[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamin 2 (Dyn2) is a ~100kDa GTPase that assembles around the necks of nascent endocytic and Golgi vesicles and catalyzes membrane scission. Mutations in Dyn2 that cause Centronuclear Myopathy (CNM) have been shown to stabilize Dyn2 polymers against GTP-dependent disassembly in vitro. Precisely timed regulation of assembly and disassembly is believed to be critical for Dyn2 function in membrane vesiculation, and the CNM mutations interfere with this regulation by shifting the equilibrium toward the assembled state.
In this study we use two fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) approaches to show that a CNM mutant form of Dyn2 also has a greater propensity to self-assemble in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane of living cells.
Results obtained using brightness analysis indicate that unassembled wild-type Dyn2 is predominantly tetrameric in the cytosol, although different oligomeric species are observed, depending on the concentration of expressed protein. In contrast, an R369W mutant identified in CNM patients forms higher-order oligomers at concentrations above 1μM. Investigation of Dyn2-R369W by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) FFS reveals that this mutant forms larger and more stable clathrin-containing structures on the plasma membrane than wild-type Dyn2.
These observations may explain defects in membrane trafficking reported in CNM patient cells and in heterologous systems expressing CNM-associated Dyn2 mutants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2 regulate numerous cellular processes including gene transcription, proliferation, and differentiation. The only known substrates of the MAP2Ks MEK1/2 are ERK1/2; thus, the MEK inhibitors PD98059, U0126, and PD0325901 have been important tools in determining the functions of ERK1/2. By using these inhibitors and genetically manipulating MEK, we find that ERK1/2 activation is neither sufficient nor necessary for regulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells or epinephrine secretion from chromaffin cells. We show that both PD98059 and U0126 reduce agonist-induced calcium entry into cells inde-pendently of their ability to inhibit ERK1/2. Caution should be used when interpreting results from experiments using these compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells express two classes of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K), designated as Types II and III, that phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol to generate PI4P. A number of studies have indicated that these enzymes are important for Golgi trafficking and both early and late stages of endocytosis. In this study, we focus on PI4KIIβ, a protein that is evenly distributed between membrane and soluble fractions, and is believed to participate in stimulus-dependent phosphoinositide signaling. Using molecular brightness analysis, we found that EGFP-tagged PI4KIIβ exists as two distinct species in the cytoplasm: a soluble monomer and a high-order complex enriched with multiple copies of PI4KIIβ. This observation was confirmed by an autocorrelation analysis that identified two species with distinct mobilities. We further demonstrate that the high-order complex enriched with PI4KIIβ is sensitive to inhibition of palmitoylation, indicating that it is associated with membranes, very likely vesicles. Indeed, we show that the high-order PI4KIIβ complex is sensitive to expression of dynamin 2 (K44A), a dominant-negative inhibitor of endocytosis. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we directly detected that PI4KIIβ comoves with clathrin light chain on vesicles. This analysis allows us to isolate the comobile species in the presence of strong background contribution from the monomeric pool of PI4KIIβ. Our results strongly suggest that PI4KIIβ is involved in an early stage of endocytosis and is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. Moreover, we establish molecular brightness as a powerful tool for characterizing cellular cytosolic vesicles that are otherwise difficult to characterize by other techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) produces the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key regulator of membrane trafficking. Here, we generated genetic models of the sole Drosophila melanogaster PI4KII gene. A specific requirement for PI4KII emerged in larval salivary glands. In PI4KII mutants, mucin-containing glue granules failed to reach normal size, with glue protein aberrantly accumulating in enlarged Rab7-positive late endosomes. Presence of PI4KII at the Golgi and on dynamic tubular endosomes indicated two distinct foci for its function. First, consistent with the established role of PI4P in the Golgi, PI4KII is required for sorting of glue granule cargo and the granule-associated SNARE Snap24. Second, PI4KII also has an unforeseen function in late endosomes, where it is required for normal retromer dynamics and for formation of tubular endosomes that are likely to be involved in retrieving Snap24 and Lysosomal enzyme receptor protein (Lerp) from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Our genetic analysis of PI4KII in flies thus reveals a novel role for PI4KII in regulating the fidelity of granule protein trafficking in secretory tissues.
