Ikuko Miyazaki

Okayama University of Science, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (93)250.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Developmental disorders including cognitive deficit, hyperkinetic disorder, and autistic behaviors are frequently comorbid in epileptic patients with SCN1A mutations. However, the mechanisms underlying these developmental disorders are poorly understood and treatments are currently unavailable. Using a rodent model with an Scn1a mutation, we aimed to elucidate the pathophysiologic basis and potential therapeutic treatments for developmental disorders stemming from Scn1a mutations.Methods We conducted behavioral analyses on rats with the N1417H-Scn1a mutation. With high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured dopamine and its metabolites in the frontal cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and midbrain. Methylphenidate was administered intraperitoneally to examine its effects on developmental disorder–like behaviors and hyperthermia-induced seizures.ResultsBehavioral studies revealed that Scn1a-mutant rats had repetitive behavior, hyperactivity, anxiety-like behavior, spatial learning impairments, and motor imbalance. Dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in Scn1a-mutant rats were significantly lower than those in wild-type rats. In Scn1a-mutant rats, methylphenidate, by increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft, improved hyperactivity, anxiety-like behavior, and spatial learning impairments. Surprisingly, methylphenidate also strongly suppressed hyperthermia-induced seizures.SignificanceDysfunction of the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway may contribute to the hyperactivity and learning impairments in Scn1a-mutant rats. Methylphenidate was effective for treating hyperactivity, learning impairments, and hyperthermia-induced seizures. We propose that methylphenidate treatment may ameliorate not only developmental disorders but also epileptic seizures in patients with SCN1A mutations.
    Epilepsia 08/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms that precede the onset of motor symptoms. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone, has been widely used to reproduce PD pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). We reported previously that metallothioneins (MTs) released from astrocytes can protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress. The present study examined the changes in MT expression by chronic systemic rotenone administration in the striatum and colonic myenteric plexus of C57BL mice. In addition, we investigated the effects of MT depletion on rotenone-induced neurodegeneration in CNS and ENS using MT-1 and MT-2 knockout (MT KO) mice, or using primary cultured neurons from MT KO mice. In normal C57BL mice, subcutaneous administration of rotenone for 6 weeks caused neurodegeneration, increased MT expression with astrocytes activation in the striatum and myenteric plexus. MT KO mice showed more severe myenteric neuronal damage by rotenone administration after 4 weeks than wild-type mice, accompanied by reduced astroglial activation. In primary cultured mesencephalic neurons from MT KO mice, rotenone exposure induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons, which was complemented by addition of recombinant protein. The present results suggest that MT seems to provide protection against neurodegeneration in ENS of rotenone-induced PD model mice.
    Neurotoxicity Research 06/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the immobilization of rats in the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation after administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin ((+)-8-OH-DPAT). Chronic treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.01 - 0.1mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in saline- and ACTH-treated rats. Chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation. However, (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly normalized cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats. We then investigated the effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclin D1 (elements of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-BDNF and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively) in the hippocampus of saline- and ACTH-treated rats. ACTH treatment significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1, while treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT normalized the expression of cyclin D1 in ACTH-treated rats. However, the expression of BDNF did not change in either saline- or ACTH-treated rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT in treatment-resistant animals may be attributed to an enhancement of hippocampal cell proliferation, at least in part due to an enhancement of cyclin D1 expression.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 04/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The specific toxicity to dopaminergic neurons of psychostimulants and neurotoxins has been extensively studied in vivo and in vitro, and findings have been used to establish animal models of amphetamine psychosis or Parkinson's disease. The multiple mechanisms of neurotoxicity operating in these disorders are known to involve oxidative stress or neuroinflammation, producing the characteristic behavioral and neuropathlogical changes arising from injured dopaminergic neurons and glial cells. A number of studies have shown that glia-targeting antioxidants play important roles in protecting against the neurotoxicity caused by psychostimulants or neurotoxins. Phytochemicals, which are non-nutritive plant chemicals, protect dopaminergic neurons and glial cells from damage caused by psychostimulants or neurotoxins. The objective of this review was to evaluate the involvement of glial cells in dopaminergic neuron-specific toxicity and to explore the neuroprotective activity of phytochemicals in terms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion and dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist pramipexole have been clinically proven to improve both depression and treatment-resistant depression. We examined its influence on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of the dopamine nerve system in this effect. Bupropion and pramipexole significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. We previously demonstrated that the chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In this study, we used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine to investigate the effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus following chronic treatment with ACTH. The ACTH treatment for 14 d decreased adult hippocampal cell proliferation. The chronic administration of bupropion for 14 d blocked the loss of cell proliferation resulting from the chronic treatment with ACTH, whereas pramipexole did not. The administration of bupropion may have treatment-resistant antidepressive properties, which may be partly attributed to the normalization of hippocampal cell proliferation.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2014; 37(2):327-30. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the immobilization of rats in the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation after administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin ((+)-8-OH-DPAT). Chronic treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.01 – 0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in saline- and ACTH-treated rats. Chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation. However, (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly normalized cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats. We then investigated the effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclin D1 (elements of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-BDNF and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively) in the hippocampus of saline- and ACTH-treated rats. ACTH treatment significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1, while treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT normalized the expression of cyclin D1 in ACTH-treated rats. However, the expression of BDNF did not change in either saline- or ACTH-treated rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT in treatment-resistant animals may be attributed to an enhancement of hippocampal cell proliferation, at least in part due to an enhancement of cyclin D1 expression.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the rodent brain, certain G protein-coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclase type 3 are known to localize to the neuronal primary cilium, a primitive sensory organelle protruding singly from almost all neurons. A recent chemical screening study demonstrated that many compounds targeting dopamine receptors regulate the assembly of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, structures which are analogous to vertebrate cilia. Here we investigated the effects of dopaminergic inputs loss on the architecture of neuronal primary cilia in the rodent striatum, a brain region that receives major dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. We first analyzed the lengths of neuronal cilia in the dorsolateral striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats with unilateral lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. In these rats, the striatal neuronal cilia were significantly longer on the lesioned side than on the non-lesioned side. In mice, the repeated injection of reserpine, a dopamine-depleting agent, elongated neuronal cilia in the striatum. The combined administration of agonists for dopamine receptor type 2 (D2) with reserpine attenuated the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia. Repeated treatment with an antagonist of D2, but not of dopamine receptor type 1 (D1), elongated the striatal neuronal cilia. In addition, D2-null mice displayed longer neuronal cilia in the striatum compared to wild-type controls. Reserpine treatment elongated the striatal neuronal cilia in D1-null mice but not in D2-null mice. Repeated treatment with a D2 agonist suppressed the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia on the lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonian rats. These results suggest that the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia following the lack of dopaminergic inputs is attributable to the absence of dopaminergic transmission via D2 receptors. Our results provide the first evidence that the length of neuronal cilia can be modified by the lack of a neurotransmitter's input.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97918. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-DOPA is therapeutically efficacious in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), although dopamine (DA) neurons are severely degenerated. Since cortical astrocytes express neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) and DA transporter (DAT), the uptake and metabolism of L-DOPA and DA in striatal astrocytes may influence their availability in the dopaminergic system of PD. To assess possible L-DOPA- and DA-uptake and metabolic properties of striatal astrocytes, we examined the expression of L-DOPA, DA and DAT in striatal astrocytes of hemi-parkinsonian model rats after repeated L-DOPA administration, and measured the contents of L-DOPA, DA and their metabolite in primary cultured striatal astrocytes after L-DOPA/DA treatment. Repeated injections of L-DOPA induced apparent L-DOPA- and DA-immunoreactivities and marked expression of DAT in reactive astrocytes on the lesioned side of the striatum in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Exposure to DA for 4h significantly increased the levels of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in cultured striatal astrocytes. L-DOPA was also markedly increased in cultured striatal astrocytes after 4-h L-DOPA exposure, but DA was not detected 4 or 8h after L-DOPA treatment, despite the expression of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in astrocytes. Furthermore, the intracellular level of L-DOPA in cultured striatal astrocytes decreased rapidly after removal of extracellular L-DOPA. The results suggest that DA uptaken into striatal astrocytes is rapidly metabolized and that striatal astrocytes act as a reservoir of L-DOPA that govern the uptake or release of L-DOPA depending on extracellular L-DOPA concentration, but are less capable of converting L-DOPA to DA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106362. