Charlotte Behr

Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Burdeos, Aquitaine, France

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Publications (40)160.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a major life-threatening complication of paediatric malaria. Protracted production of pro-inflammatory cytokines promoting erythrophagocytosis and depressing erythropoiesis is thought to play an important role in SMA, which is characterized by a high TNF/IL-10 ratio. Whether this TNF/IL-10 imbalance results from an intrinsic incapacity of SMA patients to produce IL-10 or from an IL-10 unresponsiveness to infection is unknown. Monocytes and T cells are recognized as the main sources of TNF and IL-10 in vivo, but little is known about the activation status of those cells in SMA patients. The IL-10 and TNF production capacity and the activation phenotype of monocytes and T cells were compared in samples collected from 332 Ghanaian children with non-overlapping SMA (n = 108), cerebral malaria (CM) (n = 144) or uncomplicated malaria (UM) (n = 80) syndromes. Activation status of monocytes and T cells was ascertained by measuring HLA-DR+ and/or CD69+ surface expression by flow cytometry. The TNF and IL-10 production was assessed in a whole-blood assay after or not stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) used as surrogate of unspecific monocyte and T cell stimulant. The number of circulating pigmented monocytes was also determined. Monocytes and T cells from SMA and CM patients showed similar activation profiles with a comparable decreased HLA-DR expression on monocytes and increased frequency of CD69+ and HLA-DR+ T cells. In contrast, the acute-phase IL-10 production was markedly decreased in SMA compared to CM (P = .003) and UM (P = .004). Although in SMA the IL-10 response to LPS-stimulation was larger in amplitude than in CM (P = .0082), the absolute levels of IL-10 reached were lower (P = .013). Both the amplitude and levels of TNF produced in response to LPS-stimulation were larger in SMA than CM (P = .019). In response to PHA-stimulation, absolute levels of IL-10 produced in SMA were lower than in CM (P = .005) contrasting with TNF levels, which were higher (P = .001). These data reveal that SMA patients have the potential to mount efficient IL-10 responses and that the TNF/IL-10 imbalance may reflect a specific monocyte and T cell programming/polarization pattern in response to infection.
    Malaria Journal 08/2012; 11:253. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fulani ethnic group individuals are less susceptible than sympatric Mossi ethnic group, in term of malaria infection severity, and differ in antibody production against malaria antigens. The differences in susceptibility to malaria between Fulani and Mossi ethnic groups are thought to be regulated by different genetic backgrounds and offer the opportunity to compare haematological parameters, Tregs and γδT cell profiles in seasonal and stable malaria transmission settings in Burkina Faso. The study was conducted at two different time points i.e. during the high and low malaria transmission period. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in adults above 20 years belonging either to the Fulani or the Mossi ethnic groups 1) at the peak of the malaria transmission season and 2) during the middle of the low malaria transmission season. Full blood counts, proportions of Tregs and γδ T cells were measured at both time-points.As previously shown the Fulani and Mossi ethnic groups showed a consistent difference in P. falciparum infection rates and parasite load. Differential white blood cell counts showed that the absolute lymphocyte counts were higher in the Mossi than in the Fulani ethnic group at both time points. While the proportion of CD4+CD25high was higher in the Fulani ethnic group at the peak of malaria transmission season (p = 0.03), no clear pattern emerged for T regulatory cells expressing FoxP3+ and CD127low. However CD3+γδ+ subpopulations were found to be higher in the Fulani compared to the Mossi ethnic group, and this difference was statistically significant at both time-points (p = 0.004 at low transmission season and p = 0.04 at peak of transmission). Our findings on regulatory T cell phenotypes suggest an interesting role for immune regulatory mechanisms in response to malaria. The study also suggests that TCRγδ + cells might contribute to the protection against malaria in the Fulani ethnic group involving their reported parasite inhibitory activities.
    BMC Research Notes 01/2012; 5:76.
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    ABSTRACT: The control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic parasite density is essential for protection against malaria, because it prevents pathogenesis and progression toward severe disease. P falciparum blood-stage parasite cultures are inhibited by human Vγ9Vδ2 γδ T cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both intraerythrocytic parasites and the extracellular red blood cell-invasive merozoites specifically activate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in a γδ T cell receptor-dependent manner and trigger their degranulation. In contrast, the γδ T cell-mediated antiparasitic activity only targets the extracellular merozoites. Using perforin-deficient and granulysin-silenced T-cell lines, we demonstrate that granulysin is essential for the in vitro antiplasmodial process, whereas perforin is dispensable. Patients infected with P falciparum exhibited elevated granulysin plasma levels associated with high levels of granulysin-expressing Vδ2(+) T cells endowed with parasite-specific degranulation capacity. This indicates in vivo activation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells along with granulysin triggering and discharge during primary acute falciparum malaria. Altogether, this work identifies Vγ9Vδ2 T cells as unconventional immune effectors targeting the red blood cell-invasive extracellular P falciparum merozoites and opens novel perspectives for immune interventions harnessing the antiparasitic activity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to control parasite density in malaria patients.