Development 07/2012; 139(16):3040-50. DOI:10.1242/dev.077644 · 6.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large multidomain protein that contains enzymatically functional GTPase and kinase domains. Several noncoding LRRK2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD), Crohn's disease, and leprosy. Many LRRK2 coding polymorphisms have been associated with or causally linked to PD. The G2019S point mutation within the LRRK2 kinase domain is the most common cause of familial PD. The G2019S mutation appears to alter LRRK2 kinase activity. Some but not all studies have reported that LRRK2 kinase activity is dependent upon LRRK2 dimerization and membrane localization. It is important to define the oligomeric state(s) of LRRK2 in living cells, which to date have only been characterized in vitro. Here we use confocal and total internal reflection microscopy coupled with number and brightness analysis to study the oligomeric states of LRRK2 within the cytosol and on the plasma membrane of live CHO-K1 cells. Our results show, for the first time to our knowledge, that LRRK2 is predominantly monomeric throughout the cytosol of living cells, but attains predominately higher oligomeric states in the plasma membrane.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4KIIα) is predominantly Golgi-localized, and it generates >50% of the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in the Golgi. The lipid kinase activity, Golgi localization, and "integral" membrane binding of PI4KIIα and its association with low buoyant density "raft" domains are critically dependent on palmitoylation of its cysteine-rich (173)CCPCC(177) motif and are also highly cholesterol-dependent. Here, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferases (Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) PATs) that palmitoylate PI4KIIα and show for the first time that palmitoylation is cholesterol-dependent. DHHC3 and DHHC7 PATs, which robustly palmitoylated PI4KIIα and were colocalized with PI4KIIα in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), were characterized in detail. Overexpression of DHHC3 or DHHC7 increased PI4KIIα palmitoylation by >3-fold, whereas overexpression of the dominant-negative PATs or PAT silencing by RNA interference decreased PI4KIIα palmitoylation, "integral" membrane association, and Golgi localization. Wild-type and dominant-negative DHHC3 and DHHC7 co-immunoprecipitated with PI4KIIα, whereas non-candidate DHHC18 and DHHC23 did not. The PI4KIIα (173)CCPCC(177) palmitoylation motif is required for interaction because the palmitoylation-defective SSPSS mutant did not co-immunoprecipitate with DHHC3. Cholesterol depletion and repletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin reversibly altered PI4KIIα association with these DHHCs as well as PI4KIIα localization at the TGN and "integral" membrane association. Significantly, the Golgi phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate level was altered in parallel with changes in PI4KIIα behavior. Our study uncovered a novel mechanism for the preferential recruitment and activation of PI4KIIα to the TGN by interaction with Golgi- and raft-localized DHHCs in a cholesterol-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell activation involves a cascade of TCR-mediated signals that are regulated by three distinct intracellular signaling motifs located within the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 chains. Whereas all the CD3 subunits possess at least one ITAM, the CD3 ε subunit also contains a proline-rich sequence and a basic-rich stretch (BRS). The CD3 ε BRS complexes selected phosphoinositides, interactions that are required for normal cell surface expression of the TCR. The cytoplasmic domain of CD3 ζ also contains several clusters of arginine and lysine residues. In this study, we report that these basic amino acids enable CD3 ζ to complex the phosphoinositides PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(5)P, PtdIns(3,5)P(2), and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) with high affinity. Early TCR signaling pathways were unaffected by the targeted loss of the phosphoinositide-binding functions of CD3 ζ. Instead, the elimination of the phosphoinositide-binding function of CD3 ζ significantly impaired the ability of this invariant chain to accumulate stably at the immunological synapse during T cell-APC interactions. Without its phosphoinositide-binding functions, CD3 ζ was concentrated in intracellular structures after T cell activation. Such findings demonstrate a novel functional role for CD3 ζ BRS-phosphoinositide interactions in supporting T cell activation.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(12):6839-47. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1002721 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells express two isoforms of type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase: PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ. PI4KIIα exists almost exclusively as a constitutively active integral membrane protein because of its palmitoylation (Barylko, B., Gerber, S. H., Binns, D. D., Grichine, N., Khvotchev, M., Südhof, T. C., and Albanesi, J. P. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 7705-7708). In contrast, PI4KIIβ is distributed almost evenly between membranes and cytosol. Whereas the palmitoylated membrane-bound pool is catalytically active, the cytosolic kinase is inactive (Wei, Y. J., Sun, H. Q., Yamamoto, M., Wlodarski, P., Kunii, K., Martinez, M., Barylko, B., Albanesi, J. P., and Yin, H. L. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 46586-46593; Jung, G., Wang, J., Wlodarski, P., Barylko, B., Binns, D. D., Shu, H., Yin, H. L., and Albanesi, J. P. (2008) Biochem. J. 409, 501-509). In this study, we identify the molecular chaperone Hsp90 as a binding partner of PI4KIIβ, but not of PI4KIIα. Geldanamycin (GA), a specific Hsp90 inhibitor, disrupts the Hsp90-PI4KIIβ interaction and destabilizes PI4KIIβ, reducing its half-life by 40% and increasing its susceptibility to ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Cytosolic PI4KIIβ is much more sensitive to GA treatment than is the integrally membrane-associated species. Exposure to GA induces a partial redistribution of PI4KIIβ from the cytosol to membranes and, with brief GA treatments, a corresponding increase in cellular phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity. Stimuli such as PDGF receptor activation that also induce recruitment of the kinase to membranes disrupt the Hsp90-PI4KIIβ interaction to a similar extent as GA treatment. These results support a model wherein Hsp90 interacts predominantly with the cytosolic, inactive pool of PI4KIIβ, shielding it from proteolytic degradation but also sequestering it to the cytosol until an extracellular stimulus triggers its translocation to the Golgi or plasma membrane and subsequent activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endophilin, which participates in membrane vesiculation during receptor-mediated endocytosis, is a ∼40 kDa SH3 domain-containing protein that binds to the proline/arginine-rich domain of dynamin, a ∼100 kDa GTPase that is essential for endocytic membrane scission. It has been suggested that endophilin is monomeric in the cytoplasm and dimerizes only after it binds to membranes (or perhaps to dimers or tetramers of dynamin). To clarify this issue, we studied the oligomeric state of endophilin both in vitro using analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence anisotropy, and in living cells using two-photon fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy. We analyzed the fluctuation data using the Q-analysis method, which allowed us to determine the intrinsic brightness of the labeled protein complexes and hence its aggregation state in the cytoplasmic regions of the cell. Although a relatively high K(d) (∼5-15 μM) was observed in vitro, the cell measurements indicate that endophilin is dimeric in the cytoplasm, even at submicromolar concentrations. We also demonstrate that endophilin significantly enhances the assembly of dynamin, and that this enhancement is proportional to the fraction of dimeric endophilin that is present. Moreover, there is correlation between the concentrations of endophilin that promote dynamin self-assembly and those that stimulate dynamin GTPase activity. These findings support the view that endophilin-dynamin interactions play an important role in endocytosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamins induce membrane vesiculation during endocytosis and Golgi budding in a process that requires assembly-dependent GTPase activation. Brain-specific dynamin 1 has a weaker propensity to self-assemble and self-activate than ubiquitously expressed dynamin 2. Here we show that dynamin 3, which has important functions in neuronal synapses, shares the self-assembly and GTPase activation characteristics of dynamin 2. Analysis of dynamin hybrids and of dynamin 1-dynamin 2 and dynamin 1-dynamin 3 heteropolymers reveals that concentration-dependent GTPase activation is suppressed by the C-terminal proline/arginine-rich domain of dynamin 1. Dynamin proline/arginine-rich domains also mediate interactions with SH3 domain-containing proteins and thus regulate both self-association and heteroassociation of dynamins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the dynamin 2 gene have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant forms of centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Dynamin 2 is a ubiquitously expressed approximately 100-kDa GTPase that assembles around the necks of vesiculating membranes and promotes their constriction and scission. It has also been implicated in regulation of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. At present, the cellular functions of dynamin 2 that are affected by CNM-linked mutations are not well defined, and the effects of these mutations on the physical and enzymatic properties of dynamin have been not examined. Here, we report the expression, purification, and characterization of four CNM-associated dynamin mutants. All four mutants display higher than wild-type GTPase activities, and more importantly, the mutants form high order oligomers that are significantly more resistant than wild-type dynamin 2 to disassembly by guanine nucleotides or high ionic strength. These observations suggest that the corresponding wild-type residues serve to prevent excessive or prolonged dynamin assembly on cellular membranes or inappropriate self-assembly in the cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this report contains the first identification of point mutations that enhance the stability of dynamin polymers without impairing their ability to bind and/or hydrolyze GTP. We envision that the formation of abnormally large and stable complexes of these dynamin mutants in vivo contributes to their role in CNM pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synapses maintain synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous forms of neurotransmission that are distinguished by their Ca(2+) dependence and time course. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these three forms of release, it remains unclear whether they originate from the same vesicle population or arise from distinct vesicle pools with diverse propensities for release. Here, we used a reversible inhibitor of dynamin, dynasore, to dissect the vesicle pool dynamics underlying the three forms of neurotransmitter release in hippocampal GABAergic inhibitory synapses. In dynasore, evoked synchronous release and asynchronous neurotransmission detected after activity showed marked and unrecoverable depression within seconds. In contrast, spontaneous release remained intact after intense stimulation in dynasore or during prolonged (approximately 1 h) application of dynasore at rest, suggesting that separate recycling pathways maintain evoked and spontaneous synaptic vesicle trafficking. In addition, simultaneous imaging of spectrally separable styryl dyes revealed that, in a given synapse, vesicles that recycle spontaneously and in response to activity do not mix. These findings suggest that evoked synchronous and asynchronous release originate from the same vesicle pool that recycles rapidly in a dynamin-dependent manner, whereas a distinct vesicle pool sustains spontaneous release independent of dynamin activation. This result lends additional support to the notion that synapses harbor distinct vesicle populations with divergent release properties that maintain independent forms of neurotransmission.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2010; 30(4):1363-76. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3427-09.2010 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system has been shown to regulate changes in synaptic strength that underlie multiple forms of synaptic plasticity. It is plausible, therefore, that the ubiquitin proteasome system is itself regulated by synaptic activity. By utilizing live-cell imaging strategies we report the rapid and dynamic regulation of the proteasome in hippocampal neurons by synaptic activity. We find that the blockade of action potentials (APs) with tetrodotoxin inhibited the activity of the proteasome, whereas the up-regulation of APs with bicuculline dramatically increased the activity of the proteasome. In addition, the regulation of the proteasome is dependent upon external calcium entry in part through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and requires the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Using in vitro and in vivo assays we find that CaMKII stimulates proteasome activity and directly phosphorylates Rpt6, a subunit of the 19 S (PA700) subcomplex of the 26 S proteasome. Our data provide a novel mechanism whereby CaMKII may regulate the proteasome in neurons to facilitate remodeling of synaptic connections through protein degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases play essential roles in cell signaling and membrane trafficking. They are divided into type II and III families, which have distinct structural and enzymatic properties and are essentially unrelated in sequence. Mammalian cells express two type II isoforms, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha (PI4KIIalpha) and IIbeta (PI4KIIbeta). Nearly all of PI4KIIalpha, and about half of PI4KIIbeta, associates integrally with membranes, requiring detergent for solubilization. This tight membrane association is because of palmitoylation of a cysteine-rich motif, CCPCC, located within the catalytic domains of both type II isoforms. Deletion of this motif from PI4KIIalpha converts the kinase from an integral to a tightly bound peripheral membrane protein and abrogates its catalytic activity ( Barylko, B., Gerber, S. H., Binns, D. D., Grichine, N., Khvotchev, M., Sudhof, T. C., and Albanesi, J. P. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 7705-7708 ). Here we identify the first two cysteines in the CCPCC motif as the principal sites of palmitoylation under basal conditions, and we demonstrate the importance of the central proline for enzymatic activity, although not for membrane binding. We further show that palmitoylation is critical for targeting PI4KIIalpha to the trans-Golgi network and for enhancement of its association with low buoyant density membrane fractions, commonly termed lipid rafts. Replacement of the four cysteines in CCPCC with a hydrophobic residue, phenylalanine, substantially restores catalytic activity of PI4KIIalpha in vitro and in cells without restoring integral membrane binding. Although this FFPFF mutant displays a perinuclear distribution, it does not strongly co-localize with wild-type PI4KIIalpha and associates more weakly with lipid rafts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells contain two isoforms of the type II PI4K (phosphoinositol 4-kinase), PI4KIIalpha and beta. These 55 kDa proteins have highly diverse N-terminal regions (approximately residues 1-90) but conserved catalytic domains (approximately from residue 91 to the C-termini). Nearly the entire pool of PI4KIIalpha behaves as an integral membrane protein, in spite of a lack of a transmembrane domain. This integral association with membranes is due to palmitoylation of a cysteine-rich motif, CCPCC, located within the catalytic domain. Although the CCPCC motif is conserved in PI4KIIbeta, only 50% of PI4KIIbeta is membrane-associated, and approximately half of this pool is only peripherally attached to the membranes. Growth factor stimulation or overexpression of a constitutively active Rac mutant induces the translocation of a portion of cytosolic PI4KIIbeta to plasma membrane ruffles and stimulates its activity. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-associated PI4KIIbeta undergoes two modifications, palmitoylation and phosphorylation. The cytosolic pool of PI4KIIbeta is not palmitoylated and has much lower lipid kinase activity than the membrane-associated kinase. Although only membrane-associated PI4KIIbeta is phosphorylated in the unique N-terminal region, this modification apparently does not influence its membrane binding or activity. A series of truncation mutants and alpha/beta chimaeras were generated to identify regions responsible for the isoform-specific behaviour of the kinases. Surprisingly, the C-terminal approx. 160 residues, and not the diverse N-terminal regions, contain the sites that are most important in determining the different solubilities, palmitoylation states and stimulus-dependent redistributions of PI4KIIalpha and beta.