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. Metallothionein (MT) is induced in proximal tubular epithelial cells as an antioxidant in diabetic kidney; however, the role of MT in renal function remains unclear. We therefore investigated if MT deficiency accelerates diabetic nephropathy through oxidative stress and inflammation. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in MT-deficient (MT(-/-)) and MT(+/+) mice. Urinary albumin excretion, histological changes, markers for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kidney inflammation were measured. Murine proximal tubular epithelial (mProx24) cells were used to further elucidate the role of MT under high-glucose conditions. Parameters of diabetic nephropathy and markers of ROS and inflammation were accelerated in diabetic MT(-/-) mice compared with diabetic MT(+/+) mice, despite equivalent levels of hyperglycemia. MT deficiency accelerated interstitial fibrosis and macrophage infiltration into the interstitium in diabetic kidney. Electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in proximal tubular epithelial cells in diabetic MT(-/-) mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that knockdown of MT by small interfering RNA enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation and inflammation-related gene expression in mProx24 cells cultured under high-glucose conditions. The results of this study suggest that MT may play a key role in protecting the kidney against high glucose-induced ROS and subsequent inflammation in diabetic nephropathy.
    AJP Renal Physiology 10/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are abundant neuron-supporting glial cells that harbor a powerful arsenal of neuroprotective antioxidative molecules and neurotrophic factors. Here we examined whether enrichment with healthy striatal astrocytes can provide neuroprotection against progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT induced astrocyte proliferation and increased metallothionein-1/-2 (MT-1/-2), antioxidative molecules, in cultured astrocytes and the striatum of mice. Primary cultured mesencephalic dopamine neurons were protected against oxidative stress by preincubation with conditioned media from 8-OH-DPAT-treated astrocytes. These protective effects were cancelled by 5-HT1A antagonist or MT-1/-2-specific antibody. Furthermore, reduction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian model mice was significantly abrogated by repeated injections of 8-OH-DPAT. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT markedly increased the expression of MT in striatal astrocytes in the hemi-parkinsonian mice. Our study provides a promising therapeutic strategy of neuroprotection against oxidative stress and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration by demonstrating the efficacy of targeting 5-HT1A receptors in astrocytes.
    Neurobiology of Disease 08/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical studies, electroconvulsive stimuli have been associated with improvements in both depression and treatment-resistant depression. In a previous study, treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for 14 days decreased adult hippocampal cell proliferation. Furthermore, electroconvulsive stimuli significantly decreased the duration of immobility following repeated administration of ACTH for 14 days in rats. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanism of treatment-resistant antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive stimuli by measuring cell proliferation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and phosphorylated and total cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (pCREB/CREB) levels in the hippocampus of ACTH-treated rats. Electroconvulsive stimuli increased cell proliferation in both saline-treated and ACTH-treated rats. Mature-BDNF protein levels showed a tendency to decrease in ACTH-treated rats. Electroconvulsive stimuli treatment increased mature-BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of both salinetreated and ACTH-treated rats. Furthermore, electroconvulsive stimuli increased phospho-Ser133-CREB (pCREB) levels and the ratio of pCREB/CREB in both saline-treated and ACTH-treated rats. These findings suggest that the treatment-resistant antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive stimuli may be attributed, at least in part, to an enhancement of hippocampal cell proliferation.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 04/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent anticancer agent, but severe renal toxicity can limit its use. We investigated the protective effect of cepharanthin (CE), a biscoclaurin alkaloid, on the renal toxicity of CDDP. MAIN METHODS: Mice were given CDDP along with CE. Effects of CE on CDDP toxicity were investigated by assaying markers of renal toxicity together with MT expression, and by histopathological examination of the kidney. MT-null mice were also examined. KEY FINDINGS: CE induced expression of metallothionein (MT). Pre-administration of CE attenuated an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations after the CDDP injection. A histochemical analysis demonstrated protection against CDDP-induced necrocytosis of kidney tissues by CE. The protective effect of CE did not occur in the MT-null mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Pretreatment with CE may reduce the renal toxicity of CDDP through expression of MT.
