vivo anti-inflammatory agents using the carrageenin-induced edema model. One of them (compound 7b) showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory effect (41%) similar to that of indomethacin (47%) used as the reference drug.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 01/2011; 77(4):255-67. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterocyclic N-oxide, 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, 1), shows promising antitumor activity in preclinical studies, but there is a continuing need to explore new compounds in this general structural category. In the work described here, we examined the properties of 7-chloro-2-thienylcarbonyl-3-trifluoromethylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (9h). We find that 9h causes redox-activated, hypoxia-selective DNA cleavage that mirrors the lead compound, tirapazamine, in both mechanism and potency. Furthermore, we find that 9h displays hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb) is a bacillus capable of causing a chronic and fatal condition in humans known as tuberculosis (TB). It is estimated that there are 8 million new cases of TB per year and 3.1 million infected people die annually. Thirty-six new amide quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-tubercular agents, obtaining biological values similar to the reference compound, Rifampin (RIF).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neglected diseases represent a major health problem. It is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (TB). Besides TB, Chagas disease, affects approximately 20 million people. Quinoxalines display great activities against TB and Chagas. Forty new quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives have been prepared and tested against M. tuberculosis and T. cruzi. Carboxylic acid quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (CAQDOs) 5 and 17 showed MIC values on the same order as the reference antituberculosis drug, rifampicin. Meanwhile, CAQDOs 12 and 22 presented IC(50) values in the same order as the anti-chagasic drug, nifurtimox.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl)-2-propen-1-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for in vitro leishmanicidal activity against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in axenical cultures and murine infected macrophages. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of a radical methoxy at position R3', R4' and R5'. (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-1,4-dioxy-quinoxalin-2-yl)-propenone was the most active. Cytotoxicity on macrophages revealed that this product was almost six times more active than toxic.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 01/2009; 103(8):778-80. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New series of 3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide with selective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been prepared and evaluated. Thirty-four of the seventy tested compounds showed an MIC value less than 0.2 microg/mL, a value on the order of the MIC of rifampicin. Furthermore, 45% of the evaluated derivatives showed a good in vitro activity/toxicity ratio. The most active and selective compounds carry a fluorine atom in the quinoxaline 7-position or in the phenyl substituent para-position. In conclusion, the potency, low cytotoxicity and selectivity of these compounds make them valid lead compounds for synthesizing new analogues, particularly compound 7-methyl-3-(4'-fluoro)phenylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide (MIC <0.2 microg/mL and SI > 500).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro efficacies of the 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has led to the discovery of a derivative with in vivo efficacy in the mouse model of tuberculosis. Quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were tested in vitro against a broad panel of single-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The susceptibilities of these strains to some compounds were comparable to those of strain H(37)Rv, as indicated by the ratios of MICs for resistant and nonresistant strains, supporting the premise that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives have a novel mode of action unrelated to those of the currently used antitubercular drugs. Specific derivatives were further evaluated in a series of in vivo assays, including evaluations of the maximum tolerated doses, the levels of oral bioavailability, and the efficacies in a low-dose aerosol model of tuberculosis in mice. One compound, ethyl 7-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide, was found to be (i) active in reducing CFU counts in both the lungs and spleens of infected mice following oral administration, (ii) active against PA-824-resistant Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that the pathway of bioreduction/activation is different from that of PA-824 (a bioreduced nitroimidazole that is in clinical trials), and (iii) very active against nonreplicating bacteria adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These data indicate that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalines hold promise for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2008; 52(9):3321-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate a novel series of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB).
Ketone and amide derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests including: (i) activity against M. tuberculosis resistant to currently used antitubercular drugs including multidrug-resistant strains (MDR-TB resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin); (ii) activity against non-replicating persistent (NRP) bacteria; (iii) MBC; (iv) maximum tolerated dose, oral bioavailability and in vivo efficacy in mice; and (v) potential for cross-resistance with another bioreduced drug, PA-824.
Ten compounds were tested on single drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. In general, all compounds were active with ratios of MICs against resistant and non-resistant strains of <or=4.00. One compound, 5, was orally active in a murine model of TB, bactericidal, active against NRP bacteria and active on MDR-TB and poly drug-resistant clinical isolates (resistant to 3-5 antitubercular drugs).
Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides represent a new class of orally active antitubercular drugs. They are likely bioreduced to an active metabolite, but the pathway of bacterial activation was different from PA-824, a bioreducible nitroimidazole in clinical trials. Compound 5 was bactericidal and active on NRP organisms indicating that activation occurred in both growing and non-replicating bacteria leading to cell death. The presence of NRP bacteria is believed to be a major factor responsible for the prolonged nature of antitubercular therapy. If the bactericidal activity and activity on non-replicating bacteria in vitro translate to in vivo conditions, quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides may offer a path to shortened therapy.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2008; 62(3):547-54. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unexpected substitution of fluorine atoms and phenoxy groups attached to quinoxaline or benzofuroxan rings is described. The synthesis of 2-benzyl- and 2-phenoxy-3-methylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives was based on the classical Beirut reaction. The tendency of fluorine atoms linked to quinoxaline or benzofuroxan rings to be replaced by a methoxy group when dissolved in an ammonia saturated solution of methanol was clearly demonstrated. In addition, 2-phenoxyquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives became 2-aminoquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in the presence of gaseous ammonia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Derivatives of 3-trifluoromethyl-2-arylcarbonylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide (4b-g, 5b-g, 6a-g) were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the growth of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FCB1 strain in culture. Compound 7-chloro-2-(2-furylcarbonyl)-3-trifluoromethyl-1,4-quinoxaline di-N-oxide (5g) was the most active being almost 5 times more active than chloroquine. It was also 50 times more active against P. falciparum than toxic toward MCF7 cells. Structural characteristics for a quinoxaline to be active were defined: bioisosteric modification of phenyl group by 2-thienyl or 2-furyl subunits, R2 position must be free or occupied by a methyl group and R1 position must be free or occupied by Cl, CH3, OCH3 or CF3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum based on our previous research carried out on 3-phenyl-quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. Twelve compounds were synthesized and evaluated for antimalarial activity. Eight of them showed an IC(50) less than 1 microM against the 3D7 strain. Derivative 1 demonstrated high potency (IC(50)= 0.63 microM) and good selectivity (SI=10.35), thereby becoming a new lead-compound.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unexpected tendency of amines and functionalized hydrazines to reduce ethyl 3-phenylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide (1) to afford a quinoxaline 1c and mono-oxide quinoxalines 1a and 1b is described. The experimental conditions were standardized to the use of two equivalents of amine in ethanol under reflux for two hours,with the aim of studying the distinct reductive profiles of the amines and the chemoselectivity of the process. With the exception of hydrazine hydrate, which reduced compound 1 to a 3-phenyl-2-quinoxalinecarbohydrazide derivative, the amines only acted as reducing agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a continuation of our research and with the aim of obtaining new antimalarial agents, new series of 3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives have been synthesized following the classical Beirut reaction. Antiplasmodial activity was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum by the incorporation of [3H]-hypoxanthine. Cytotoxicity was tested in KB cells by AlamarBlue assay. Twenty-one of the 60 compounds that were assayed against 3D7 (CQ-sensitive) showed enough activity to be also evaluated against K1 (CQ-resistant) strain. Ten of them were shown to be more active than chloroquine in the resistant strain. The most interesting compounds are 7-(methyl or methoxy)-3-(4'-fluoro or chloro)phenylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxides because of their low IC50 and their high SI shown for the K1 strain, making them valid new leads.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2008; 43(9):1903-10. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of novel ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl)-2-propen-1-one derivatives and of their 4,5-dihydro-(1H)-pyrazole analogues. The tested compounds inhibit the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema (4.5-56.1%) and present important scavenging activities. Compound 2a is the most potent (56.1%) in the in vivo experiment and exhibits promising in vitro inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase (IC(50)<1microM).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a continuation of our research in the quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide new series of 2-arylcarbonyl-3-trifluoromethylquinoxaline, 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in a full panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Selective reductions were carried out on two compounds which allowed us to determine the compound structures by comparison of the 1H NMR spectra. In general, all the di-N-oxidized compounds showed good cytotoxic parameters. The best activity was observed in derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups in position 6 or 7 on the quinoxaline ring and in the unsubstituted analogues, whereas loss of one or two oxygens reduced the cytotoxicity. The best five compounds were selected for evaluation for the in vivo hollow fiber assays. In vitro studies reveal that compound 5h efficiently generates reactive oxygen species via redox cycling in the presence of the NADPH/cytochrome P450 enzyme system, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for the observed aerobic cytotoxicity of these quinoxaline N-oxides.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2007; 50(22):5485-92. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New vanadium complexes of the type [V(IV)O(L)(2)], where L are 3-aminoquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile N(1),N(4)-dioxide derivatives, were prepared as an effort to obtain new anti-trypanosomal agents improving the bioactivity of the free ligands. Complexation to vanadium of the quinoxaline ligands leads to excellent antiprotozoal activity, similar to that of the reference drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole and in all cases higher than that of the corresponding free ligands. In addition, it is for the first time that the V((IV))O-quinoxaline complexes are reported as a family of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents. Finally, the anti-trypanosomal activity of these vanadium complexes could be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity and the electronic characteristics of the quinoxaline substituents.