Eric Lagasse

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

Are you Eric Lagasse?

Claim your profile

Publications (45)439.43 Total impact

  • Aaron D Deward, Junji Komori, Eric Lagasse
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review outlines the concept of cell-based therapy to restore tissue function, and addresses four key points to consider in cell transplantation: source, surveillance, safety, and site. Whereas each point is essential, additional attention should be given to transplantation sites if cell therapy is going to be successful in the clinic. Various ectopic locations are discussed, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are compared as suitable candidates for cell therapy. Studies in rodents often demonstrate cell transplantation and engraftment in ectopic sites, with little evidence to suggest why it may also work in humans. For example, transplantation to the subcapsular space of the kidney is often performed in rodents, but has not been a good predictor of clinical success. Recent work has shown that the lymph node may be a good site for transplantation of multiple tissue types, and several reasons are highlighted as to why it should be considered for future studies. The use of cell-based therapy in the clinic has been hampered by the lack of appropriate sites for transplantation. The lymph node is a promising alternative for cell transplantation, and offers hope for clinical application.
    Current opinion in organ transplantation 01/2014; · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a potential target for drug development, particularly due to the fact that it plays such a crucial role in cancer biology. In addition, next-generation mTOR inhibitors have become available, marking an exciting new phase in mTOR-based therapy. However, the verdict on their therapeutic effectiveness remains unclear. Here we review phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling as one of the primary mechanisms for sustaining tumor outgrowth and metastasis, recent advances in the development of mTOR inhibitors, and current studies addressing mTOR activation/inhibition in colorectal cancer (CRC). We will also discuss our recent comparative study of different mTOR inhibitors in a population of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), and current major challenges for achieving individualized drug therapy using kinase inhibitors.
    Oncotarget 12/2013; · 6.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is incurable for most patients. Since mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been suggested as a crucial modulator of tumor biology, we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of mTOR targeting for CRC therapy. To this purpose, we analyzed mTOR expression and the effect of mTOR inhibition in cancer stem-like cells isolated from three human metastatic CRCs (CoCSCs). CoCSCs exhibited a strong mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) expression, and a rare expression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). This latter correlated with differentiation, being expressed in CoCSC-derived xenografts. We indicate Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) as the possible main mTORC2 effector in CoCSCs, as highlighted by the negative effect on cancer properties following its knockdown. mTOR inhibitors affected CoCSCs differently, resulting in proliferation, autophagy as well as apoptosis induction. The apoptosis-inducing mTOR inhibitor Torin-1 hindered growth, motility, invasion, and survival of CoCSCs in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo with a concomitant reduction in vessel formation. Torin-1 also affected the expression of markers for cell proliferation, angio-/lympho-genesis, and stemness in vivo, including Ki67, DLL1, DLL4, Notch, Lgr5, and CD44. Importantly, Torin-1 did not affect the survival of normal colon stem cells in vivo, suggesting its selectivity towards cancer cells. Thus, we propose Torin-1 as a powerful drug candidate for metastatic CRC therapy.
    Oncotarget 09/2013; · 6.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary human fetal and adult hepatocytes have been considered feasible donor cell sources for cell transplantation. We compared the engraftment efficiencies between adult human, fetal human, and adult porcine hepatocytes after transplantation into MUP-uPA(tg (+/+))Rag2(-/-)γC(-/-) mice. Transplantation of adult human hepatocytes yielded a thousand-fold higher serum albumin level compared to transplantation of fetal human hepatocytes, while transplantation of adult porcine hepatocytes resulted in a hundred-fold higher serum albumin level than adult human hepatocytes. These results suggest that adult liver cells are superior to fetal liver cells for transplantation, and caution should be applied if porcine hepatocytes are used for preclinical studies as a proof of concept for human hepatocytes.
    Cell Transplantation 08/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Even though the number of anti-cancer drugs entering clinical trials and approved by the FDA has increased in recent years, many cancer patients still experience poor survival outcome. The main explanation for such a dismal prognosis is that current therapies might leave behind a population of cancer cells with the capacity for long-term self-renewal, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), from which most tumors are believed to be derived and fueled. CSCs might favor local and distant recurrence even many years after initial treatment, thus representing a potential target for therapies aimed at improving clinical outcome. In this review, we will address the CSC hypothesis with a particular emphasis on its current paradigms and debates, and discuss several mechanisms of CSC resistance to conventional therapies.
    Current pathobiology reports. 06/2013; 1(2):111-118.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell replacement is an emerging therapy for type 1 diabetes. Pluripotent stem cells have received a lot of attention as a potential source of transplantable β-cells, but their ability to form teratomas poses significant risks. Here, we evaluated the potential of primary mouse gall bladder epithelial cells (GBCs) as targets for ex vivo genetic reprogramming to the β-cell fate. Conditions for robust expansion and genetic transduction of primary GBCs by adenoviral vectors were developed. Using a GFP reporter for insulin, conditions for reprogramming were then optimized. Global expression analysis by RNA-sequencing was used to quantitatively compare reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) to true β-cells, revealing both similarities and differences. Adenoviral-mediated expression of NEUROG3, Pdx1, and MafA in GBCs resulted in robust induction of pancreatic endocrine genes, including Ins1, Ins2, Neurod1, Nkx2-2 and Isl1. Furthermore, expression of GBC-specific genes was repressed, including Sox17 and Hes1. Reprogramming was also enhanced by addition of retinoic acid and inhibition of Notch signaling. Importantly, rGBCs were able to engraft long term in vivo and remained insulin-positive for 15weeks. We conclude that GBCs are a viable source for autologous cell replacement in diabetes, but that complete reprogramming will require further manipulations.
    Stem cell research 02/2013; 11(1):503-515. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIPL), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIPL in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIPL protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIPL was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIPL. These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIPL ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIPL lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIPL by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e577. · 6.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment over the past two decades, cancer continues to present a serious challenge to oncologists, especially when the disease has already spread to a distant site at the time of diagnosis. The high degree of variation in gene expression, observed not only in tumors arising from different tissues but also in tumors arising from the same tissue, and sometimes in distinct areas of the same tumor, is likely to be responsible for evolutionary adaptation and consequently tumor survival. Cellular heterogeneity has historically been viewed solely as the result of genetic instability. However, it has now become increasingly clear that changes in gene expression that occur without altering the DNA sequence—better known as epigenetic changes—can likewise contribute to tumorigenesis. Elucidating the mechanisms that account for cancer heterogeneity will be essential to the design of new drugs capable of overcoming the major limitations of current therapies. These limitations include the treatment of cancers able to escape immune surveillance or adapt to chemotherapy regimens as well as invasive and metastatic cancers. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of tumor genetics and epigenetics and translate these findings into potential clinical practice.
    01/2013: pages 363-388; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-7875-1 (Print) 978-1-4614-7876-8 (Online)
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell-based therapy has been viewed as a promising alternative to organ transplantation, but cell transplantation aimed at organ repair is not always possible. Here we show that the mouse lymph node can support the engraftment and growth of healthy cells from multiple tissues. Direct injection of hepatocytes into a single mouse lymph node generated enough ectopic liver mass to rescue the survival of mice with lethal metabolic disease. Furthermore, thymuses transplanted into single lymph nodes of athymic nude mice generated functional immune systems that were capable of rejecting allogeneic and xenogeneic grafts. Additionally, pancreatic islets injected into the lymph nodes of diabetic mice restored normal glucose control. Collectively, these results suggest the practical approach of targeting lymph nodes to restore, maintain or improve tissue and organ functions.
    Nature Biotechnology 09/2012; 30(10):976-983. · 32.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The identification of resident stem cells in the mouse gallbladder is, to date, unexplored. In addition, the relationship between adult gallbladder stem cells and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells is not well understood. The aim of this study was to isolate stem cells from an adult mouse gallbladder and determine whether they were unique, compared to IHBD cells. By limiting dilution analyses and index sorts, we found that an EpCAM(+) CD49f(hi) epithelial cell subpopulation from primary gallbladder is enriched in colony-forming cells, compared to EpCAM(+) CD49f(lo) cells. EpCAM(+) CD49f(hi) cells expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)29, CD133, and stem cell antigen-1, but were negative for lineage markers CD31, CD45, and F4/80. Using a novel feeder cell-culture system, we observed long-term (>passage 20) and clonal expansion of the EpCAM(+) CD49f(hi) cells in vitro. In a matrigel differentiation assay, EpCAM(+) CD49f(+) cells expanding in vitro underwent organotypic morphogenesis forming ductular structures and cysts. These structures are similar to, and recapitulate a transport function of, primary gallbladder. EpCAM(+) CD49f(+) cells also engraft into the subcutaneous space of recipient mice. We compared primary gallbladder and IHBD cells by flow cytometry and found phenotypic differences in the expression of CD49f, CD49e, CD81, CD26, CD54, and CD166. In addition, oligonucleotide microarrays showed that the expanded EpCAM(+) CD49f(+) gallbladder cells and IHBD cells exhibit differences related to lipid and drug metabolism. Notable genes that were different are cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, Indian hedgehog, and solute carrier family genes. CONCLUSION: We have isolated an epithelial cell population from primary mouse gallbladder with stem cell characteristics and found it to be unique, compared to IHBD cells.