    Life sciences 02/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase, which catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine and consequent oxidation of L-DOPA to form melanin in melanocytes, is also expressed in the brain, and oxidizes L-DOPA and dopamine. Replacement of dopamine synthesis by tyrosinase was reported in tyrosine hydroxylase null mice. To examine the potential benefits of autograft cell transplantation for patients with Parkinson's disease, tyrosinase-producing cells including melanocytes, were transplanted into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian model rats or mice lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. Marked improvement in apomorphine-induced rotation was noted at day 40 after intrastriatal melanoma cell transplantation. Transplantation of tyrosinase cDNA-transfected hepatoma cells, which constitutively produce L-DOPA, resulted in marked amelioration of the asymmetric apomorphine-induced rotation in hemi-parkinsonian mice and the effect was present up to 2 months. Moreover, parkinsonian mice transplanted with melanocytes from the back skin of black newborn mice, but not from albino mice, showed marked improvement in the apomorphine-induced rotation behavior up to 3 months after the transplantation. Dopamine-positive signals were seen around the surviving transplants in these experiments. Taken together with previous studies showing dopamine synthesis and metabolism by tyrosinase, these results highlight therapeutic potential of intrastriatal autograft cell transplantation of melanocytes in patients with Parkinson's disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65983. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin H synthase exerts not only cyclooxygenase activity but also peroxidase activity. The latter activity of the enzyme is thought to couple with oxidation of dopamine to dopamine quinone. Therefore, it has been proposed that cyclooxygenase inhibitors could suppress dopamine quinone formation. In the present study, we examined effects of various cyclooxygenase inhibitors against excess methyl L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced quinoprotein (protein-bound quinone) formation and neurotoxicity using dopaminergic CATH.a cells. The treatment with aspirin inhibited excess methyl L-DOPA-induced quinoprotein formation and cell death. However, acetaminophen did not show protective effects, and indomethacin and meloxicam rather aggravated these methyl L-DOPA-induced changes. Aspirin and indomethacin did not affect the level of glutathione that exerts quenching dopamine quinone in dopaminergic cells. In contrast with inhibiting effects of higher dose in the previous reports, relatively lower dose of aspirin that affected methyl L-DOPA-induced quinoprotein formation and cell death failed to prevent cyclooxygenase-induced dopamine chrome generation in cell-free system. Furthermore, aspirin but not acetaminophen or meloxicam showed direct dopamine quinone-scavenging effects in dopamine-semiquinone generating systems. The present results suggest that cyclooxygenase shows little contribution to dopamine oxidation in dopaminergic cells and that protective effects of aspirin against methyl L-DOPA-induced dopamine quinone neurotoxicity are based on its cyclooxygenase-independent property.
    Neurochemical Research 06/2012; 37(9):1944-51. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with low oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the impact of oxidative stress on RRF and patient outcomes during PD. Levels of free radicals (FRs) in effluent from the overnight dwell in 45 outpatients were determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The FR levels, clinical parameters, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were evaluated at study start. The effects of effluent FR level on technique and patient survival were analyzed in a prospective cohort followed for 24 months. Levels of effluent FRs showed significant negative correlations with daily urine volume and residual renal Kt/V, and positive correlations with plasma β(2)-microglobulin and effluent 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. A highly significant difference in technique survival (p < 0.05), but not patient survival, was observed for patients grouped by effluent FR quartile. The effluent FR level was independently associated with technique failure after adjusting for patient age, history of cardiovascular disease, and presence of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). The level of effluent FRs was associated with death-censored technique failure in both univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p < 0.01) hazard models. Compared with patients remaining on PD, those withdrawn from the modality had significantly higher levels of effluent FRs (p < 0.005). Elevated effluent FRs are associated with RRF and technique failure in stable PD patients. These findings highlight the importance of oxidative stress as an unfavorable prognostic factor in PD and emphasize that steps should be taken to minimize oxidative stress in these patients.
    Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 01/2012; 32(4):453-61.
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats serve as a valuable animal model for tricyclic antidepressant-resistant depressive conditions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of ACTH-treated rats. Chronic treatment of ACTH decreased the number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus, and the coadministration of imipramine and lithium, and electroconvulsive stimuli recovered these reductions. Furthermore, chronic ACTH treatment also decreased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and the coadministration of imipramine and lithium, and electroconvulsive stimuli recovered these reductions. These results suggest that antidepressant-resistant depression is caused by the suppression of neurogenesis, and the coadministration of imipramine and lithium, and electroconvulsive stimuli exert an antidepressant-like effect by recovering proliferative signals and neurogenesis.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2012; 132(2):173-8. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lewy bodies containing the centrosomal protein γ-tubulin and fragmentation of Golgi apparatus (GA) have been described in nigral neurons of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, the relevance of these features in PD pathophysiology remains unknown. We analyzed the impact of proteasome inhibition in the formation of γ-tubulin-containing aggregates as well as on GA structure. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al (MG132) to induce centrosomal-protein aggregates. Then, microtubules (MTs) and Golgi dynamics, as well as the vesicular transport of dopamine transporter (DAT) were evaluated both in vitro and in living cells. MG132 treatment induced γ-tubulin aggregates which altered microtubule nucleation. MG132-treated cells containing γ-tubulin aggregates showed fragmentation of GA and perturbation of the trans-Golgi network. Under these conditions, the DAT accumulated at the centrosomal-Golgi region indicating that the vesicular transport of DAT was disrupted. Thus, centrosomal aggregates and fragmentation of GA are 2 closely related processes that could result in the disruption of the vesicular transport of DAT toward the plasma membrane in a model of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2011; 33(10):2462-77. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from the root of Scutelaria baicalensis Georgi, possesses anti-oxidative properties including reactive oxygen species scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effect of baicalein against dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity induced by exposure to a synthetic DA precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), in cultured dopaminergic CATH.a cells. Exposure to L-DOPA for 24 hours reduced the number of viable cells and enhanced protein-bound quinone (quinoprotein) formation in the cell. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with baicalein. In addition, baicalein prevented the formation of DA semiquinone radicals from DA in an in vitro cell-free system. Long-term baicalein treatment for 96 hours also protected against excess L-DOPA-induced cell death, and also increased glutathione (GSH) levels in CATH.a cells. Our results indicate that baicalein has neuroprotective properties against excess L-DOPA-induced DA neurotoxicity through the suppression of DA quinone formation. Furthermore, the long-term treatment of baicalein upregulates intracellular GSH contents, which may also exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage.
    Neurological Research 12/2011; 33(10):1050-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.
    Acta medica Okayama 10/2011; 65(5):279-85. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies demonstrated the involvement of quinone formation in dopaminergic neuron dysfunction in the L-DOPA-treated parkinsonian model and in methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. We further reported that the cysteine-rich metal-binding metallothionein (MT) family of proteins protects dopaminergic neurons against dopamine (DA) quinone neurotoxicity by its quinone-quenching property. The aim of this study was to examine MT induction in astrocytes in response to excess DA and the potential neuroprotective effects of astrocyte-derived MTs against DA quinone toxicity. DA exposure significantly upregulated MT-1/-2 in cultured striatal astrocytes, but not in mesencephalic neurons. This DA-induced MT upregulation in astrocytes was blocked by treatment with a DA-transporter (DAT) inhibitor, but not by DA-receptor antagonists. Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and its binding activity to antioxidant response element of MT-1 gene were significantly increased in the astrocytes after DA exposure. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was suppressed by the DAT inhibitor. Quinone formation and reduction of mesencephalic DA neurons after DA exposure were ameliorated by preincubation with conditioned media from DA-treated astrocytes. These protective effects were abrogated by MT-1/-2-specific antibody. Adding exogenous MT-1 to glial conditioned media also showed similar neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, MT-1/-2 expression was markedly elevated specifically in reactive astrocytes in the striatum of L-DOPA-treated hemi-parkinsonian mice or METH-injected mice. These results suggested that excess DA taken up by astrocytes via DAT upregulates MT-1/-2 expression specifically in astrocytes, and that MTs or related molecules secreted specifically by astrocytes protect dopaminergic neurons from damage through quinone quenching and/or scavenging of free radicals.
    Glia 03/2011; 59(3):435-51. · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
250.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Okayama University of Science
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 1999–2014
    • Okayama University
      • • Department of Brain Science
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy
      • • Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan