[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the differentiation and function of many cell types. We provide genetic and in vivo evidence that the two RNaseIII enzymes, Drosha and Dicer, do indeed function in the same pathway. These have previously been shown to mediate the stepwise maturation of miRNAs (Lee, Y., C. Ahn, J. Han, H. Choi, J. Kim, J. Yim, J. Lee, P. Provost, O. Radmark, S. Kim, and V.N. Kim. 2003. Nature. 425:415-419), and genetic ablation of either within the T cell compartment, or specifically within Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells, results in identical phenotypes. We found that miRNA biogenesis is indispensable for the function of T reg cells. Specific deletion of either Drosha or Dicer phenocopies mice lacking a functional Foxp3 gene or Foxp3(+) cells, whereas deletion throughout the T cell compartment also results in spontaneous inflammatory disease, but later in life. Thus, miRNA-dependent regulation is critical for preventing spontaneous inflammation and autoimmunity.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2008; 205(9):2005-17. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interference with inhibitory immunological checkpoints controlling T cell activation provides new opportunities to augment cancer immunotherapies. Whereas cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 blockade has shown promising preclinical and clinical results, therapeutic CD4(+)CD25(+) T reg cell depletion has failed to consistently enhance immune-based therapies. Using B16/BL6, a transplantable murine melanoma model, we show a dichotomy between the effects of T reg cell depletion on tumor rejection dependent on whether depletion occurs before (prophylactic) or after (therapeutic) tumor engraftment. Failure to promote rejection with therapeutic depletion is not related to lack of T reg cell depletion, to elimination of CD25(+) effector T cells, or to a failure to enhance systemic antitumor T cell responses, but correlates with failure of effector cells to infiltrate the tumor and increase the intratumor ratio of effector T cell/T reg cell. Finally, systemic antitumor responses generated upon therapeutic T reg cell depletion are significantly stronger than those generated in the presence of T reg cells, and are capable of eliciting rejection of established tumors after transfer into immunoablated recipients receiving combination immunotherapy. The data demonstrate a dissociation between measurable systemic responses and tumor rejection during CD25-directed T reg cell depletion, and suggest an alternative, clinically applicable strategy for the treatment of established tumors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2008; 205(9):2125-38. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is generated in the gut by both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent processes. The sites and the mechanisms for T cell-independent IgA synthesis remain elusive. Here we show that isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) were sites where induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and IgA class switching of B cells took place in the absence of T cells. We also show that formation of ILFs was regulated by interactions between lymphoid tissue-inducer cells expressing the nuclear receptor ROR gamma t (ROR gamma t(+)LTi cells) and stromal cells (SCs). Activation of SCs by ROR gamma t(+)LTi cells through lymphotoxin (LT)-beta receptor (LT beta R) and simultaneously by bacteria through TLRs induced recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells and formation of ILFs. These findings provide insight into the crosstalk between bacteria, ROR gamma t(+)LTi cells, SCs, DCs, and B cells required for ILF formation and establish a critical role of ILFs in T cell-independent IgA synthesis in gut.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of lymphoid microenvironments in early life depends on the interaction of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells with stromal lymphoid tissue-organizer cells. Whether this cellular interface stays operational in adult secondary lymphoid organs has remained elusive. We show here that during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, antiviral cytotoxic T cells destroyed infected T cell zone stromal cells, which led to profound disruption of secondary lymphoid organ integrity. Furthermore, the ability of the host to respond to secondary antigens was lost. Restoration of the lymphoid microanatomy was dependent on the proliferative accumulation of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells in secondary lymphoid organs during the acute phase of infection and lymphotoxin alpha(1)beta(2) signaling. Thus, crosstalk between lymphoid tissue-inducer cells and stromal cells is reactivated in adults to maintain secondary lymphoid organ integrity and thereby contributes to the preservation of immunocompetence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T(H)-17 cells are interleukin 17 (IL-17)-secreting CD4+ T helper cells involved in autoimmune disease and mucosal immunity. In naive CD4+ T cells from mice, IL-17 is expressed in response to a combination of IL-6 or IL-21 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and requires induction of the nuclear receptor RORgammat. It has been suggested that the differentiation of human T(H)-17 cells is independent of TGF-beta