    Hepatology 07/2011; 54(5):1830-41. · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The therapy of choice for end-stage liver disease is whole-organ liver transplantation, but this option is limited by a shortage of donor organs. Cell-based therapies and hepatic tissue engineering have been considered as alternatives to liver transplantation, but neither has proven effective to date. A regenerative medicine approach for liver replacement has recently been described that includes the use of a three-dimensional organ scaffold prepared by decellularization of xenogeneic liver. The present study investigates a new, minimally disruptive method for whole-organ liver decellularization and three different cell reseeding strategies to engineer functional liver tissue. A combination of enzymatic, detergent, and mechanical methods are used to remove all cells from isolated rat livers. Whole-organ perfusion is used in a customized organ chamber and the decellularized livers are examined by morphologic, biochemical, and immunolabeling techniques for preservation of the native matrix architecture and composition. Three different methods for hepatocyte seeding of the resultant three-dimensional liver scaffolds are evaluated to maximize cell survival and function: (1) direct parenchymal injection, (2) multistep infusion, or (3) continuous perfusion. The decellularization process preserves the three-dimensional macrostructure, the ultrastructure, the composition of the extracellular matrix components, the native microvascular network of the liver, and the bile drainage system, and up to 50% of growth factor content. The three-dimensional liver matrix reseeded with the multistep infusion of hepatocytes generated ∼90% of cell engraftment and supported liver-specific functional capacities of the engrafted cells, including albumin production, urea metabolism, and cytochrome P450 induction. Whole-organ liver decellularization is possible with maintenance of structure and composition suitable to support functional hepatocytes.
    Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 03/2011; 17(6):677-86. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for liver disease. However, most patients with chronic hepatic damage have cirrhosis and fibrosis, which limit the potential for cell-based therapy of the liver. The development of an ectopic liver as an additional site of hepatic function represents a new approach for patients with end-stage liver disease. We investigated the development and function of liver tissue in lymph nodes in mice with liver failure. Hepatocytes were isolated from 8- to 12-week-old mice and transplanted by intraperitoneal injection into 8- to 12-week-old fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase mice (Fah(-/-)), a model of the human liver disease tyrosinemia type I. Survival was monitored and the locations and functions of the engrafted liver cells were determined. Lymph nodes of Fah(-/-) mice were colonized by transplanted hepatocytes; Fah(+) hepatocytes were detected adjacent to the CD45(+) lymphoid cells of the lymphatic system. Ten weeks after transplantation, these mice had substantial improvements in serum levels of transaminases, bilirubin, and amino acids. Homeostatic expansion of donor hepatocytes in lymph nodes rescued the mice from lethal hepatic failure. Functional ectopic liver tissue in lymph nodes rescues mice from lethal hepatic disease; lymph nodes therefore might be used as sites for hepatocyte transplantation.
    Gastroenterology 11/2010; 140(2):656-666.e2. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Julie M Chandler, Eric Lagasse
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cells maintain homeostasis in adult tissues via self-renewal and generation of terminally differentiated cells. Alterations in this intricate balance can result in disease. It has become increasingly evident that cancer can be initiated at the level of stem cells. Therefore, understanding what causes stem cells to become cancerous may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Multiple signaling pathways ultimately affect stem cell survival and proliferation, thus maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Changes in these pathways could perturb normal stem cell behavior, leading to cancerous stem cells. In addition, cancerous stem cells show resistance to current therapies and may lead to a dangerous selection process resulting in recurrence and metastasis. Genomic instability, the driving force of mutation and resistance, may give cancerous stem cells an adaptive advantage, especially when subjected to cancer therapies. Targeting the unique characteristics of cancerous stem cells to promote either terminal differentiation or destruction would effectively eradicate cancer and improve patient care and survival.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 01/2010; 1(2):13. · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Rohan Manohar, Eric Lagasse
    Molecular Therapy 07/2009; 17(6):936-8. · 7.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bronchiolar stem cells have been functionally defined in vivo on the basis of their resistance to chemical (naphthalene) injury, their infrequent proliferation relative to other progenitor cell types, and their coexpression of the airway and alveolar secretory cell markers Clara cell secretory protein and pro-surfactant protein C, respectively. Cell surface markers that have previously been used for their prospective isolation included Sca-1 and CD34. Using transgenic animal models associated with stem cell expansion, ablation, and lineage tracing, we demonstrate that CD34(pos) cells do not belong to the airway epithelial lineage and that cell surface Sca-1 immunoreactivity does not distinguish between bronchiolar stem and facultative transit-amplifying (Clara) cell populations. Furthermore, we show that high autofluorescence (AF(high)) is a distinguishing characteristic of Clara cells allowing for the fractionation of AF(low) bronchiolar stem cells. On the basis of these data we show that the defining phenotype of the bronchiolar stem cell is CD45(neg) CD31(neg) CD34(neg) Sca-l(low) AF(low). This refinement in the definition of bronchiolar stem cells provides a critical tool by which to assess functional and molecular distinctions between bronchiolar stem cells and the more abundant pool of facultative transit-amplifying (Clara) cells.