    Blood 11/2011; 118(26):6952-62. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: gammadelta T cells recognize stress-induced autoantigens and contribute to immunity against infections and cancer. Our previous study revealed that Vdelta2-negative ((neg)) gammadelta T lymphocytes isolated from transplant recipients infected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) killed both CMV-infected cells and HT29 colon cancer cells in vitro. To investigate the antitumor effects of Vdelta2(neg) clones in vivo, we generated hypodermal HT29 tumors in immunodeficient mice. Concomitant injections of Vdelta2(neg)clones, in contrast to Vdelta2(+) cells, prevented the development of HT29 tumors. Vdelta2(neg) clones expressed chemokine C-C motif receptor 3 (CCR3) and migrated in vitro in response to chemokines secreted by HT29 cells, among which were the CCR3 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4. More importantly, a systemic i.p. treatment with Vdelta2(neg) clones delayed the growth of HT29 s.c. tumors. The effect of in vivo gammadelta T-cell passive immunotherapy on tumor growth could be reverted by addition of a blocking anti-CCR3 antibody. gammadelta T-cell passive immunotherapy was dependent on the cytotoxic activity of the gammadelta effectors toward their targets because Vdelta2(neg) clones were not able to inhibit the growth of A431 hypodermal tumors. Our findings suggest that CMV-specific Vdelta2(neg) cells could target in vivo cancer cells, making them an attractive candidate for antitumor immunotherapy.
    Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(9):3971-8. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • The Open Immunology Journal - OPEN IMMUNOL J. 01/2009; 2(2):106-118.
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    ABSTRACT: The Pf72/Hsp70-1 antigen is a major target in the naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We carried out an extensive analysis of the responses to several epitopes on the least conserved C-terminal domain, according to the mode of sensitization: malaria infection or immunization with different immunogens. We found significant differences in the panel of B-cell epitopes recognized by animal models including primates, and by humans sensitized by natural infection. We focused the analysis on one epitope that is unique to Plasmodium species. It is specifically recognized by a monoclonal antibody that mediates the killing of infected hepatocytes in vitro. We produced a polymeric multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) form of this sequence, which enabled us to identify a new B-cell epitope not detected by ELISA with linear peptides. The polymer was strongly recognized by sera from monkeys or humans sensitized by natural infection, whereas the monomer was not. We modelled the three-dimensional structure of the Pf72/Hsp70-1 sequence, using known Escherischia coli DnaK structures as a template. This predicted that the corresponding region would form a loop in the native antigen. The results presented here suggest that the MAP strategy is also particularly useful as a means of obtaining suitable synthetic models for conformation-dependent epitopes.
    Parasite Immunology 07/2008; 22(11):535 - 543. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data point to an increased risk of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in pregnant women with malaria, by unknown mechanisms. We show here that surface binding of a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum adhesin to chondroitin sulphate A proteoglycans increases HIV-1 replication in the human placental cell line BeWo, probably by a P. falciparum adhesin-induced long-terminal repeat-driven TNF-alpha stimulation. This suggests that placental malaria could increase the risk of HIV-1 transmission in utero.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2008; 22(6):785-7. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2008; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cells are thought to play a critical role in cerebral malaria pathogenesis. However, available evidences are restricted to rodent models in which V beta specific T cell expansion has been associated with neurological syndrome suggesting involvement of superantigens or dominant antigens. Using flow cytometry, we studied the peripheral V beta T cell repertoire of Ghanaian children with cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria and asymptomatic control children, to look for either expansion or deletion of specific V beta associated with cerebral malaria. At admission, the general pattern of the repertoire of the patients was very similar, with no major distortion compared to the control group a part a significant increase of the frequency of the V beta 21.3 subset correlating with disease severity and attributed to the CD4 subset. During convalescence very limited fluctuations were observed including a significant decrease of the V beta 21.3 subset and increase of the V beta 20 subset, a subset not detected at admission. The remarkable stability of the V beta repertoire observed in acute malaria either cerebral or uncomplicated argues against the idea that cerebral malaria would result from a T cell-mediated inflammatory shock syndrome driven by some dominant super-antigenic activity(ies). The significance of the reproducible increase of the CD4+V beta 21.3T cell subset deserves further investigations.