and thus differs fundamentally from that in mice. We show here that TGF-beta, IL-1beta and IL-6, IL-21 or IL-23 in serum-free conditions were necessary and sufficient to induce IL-17 expression in naive human CD4+ T cells from cord blood. TGF-beta upregulated RORgammat expression but simultaneously inhibited its ability to induce IL-17 expression. Inflammatory cytokines relieved this inhibition and increased RORgammat-directed IL-17 expression. Other gene products detected in T(H)-17 cells after RORgammat induction included the chemokine receptor CCR6, the IL-23 receptor, IL-17F and IL-26. Our studies identify RORgammat as having a central function in the differentiation of human T(H)-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells and suggest that similar cytokine pathways are involved in this process in mice and humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T helper cells that produce IL-17 (T(H)17 cells) promote autoimmunity in mice and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory diseases. At mucosal surfaces, T(H)17 cells are thought to protect the host from infection, whereas regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune responses and inflammation triggered by the resident microflora. Differentiation of both cell types requires transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), but depends on distinct transcription factors: RORgammat (encoded by Rorc(gammat)) for T(H)17 cells and Foxp3 for T(reg) cells. How TGF-beta regulates the differentiation of T cells with opposing activities has been perplexing. Here we demonstrate that, together with pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-beta orchestrates T(H)17 cell differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At low concentrations, TGF-beta synergizes with interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-21 (refs 9-11) to promote IL-23 receptor (Il23r) expression, favouring T(H)17 cell differentiation. High concentrations of TGF-beta repress IL23r expression and favour Foxp3+ T(reg) cells. RORgammat and Foxp3 are co-expressed in naive CD4+ T cells exposed to TGF-beta and in a subset of T cells in the small intestinal lamina propria of the mouse. In vitro, TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 inhibits RORgammat function, at least in part through their interaction. Accordingly, lamina propria T cells that co-express both transcription factors produce less IL-17 (also known as IL-17a) than those that express RORgammat alone. IL-6, IL-21 and IL-23 relieve Foxp3-mediated inhibition of RORgammat, thereby promoting T(H)17 cell differentiation. Therefore, the decision of antigen-stimulated cells to differentiate into either T(H)17 or T(reg) cells depends on the cytokine-regulated balance of RORgammat and Foxp3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is mediated by natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1/Slc11a1). Nramp1 is critical to host defence, as mice lacking Nramp1 fail to control bacterial replication and succumb to low doses of S. Typhimurium. Despite this crucial role, the mechanisms underlying Nramp1's protective effects are unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) that sample the intestinal lumen are among the first cells encountered by S. Typhimurium following oral infection and act as a conduit for S. Typhimurium to cross the intestinal epithelial barrier. We report that DCs, including intestinal, splenic and bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), express Nramp1 protein. In the small intestine, Nramp1 expression is greater in a subset of DCs (CD11c(+)CD103(-)) characterized by the elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial products. While Nramp1 expression did not affect S. Typhimurium replication in BMDCs, infected Nramp1+/+ BMDCs and intestinal CD11c(+)CD103(-) DCs secreted more inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha) than Nramp1-/-, suggesting that Nramp1 expression may promote a more rapid inflammatory response following infection. Collectively, these findings reveal a new role for DCs and Nramp1 in modulating the host inflammatory response to S. Typhimurium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of the T cell receptor (TCR) to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the thymus determines fates of TCRalphabeta lymphocytes that subsequently home to secondary lymphoid tissue. TCR transgenic models have been used to study thymic selection and lineage commitment. Most TCR transgenic mice express the rearranged TCRalphabeta prematurely at the double negative stage and abnormal TCRalphabeta populations of T cells that are not easily detected in non-transgenic mice have been found in secondary lymphoid tissue of TCR transgenic mice.
To determine developmental pathways of TCR-transgenic thymocytes, we used Cre-LoxP-mediated fate mapping and show here that premature expression of a transgenic TCRalphabeta diverts some developing thymocytes to a developmental pathway which resembles that of gamma delta cells. We found that most peripheral T cells with the HY-TCR in male mice have bypassed the RORgammat-positive CD4(+)8(+) (double positive, DP) stage to accumulate either as CD4(-)8(-) (double negative, DN) or as CD8alpha(+) T cells in lymph nodes or gut epithelium. Likewise, DN TCRalphabeta cells in lymphoid tissue of female mice were not derived from DP thymocytes.