    Stem Cells 01/2009; 27(3):612-22. · 7.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human cancers have been found to include transformed stem cells that may drive cancer progression to metastasis. Here, we report that metastatic colon cancer contains clonally derived tumor cells with all of the critical properties expected of stem cells, including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into mature colon cells. Additionally, when injected into mice, these cells initiated tumors that closely resemble human cancer. Karyotype analyses of parental and clonally derived tumor cells expressed many consistent (clonal) along with unique chromosomal aberrations, suggesting the presence of chromosomal instability in the cancer stem cells. Thus, this new model for cancer origin and metastatic progression includes features of both the hierarchical model for cancerous stem cells and the stochastic model, driven by the observation of chromosomal instability.
    Cancer Research 10/2008; 68(17):6932-41. · 8.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver progenitor cells, characterized by the coexpression of biliary and hepatocyte lineage markers and the ability to form colonies in culture, were isolated by flow cytometry from primary human fetal livers. These prospectively isolated liver progenitor cells supported hepatitis D virus infection, expressed, and produced albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, as tracked by albumin- and alpha-fetoprotein-driven lentiviral promoter reporter constructs and measured by ELISA, respectively. Coculture in three-dimensional (3D) fibrin gel with endothelial cells resulted in the formation of vascular structures by the endothelial cells and increased proliferation of liver progenitors. The enhanced proliferation of liver progenitors that was observed when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured in direct contact was not achieved when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured on adjacent but separate matrices and when they were cultured across transwell membranes. In conclusion, coculture of liver progenitors and endothelial cells in three-dimensional matrix resulted in enhanced liver progenitor proliferation and function. This coculture methodology offers a novel coculture system that could be applied for the development of engineered liver tissues.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 07/2008; 14(6):995-1006. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    E Lagasse
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the role of stem cells in cancer development is evolving quickly. In the course of tumor expansion, a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like features has been noted. These cancer stem cells give rise to transit amplifying tumor cells, which comprise the majority of the tumor mass prior to terminal differentiation. Combining this finding with genetic instability, a well-known engine for cancer development and metastases, a new model emerges for cancer where normal stem cells and their cellular pathway acquire stochastic malignant abilities. In this model, when cancer stem cells self-renew, many genetic variants are produced. Just as microbes 'learn' to defeat antibiotics, genetically heterogeneous cancer stem cells may possibly acquire resistance to various chemotherapeutic approaches. Drug-resistant microorganisms selected by spontaneous mutation of bacterial DNA may not be so different than the drug-resistant and genetically instable cancer stem cells recurring after chemotherapeutic treatment. In this gloomy view of cancer, cancer stem cells with genetic instability can be considered as 'the best vehicle with the best engine', a formidable challenge for the future development of new anticancer therapies.
    Gene therapy 02/2008; 15(2):136-42. · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell hematologic disorders that evolve to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and thus model multistep leukemogenesis. Activating RAS mutations and overexpression of BCL-2 are prognostic features of MDS/AML transformation. Using NRASD12 and BCL-2, we created two distinct models of MDS and AML, where human (h)BCL-2 is conditionally or constitutively expressed. Our novel transplantable in vivo models show that expression of hBCL-2 in a primitive compartment by mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat results in a disease resembling human MDS, whereas the myeloid MRP8 promoter induces a disease with characteristics of human AML. Expanded leukemic stem cell (Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/c-Kit(+)) populations and hBCL-2 in the increased RAS-GTP complex within the expanded Sca-1(+) compartment are described in both MDS/AML-like diseases. Furthermore, the oncogenic compartmentalizations provide the proapoptotic versus antiapoptotic mechanisms, by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT signaling, in determination of the neoplastic phenotype. When hBCL-2 is switched off with doxycycline in the MDS mice, partial reversal of the phenotype was observed with persistence of bone marrow blasts and tissue infiltration as RAS recruits endogenous mouse (m)BCL-2 to remain active, thus demonstrating the role of the complex in the disease. This represents the first in vivo progression model of MDS/AML dependent on the formation of a BCL-2:RAS-GTP complex. The colocalization of BCL-2 and RAS in the bone marrow of MDS/AML patients offers targeting either oncogene as a therapeutic strategy.
    Cancer Research 01/2008; 67(24):11657-67. · 8.65 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2008; 134(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
439.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2013
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Molecular & Medical Genetics
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1994–2006
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Developmental Biology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • California Stem Cell
      Irvine, California, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1994–2001
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Department of Developmental Biology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1992
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States