    Microbes and Infection 10/2007; 9(11):1252-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory distress (RD), a symptom of underlying metabolic acidosis, has been identified as a major risk factor for mortality in children with severe malaria in Africa, yet the molecular mediators involved in the pathogenesis of RD have not been identified. We studied circulating levels of mediators of inflammation--including the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha and interleukin (IL)-10; the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha , MIP-1 beta , and IL-8; and the immune activation marker neopterin--in children with RD, severe malarial anemia (SMA), cerebral malaria (CM), and uncomplicated malaria (UM). Children with RD had significantly higher plasma levels of TNF- alpha , IL-10, and neopterin and a significantly higher TNF- alpha : IL-10 ratio than those without RD. In addition, the results demonstrated that, relative to UM, CM was associated with increased levels of TNF- alpha and decreased levels of MIP-1 alpha , whereas SMA was associated with decreased levels of IL-10. Circulating levels of neopterin were inversely correlated with hemoglobin, whereas levels of MIP-1 beta were positively correlated with parasitemia. We conclude that distinct clinical presentations of severe malaria are associated with specific patterns of inflammatory mediators. In particular, we show, to our knowledge for the first time, that patients with malaria and RD have a strong and unbalanced proinflammatory response that may be involved in the pathogenesis of the underlying metabolic acidosis.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2006; 194(10):1438-46. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the immune response against the Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-specific antigen Pf11-1. This megadalton parasite molecule has been implicated in the process of erythrocyte rupture during gametogenesis. The molecule is composed in great part of degenerated nonapeptide motifs which are tandemly repeated several hundred times. A computer algorithm searching for T sites predicted that the entire repeat region of the Pf11-1 represents potential T cell antigenic major histocompatibility complex class II-binding sites. To test this hypothesis, synthetic peptides corresponding to two nonamer subtype repeats, differing only at two amino acid positions, were used to immunize congenic mouse strains. Both peptides were shown to contain both B and T cell epitopes. The immune response is restricted to the H-2d andH-2khaplotypes. The T cell response against the peptides appeared to be highly specific, clearly discriminating between the two similar nonamer repeat sequences, whereas the humoral response produced cross-reacting antibodies. We also investigated the humoral and T cell reactivities of P. falciparum-primed individuals in West Africa against the synthetic Pf11-1 peptides. Among 51 individuals 35 had antibodies to at least one of the two peptides and a majority of them (28) had antibodies reacting with both peptides. The cellular response was analyzed by [3H] thymidine incorporation or interferon-y release. There was considerable variation in the response to the two peptides. Among the human samples 36% responded to one repeat subtype, while only 13% responded to the second subtype. Interestingly, in individual donors the T cell response to both peptides are associated, suggesting that, as shown for mice, the response is restricted by a genetic element. The data obtained on the two subtypes of the nonamer repeat region suggest that the entire Pfll-1 molecule might induce an unusually heterogenous B and T cell response during natural infection in man.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2005; 23(7):1574 - 1581. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Saimiri sciureus monkey is a well-established host for experimental studies with human malaria parasites. During the course of iterative inoculations with Plasmodium falciparum parasitised red blood cells (RBC), anti-RBC alloantibodies were detected in the sera of two of eight Saimiri monkeys. These anti-RBC antibodies were further used to investigate RBC phenotypes in 35 colony-reared Saimiri monkeys by flow cytometry. Three RBC phenotypes (named I-III) were observed. Their distribution was I (86%), II (11%) and III (3%). Using the Palo Alto FUP-2 strain, a variant P. falciparum line insensitive to hyperimmune serum and the passive transfer of anti-RBC alloantibodies, a dramatic drop in parasite growth was documented in an incompatible monkey.