The results further support the hypothesis that the premature expression of the TCRalphabeta can divert DN thymocytes into gamma delta lineage cells.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(1):e1512. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of a small animal model to study HIV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the failure of the virus to replicate in non-primate cells. Most studies aimed at achieving replication in murine cells have been limited to fibroblast cell lines, but generating an appropriate model requires overcoming blocks to viral replication in primary T cells. We have studied HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T cells from human CD4/CCR5/Cyclin T1 transgenic mice. Expression of hCD4 and hCCR5 in mouse CD4(+) T cells enabled efficient entry of R5 strain HIV-1. In mouse T cells, HIV-1 underwent reverse transcription and nuclear import as efficiently as in human T cells. In contrast, chromosomal integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA was inefficient in activated mouse T cells. This process was greatly enhanced by providing a secondary T cell receptor (TCR) signal after HIV-1 infection, especially between 12 to 24 h post infection. This effect was specific for primary mouse T cells. The pathways involved in HIV replication appear to be PKCtheta-, CARMA1-, and WASp-independent. Treatment with Cyclosporin A (CsA) further relieved the pre-integration block. However, transcription of HIV-1 RNA was still reduced in mouse CD4(+) T cells despite expression of the hCyclin T1 transgene. Additional post-transcriptional defects were observed at the levels of Gag expression, Gag processing, Gag release and virus infectivity. Together, these post-integration defects resulted in a dramatically reduced yield of infectious virus (300-500 fold) after a single cycle of HIV-1 replication. This study implies the existence of host factors, in addition to those already identified, that are critical for HIV-1 replication in mouse cells. This study also highlights the differences between primary T cells and cell lines regarding pre-integration steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(4):e2035. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that mediate resistance against viruses and tumors. They express multiple activating receptors that couple to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing signaling chains for downstream cell activation. Ligation of activating NK-cell receptors induces NK-cell cytotoxicity and cytokine release. How these distinct events are selectively controlled is not well defined. Here we report the identification of a specific signaling pathway that operates downstream of the ITAM-coupled NK-cell receptors NK1.1, Ly49D, Ly49H, and NKG2D. Using primary NK cells from Bcl10(-/-), Malt1(-/-), Carma1(-/-), and Card9(-/-) mice, we demonstrate a key role for Bcl10 signalosomes in the activation of canonical NF-kappaB signaling as well as JNK and p38 MAPK upon NK-cell triggering. Bcl10 directly cooperates with Malt1 and depends on Carma1 (Card11) but not on Card9 for NK-cell activation. These Bcl10-dependent cascades selectively control cytokine and chemokine production but do not affect NK-cell differentiation or killing. Thus, we identify a molecular basis for the segregation of NK-cell receptor-induced signals for cytokine release and target cell killing and extend the previously recognized roles for CARD-protein/Bcl10/Malt1 complexes in ITAM receptor signaling in innate and adaptive immune cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paradigm of effector T helper cell differentiation into either Th1 or Th2 lineages has been profoundly shaken by the discovery of T cells that secrete IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. This subset, referred to as Th17, is centrally involved in autoimmune disease and is important in host defense at mucosal surfaces. In mouse, a series of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-21, IL-23, and TGF-beta, function sequentially or synergistically to induce the Th17 lineage. Other cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IFNgamma, and IL-27, inhibit differentiation of this lineage. Here we review how the nuclear orphan receptor RORgammat functions to coordinate the diverse cytokine-induced signals and thus controls Th17 cell differentiation.
Seminars in Immunology 01/2008; 19(6):409-17. · 5.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RUNX1/AML1 gene encodes a transcription factor essential for the generation of hematopoietic stem cells and is frequently targeted in human leukemia. In human RUNX1-related leukemias, the RAS pathway is often concurrently mutated, but the mechanism of the synergism remains elusive. Here, we found that inactivation of Runx1 in mouse bone marrow cells results in an increase in the stem/progenitor cell fraction due to suppression of apoptosis and elevated expression of the polycomb gene Bmi-1, which is important for stem cell self-renewal. Introduction of oncogenic N-RAS into wild-type cells, in contrast, reduced the stem/progenitor cell fraction because of senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation. Such detrimental events presumably occurred because of the cellular fail-safe program, although hyperproliferation was initially induced by an oncogenic stimulus. Runx1 insufficiency appears to impair such a fail-safe mechanism, particularly in the stem/progenitor cells, thereby supporting the clonal maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells expressing an activated oncogene. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T helper cells that produce interleukin 17 (IL-17; 'T(H)-17 cells') are a distinct subset of proinflammatory cells whose in vivo function requires IL-23 but whose in vitro differentiation requires only IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We demonstrate here that IL-6 induced expression of IL-21 that amplified an autocrine loop to induce more IL-21 and IL-23 receptor in naive CD4(+) T cells. Both IL-21 and IL-23, along with TGF-beta, induced IL-17 expression independently of IL-6. The effects of IL-6 and IL-21 depended on STAT3, a transcription factor required for the differentiation of T(H)-17 cells in vivo. IL-21 and IL-23 induced the orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat, which in synergy with STAT3 promoted IL-17 expression. IL-6 therefore orchestrates a series of 'downstream' cytokine-dependent signaling pathways that, in concert with TGF-beta, amplify RORgammat-dependent differentiation of T(H)-17 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon gamma (IFN gamma) is the hallmark cytokine produced by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, whereas interleukin (IL)-4 is the hallmark cytokine produced by Th2 cells. Although previous studies have revealed the roles of cytokine signaling and of transcription factors during differentiation of Th1 or Th2 cells, it is unclear how the exclusive expression pattern of each hallmark cytokine is established. The DNaseI hypersensitivity site IV within the mouse Il4 locus plays an important role in the repression of Il4 expression in Th1 cells, and it has been named the Il4 silencer. Using Cbf beta- or Runx3-deficient T cells, we show that loss of Runx complex function results in derepression of IL-4 in Th1 cells. Binding of Runx complexes to the Il4 silencer was detected in naive CD4(+) T cells and Th1 cells, but not in Th2 cells. Furthermore, enforced expression of GATA-3 in Th1 cells inhibited binding of Runx complexes to the Il4 silencer. Interestingly, T cell-specific inactivation of the Cbf beta gene in mice led to elevated serum immunoglobulin E and airway infiltration. These results demonstrate critical roles of Runx complexes in regulating immune responses, at least in part, through the repression of the Il4 gene.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2007; 204(8):1749-55. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the Runx family of transcriptional regulators are required for the appropriate expression of CD4 and CD8 at discrete stages of T cell development. The roles of these factors in other aspects of T cell development are unknown. We used a strategy to conditionally inactivate the genes encoding Runx1 or Runx3 at different stages of thymocyte development, demonstrating that Runx1 regulates the transitions of developing thymocytes from the CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative stage to the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) stage and from the DP stage to the mature single-positive stage. Runx1 and Runx3 deficiencies caused marked reductions in mature thymocytes and T cells of the CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell lineages, respectively. Runx1-deficient CD4(+) T cells had markedly reduced expression of the interleukin 7 receptor and exhibited shorter survival. In addition, inactivation of both Runx1 and Runx3 at the DP stages resulted in a severe block in development of CD8(+) mature thymocytes. These results indicate that Runx proteins have important roles at multiple stages of T cell development and in the homeostasis of mature T cells.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2007; 204(8):1945-57. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans and mice lacking functional caspase-8 in T cells manifest a profound immunodeficiency syndrome due to defective T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced NF-kappaB signaling and proliferation. It is unknown how caspase-8 is activated following T cell stimulation, and what is the caspase-8 substrate(s) that is necessary to initiate T cell cycling. We observe that following TCR ligation, a small portion of total cellular caspase-8 and c-FLIP(L) rapidly migrate to lipid rafts where they associate in an active caspase complex. Activation of caspase-8 in lipid rafts is followed by rapid cleavage of c-FLIP(L) at a known caspase-8 cleavage site. The active caspase.c-FLIP complex forms in the absence of Fas (CD95/APO1) and associates with the NF-kappaB signaling molecules RIP1, TRAF2, and TRAF6, as well as upstream NF-kappaB regulators PKC theta, CARMA1, Bcl-10, and MALT1, which connect to the TCR. The lack of caspase-8 results in the absence of MALT1 and Bcl-10 in the active caspase complex. Consistent with this observation, inhibition of caspase activity attenuates NF-kappaB activation. The current findings define a link among TCR, caspases, and the NF-kappaB pathway that occurs in a sequestered lipid raft environment in T cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2007; 282(27):19365-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological synapse (IS) is a junction between the T cell and antigen-presenting cell and is composed of supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs). No studies have been published on naive T cell IS dynamics. Here, we find that IS formation during antigen recognition comprises cycles of stable IS formation and autonomous naive T cell migration. The migration phase is driven by PKCtheta, which is localized to the F-actin-dependent peripheral (p)SMAC. PKCtheta(-/-) T cells formed hyperstable IS in vitro and in vivo and, like WT cells, displayed fast oscillations in the distal SMAC, but they showed reduced slow oscillations in pSMAC integrity. IS reformation is driven by the Wiscott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp). WASp(-/-) T cells displayed normal IS formation but were unable to reform IS after migration unless PKCtheta was inhibited. Thus, opposing effects of PKCtheta and WASp control IS stability through pSMAC symmetry breaking and reformation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in trans. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN, expressed on DCs, binds to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and confers upon some cell lines the capacity to enhance trans-infection. Using a short hairpin RNA approach, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN is not required for efficient trans-enhancement by DCs. In addition, the DC-SIGN ligand mannan and an anti-DC-SIGN antibody did not inhibit DC-mediated enhancement. HIV-1 particles were internalized and were protected from protease treatment following binding to DCs, but not from binding to DC-SIGN-expressing Raji cells. Thus, DC-SIGN is not required for DC-mediated trans-enhancement of HIV infectivity.
Journal of Virology 04/2007; 81(5):2519-23. · 5.08 Impact Factor