    Microbes and Infection 07/2005; 7(7-8):983-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neotropical primate squirrel monkey is used in many areas of biomedical research including neuroendocrinology, immunology and infectious diseases. However, research has been hampered by the lack of immunological tools for this primate. A series of 67 commercially available monoclonal antibodies to human CD antigens or cytokines were tested on Saimiri mononuclear cells and the specificity was assessed by double staining using flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies defining the main mononuclear cells subsets (monocytes, B, T, including CD4 and CD8 T cells) as well as activation markers have been identified. The conditions to specifically identify the various cell subsets using two color flow cytometry and establish their relative proportions have been set-up. We also have established normal values of the main circulating mononuclear cell subsets for adult Saimiri sciureus monkeys from the breeding unit of Institut Pasteur in French Guiana. The distribution between spleen, blood and lymph nodes has been compared. These tools allow documenting the phenotype of most Saimiri mononuclear cell subsets and assessing their activation level. This opens new perspectives for vaccinology and immunopathology research in this experimental non-human primate host, in particular for malaria research.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 03/2005; 297(1-2):61-71. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Real-time PCR is becoming a common tool for detecting and quantifying expression profiling of selected genes. Cytokines mRNA quantification is widely used in immunological research to dissect the early steps of immune responses or pathophysiological pathways. It is also growing to be of clinical relevancy to immuno-monitoring and evaluation of the disease status of patients. The techniques currently used for "absolute quantification" of cytokine mRNA are based on a DNA standard curve and do not take into account the critical impact of RT efficiency. To overcome this pitfall, we designed a strategy using external RNA as standard in the RT-PCR. Use of synthetic RNA standards, by comparison with the corresponding DNA standard, showed significant variations in the yield of retro-transcription depending the target amplified and the experiment. We then developed primers to be used under one single experimental condition for the specific amplification of human IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-gamma, MIF, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha mRNA. We showed that the beta-2 microglobulin (beta2-MG) gene was suitable for data normalisation since the level of beta2-MG transcripts in naive PBMC varied less than 5 times between individuals and was not affected by LPS or PHA stimulation. The technique, we named CyProQuant-PCR (Cytokine Profiling Quantitative PCR) was validated using a kinetic measurement of cytokine transcripts under in vitro stimulation of human PBMC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan (SAC). Results obtained show that CyProQuant-PCR is powerful enough to precociously detect slight cytokine induction. Finally, having demonstrated the reproducibility of the method, it was applied to malaria patients and asymptomatic controls for the quantification of TGF-beta1 transcripts and showed an increased capacity of cells from malaria patients to accumulate TGF-beta1 mRNA in response to LPS. The real-time RT-PCR technique based on a RNA standard curve, CyProQuant-PCR, outlined here, allows for a genuine absolute quantification and a simultaneous analysis of a large panel of human cytokine mRNA. It represents a potent and attractive tool for immunomonitoring, lending itself readily to automation and with a high throughput. This opens the possibility of an easy and reliable cytokine profiling for clinical applications.
    BMC Immunology 02/2005; 6:5. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T γδ lymphocytes, bearing Vγ9 Vδ2 chains, constitute a small proportion (1–5%) of the lymphocytes in the blood. These cells recognize nonpeptidic molecules such as phosphoantigens, intermediary metabolites products by microorganisms, including parasites. These antigens are recognized in the absence of molecules CMH. Our previous results have shown that Plasmodium falciparum synthetize phosphoantigen, intermediary products of the Rohmer pathway. These phosphoantigens are able to induce the proliferation of T γδ lymphocytes, producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and providing a parasitotoxic activity against parasitized red blood cells. Also, during the acute phase of infection, these lymphocytes increase both in percentage and numbers. Today, the biological role of T γδ lymphocytes remains poorly understood. Indeed, these lymphocytes are found in primates but there is no equivalent in rodents. We decided to study this population in the infection model Plasmodium falciparum/spleen intact Saimiri scirieus. In this monkey, we found a population of TVγ9 (representing 0.2–1% of total lymphocytes in the peripheral blood) which react with phosphoantigens as do human TVγ9 cells. Activation kinetics of these cells in infected monkeys show an early activation occuring on the 6th day of infection, while the CD4 T activation starts at day 10. Also, we observed an important increase of numbers and percentages of these TVγ9. Their maximal peak coincides with the beginning of parasite clearance. Together, these data associated with parasitotoxic activity in vitro argue for a role of TVγ9 cells in parasitemia control, particulary during primary infection.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 01/2005; 52(2). · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In endemic areas, clinical manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum infection range from asymptomatic parasitaemia to life-threatening severe syndromes. Immune differences that could account for this disparity are poorly understood. Using tight criteria to classify patients into non-overlapping clinical categories, we showed that cerebral malaria and severe anaemia were distinct immunological syndromes and that a proper quantitative description of cytokine profiles in the various clinical groups is essential to the understanding of the activation of immunocompetent cells.Due to the limited size of paediatric blood samples, we chose to measure cytokine mRNA using real-time RT-PCR. We showed that RT efficiency displayed intra-and intergenic variations that have to be taken into consideration for reliable absolute RNA quantification when comparing clinical cases. We thus developed a SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR method using synthetic external RNA standards specific for each gene. Absolute RNA quantification is achieved by reverse transcribing known copy numbers of this RNA standard in parallel with cellular RNA. Strictly specific primers were designed to allow the quantification of any RNA in the same thermocycling parameters for future automation. Our method gave similar results for a lower cost when compared with TaqMan, and led to reproducible and reliable absolute RNA quantification. We validated it in vitro on naïve PBMC stimulated by LPS and ex vivo on PBMC from malaria patients. This new method raises the unprecedented possibility to compare cytokine mRNA levels between different clinical groups and is a powerful tool to further study the inflammation processes associated to malaria.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 01/2005; 52(2). · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: If a number of cytokines and growth factors that have been characterized from human cells were investigated in non-human primates, results from such approaches would allow the development of assays to detect and quantitate cytokines in experimental models. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important pluripotent cytokine which plays a crucial role in host defense. As yet, no complete molecular data have been reported for the squirrel monkey TNF-alpha. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were used to trace introns, by comparing product sizes obtained using cDNA and genomic DNA as templates. The genomic DNA is composed of four exons and three introns with 1793 nucleotides. The corresponding cDNA is 702 nucleotides and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Saimiri sciureus was most closely related to that of the genus Aotus, a new-world primate, compared to old-world primates (genus Macaca and Papio). The deduced TNF-alpha protein consists of 233 amino acids with 82% identity to human, 95% to new-world monkeys and 79% to old-world monkeys. The cloned TNF-alpha cDNA will be useful to quantitate TNF-alpha at the mRNA level.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 04/2003; 92(1-2):37-43. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe malarial anaemia (SA) is a major complication of malaria and an important cause of child mortality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis behind SA is poorly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a protective role against clinical malaria but is also suggested to have a pathogenic role in cerebral malaria (CM). Erythrophagocytosis by splenic macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SA. In this study, plasma levels of NO, neopterin, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in paediatric patients with CM, n=77, SA (n=28) and uncomplicated malaria (UM n=53). Haptoglobin levels were significantly lower in SA (median (interquartile range) 25 (17-59) mg/l) than in both CM and UM (40 (24-80) mg/l and 110 (60-160) mg/l, respectively, P<0.001). In contrast, NO levels were higher in SA (38 (28-51) micromol/l) than in CM and UM (21 (15-32) micromol/l and 10.3 (5.6-17) micromol/l, respectively, P<0.001). A significant negative correlation between haptoglobin and NO was seen in the SA group. No such correlation was observed within the UM or CM groups. No significant differences in neopterin levels were observed between any of the three groups, neither was there any correlation between parasitaemias and neopterin levels. The low haptoglobin and high levels of NO in this SA group may contribute to haemolysis. Taken together our results support the hypothesis that immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction is involved in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia.
    Acta Tropica 09/2002; 83(2):133-40. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in serum were elevated in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria but showed decline following treatment. The levels of sCD30 in serum were correlated significantly with the expression of gamma interferon by peripheral T cells. These data suggest that CD30(+) cells are upregulated during a malaria attack and that they may play a regulating role at the site of inflammation.
    Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 06/2002; 9(3):720-2. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death of peripheral T cells during and after the period of antimalarial treatment. A high proportion of peripheral CD3+ cells had an activated phenotype at and shortly after time of admission (day 0) and initiation of therapy. This activation peaked around day 2, and at this time-point peripheral T cells from the patients could be induced to produce cytokines at conditions of limited cytokine response in cells from healthy control donors. Activated CD8hi and TCR-gammadelta+ cells were the primary IFN-gamma producers, whereas CD4+ cells constituted an important source of TNF-alpha. The proportion of apoptotic T cells was elevated at admission and peaked 2 days later, while susceptibility to activation-induced cell death in vitro remained increased for at least 1 week after admission. Taken together, the data are consistent with the concept of malaria-induced reallocation of activated T cells to sites of inflammation, followed by their release back into the peripheral blood where they undergo apoptotic death to re-establish immunological homeostasis as inflammation subsides. However, the high proportion of pre-apoptotic cells from the time of admission suggests that apoptosis also contributes to the low frequency and number of T cells in the peripheral circulation during active disease.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 02/2002; 127(1):151-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

730 Citations
160.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002–2005
    • Pasteur Institute of India
      Raj Nilgiri, Orissa, India
  • 1998–2002
    • Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
      • Department of Immunology
      Accra, Greater Accra Region, Ghana
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Centre for Medical Parasitology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1991–1998
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany