[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetate is activated to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (AceCS2), a mitochondrial enzyme. Here, we report that the activation of acetate by AceCS2 has a specific and unique role in thermogenesis during fasting. In the skeletal muscle of fasted AceCS2(-/-) mice, ATP levels were reduced by 50% compared to AceCS2(+/+) mice. Fasted AceCS2(-/-) mice were significantly hypothermic and had reduced exercise capacity. Furthermore, when fed a low-carbohydrate diet, 4-week-old weaned AceCS2(-/-) mice also exhibited hypothermia accompanied by sustained hypoglycemia that led to a 50% mortality. Therefore, AceCS2 plays a significant role in acetate oxidation needed to generate ATP and heat. Furthermore, AceCS2(-/-) mice exhibited increased oxygen consumption and reduced weight gain on a low-carbohydrate diet. Our findings demonstrate that activation of acetate by AceCS2 plays a pivotal role in thermogenesis, especially under low-glucose or ketogenic conditions, and is crucially required for survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia is a common feature of diabetes and is related to cardiovascular disease. The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. It binds and internalizes triglyceride-rich lipoproteins with high specificity. We examined the etiology of hyperlipidemia in the insulin-deficient state. VLDL-R expression in heart and skeletal muscle were measured in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. STZ rats showed severe hyperlipidemia on d 21 and 28, with a dramatic decline in VLDL-R protein in skeletal muscle (>90%), heart (approximately 50%) and a loss of adipose tissues itself on d 28. The reduction of VLDL-R protein in skeletal muscle could not be explained simply by a decrease at the transcriptional level, because a dissociation between VLDL-R protein and mRNA expression was observed. The expression of LDL-R and LDL-R-related protein in liver showed no consistent changes. Furthermore, no effect on VLDL-triglyceride production in liver was observed in STZ rats. A decrease in postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity started on d 7 and continued to d 28 at the 50% level even though severe hyperlipidemia was detected only on d 21 and 28. In rat myoblast cells, serum deprivation for 24 h induced a reduction in VLDL-R proteins. Insulin (10(-6) m), but not IGF-I (10 ng/ml), restored the decreased VLDL-R proteins by serum deprivation. These results suggest that the combination of VLDL-R deficiency and reduced plasma lipoprotein lipase activity may be responsible for severe hyperlipidemia in insulin-deficient diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (AceCS2) produces acetyl-CoA for oxidation through the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix. AceCS2 is highly expressed in the skeletal muscle and is robustly induced by fasting. Quantification of AceCS2 transcripts both in C2C12 and human myotubes indicated that fasting-induced AceCS2 gene expression appears to be independent on insulin action. Characterization of 5'-flanking region of the mouse AceCS2 gene demonstrates that Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) plays a key role in the trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene. Deletion and mutation analyses of AceCS2 promoter region revealed that the most proximal KLF site is a curtail site for the trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene by KLF15. Using Sp-null Drosophila SL2 cells, we showed that the combination of KLF15 and Sp1 resulted in a synergistic activation of the AceCS2 promoter. Mutation analyses of three GC-boxes in the AceCS2 promoter indicated that the GC-box, located 8 bases downstream of the most proximal KLF15 site, is the most important GC-box in the synergistic trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene by KLF15 and Sp1. GST pull-down assays showed that KLF15 interacts with Sp1 in vitro. Quantification of various KLF transcripts revealed that 48 h fasting robustly induced the KLF15 transcripts in the skeletal muscle. Together with the trans-activation of the AceCS2 promoter, it is suggested that fasting-induced AceCS2 expression is largely contributed by KLF15. Furthermore, KLF15 overexpression induced the levels of AceCS2 transcripts both in myoblasts and in myotubes, indicating that AceCS2 gene expression in vivo is indeed induced by KLF15.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(17):16954-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor is a member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that VLDL receptor binds triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins but not LDL, and functions as a peripheral remnant lipoprotein receptor. VLDL receptor is expressed abundantly in fatty acid-active tissues (heart, skeletal muscle and fat), the brain and macrophages. It is likely that VLDL receptor functions in concert with lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses TG in VLDL and chylomicron. In contrast to the LDL receptor, VLDL receptor binds apolipoprotein (apo) E2/2 VLDL particles as well as apoE3/3 VLDL, and the expression is not down-regulated by intracellular lipoproteins. Recently, various functions of the VLDL receptor have been reported in lipoprotein metabolism, metabolic syndrome/atherosclerosis, cardiac fatty acid metabolism, neuronal migration and angiogenesis/tumor growth. Gene therapy of VLDL receptor into the liver showed a benefit effect for lipoprotein metabolism in both LDL receptor knockout and apoE mutant mice. Beyond its function as a peripheral lipoprotein receptor, possibilities of its physiological function have been extended to include signal transduction, angiogenesis and tumor growth.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 02/2004; 11(4):200-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is a crucial role for binding and uptaking apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins, such as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL. The defect function of the LDLR causes familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the phenotype of which is elevated plasma cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, we characterize the role of the cysteine residue of the ligand-binding domain of the LDLR. The mutant LDLR protein of cysteine for serine at codon 25 (25S-LDLR) was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, ldl-A7. By Western blot analysis, the 25S-LDLR was detected with monoclonal antibody IgG-12D10, which reacts with the linker site of the LDLR but not with IgG-C7, which reacts with the NH2 terminus of the receptor. The 25S-LDLR bound LDL similarly to the wild-type LDLR, but the rate of uptake of LDL by the mutant receptor was only about half of that by the wild-type receptor. In contrast, the 25S-LDLR bound and internalized beta VLDL more avidly than LDL. These results suggest that the fourth cysteine residue of the first ligand-binding domain of the LDLR might be important for the internalization of atherogenic lipoproteins by vascular cells despite reduced LDL uptake, leading to atherosclerosis and premature cardiovascular disease.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2004; 49(11):622-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) receptor is a member of the LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptor family. The VLDL receptor binds apolipoprotein (apo) E but not apo B, and is expressed in fatty acid active tissues (heart, muscle, adipose) and macrophages abundantly. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) modulates the binding of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDL receptor. By the unique ligand specificity, VLDL receptor practically appeared to function as IDL (intermediate density lipoprotein) and chylomicron remnant receptor in peripheral tissues in concert with LPL. In contrast to LDL receptor, the VLDL receptor expression is not down regulated by lipoproteins. Recently several possible functions of the VLDL receptor have been reported in lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerosis, obesity/insulin resistance, cardiac fatty acid metabolism and neuronal migration. The gene therapy of VLDL receptor into the LDL receptor knockout mice liver showed a benefit effect for lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Further researches about the VLDL receptor function will be needed in the future.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 07/2003; 248(1-2):121-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) plays multiple roles, including embryonic development and bone accrual development. Recently, we demonstrated that LRP5 is also required for normal cholesterol metabolism and glucose-induced insulin secretion. To further define the role of LRP5 in the lipoprotein metabolism, we compared plasma lipoproteins in mice lacking LRP5, apolipoprotein E (apoE), or both (apoE;LRP5 double knockout). On a normal chow diet, the apoE;LRP5 double knockout mice (older than 4 months of age) had approximately 60% higher plasma cholesterol levels compared with the age-matched apoE knockout mice. In contrast, LRP5 deficiency alone had no significant effects on the plasma cholesterol levels. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of plasma lipoproteins revealed that cholesterol levels in the very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein fractions were markedly increased in the apoE;LRP5 double knockout mice. There were no apparent differences in the pattern of apoproteins between the apoE knockout mice and the apoE;LRP5 double knockout mice. The plasma clearance of intragastrically loaded triglyceride was markedly impaired by LRP5 deficiency. The atherosclerotic lesions of the apoE;LRP5 double knockout mice aged 6 months were approximately 3-fold greater than those in the age-matched apoE-knockout mice. Furthermore, histological examination revealed highly advanced atherosclerosis, with remarkable accumulation of foam cells and destruction of the internal elastic lamina in the apoE;LRP5 double knockout mice. These data suggest that LRP5 mediates both apoE-dependent and apoE-independent catabolism of plasma lipoproteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(13):11331-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By expression cloning using fluorescent-labeled high density lipoprotein (HDL), we isolated two clones that conferred the cell surface binding of HDL. Nucleotide sequence of the two clones revealed that one corresponds to scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SRBI) and the other encoded a novel protein with 228 amino acids. The primary structure of the newly identified HDL-binding protein resembles GPI-anchored proteins consisting of an N-terminal signal sequence, an acidic region with a cluster of aspartate and glutamate residues, an Ly-6 motif highly conserved among the lymphocyte antigen family, and a C-terminal hydrophobic region. This newly identified HDL-binding protein designated GPI-anchored HDL-binding protein 1 (GPI-HBP1), was susceptible to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment and binds HDL with high affinity (calculated K(d) = 2-3 microg/ml). Similar to SRBI, GPI-HBP1 mediates selective lipid uptake but not the protein component of HDL. Among various ligands for SRBI, HDL was most preferentially bound to GPI-HBP1. In contrast to SRBI, GPI-HBP1 lacked HDL-dependent cholesterol efflux. The GPI-HBP1 transcripts were detected with the highest levels in heart and, to a much lesser extent, in lung and liver. In situ hybridization revealed the accumulation of GPI-HBP1 transcripts in cardiac muscle cells, hepatic Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelium, and bronchial epithelium and alveolar macrophages in the lung.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(9):7344-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) plays an essential role in bone accrual and eye development. Here, we show that LRP5 is also required for normal cholesterol and glucose metabolism. The production of mice lacking LRP5 revealed that LRP5 deficiency led to increased plasma cholesterol levels in mice fed a high-fat diet, because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. In addition, when fed a normal diet, LRP5-deficient mice showed a markedly impaired glucose tolerance. The LRP5-deficient islets had a marked reduction in the levels of intracellular ATP and Ca(2+) in response to glucose, and thereby glucose-induced insulin secretion was decreased. The intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production in response to glucose was also reduced in LRP5-- islets. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked reduction of various transcripts for genes involved in glucose sensing in LRP5-- islets. Furthermore, exposure of LRP5++ islets to Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion and this stimulation was blocked by the addition of a soluble form of Wnt receptor, secreted Frizzled-related protein-1. In contrast, LRP5-deficient islets lacked the Wnt-3a-stimulated insulin secretion. These data suggest that WntLRP5 signaling contributes to the glucose-induced insulin secretion in the islets.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2003; 100(1):229-34. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) receptor is a peripheral lipoprotein receptor expressing in fatty acid active tissues abundantly. In the Balb/c fasting mice, VLDL receptor as well as LPL (lipoprotein lipase), FAT (fatty acid translocase)/CD36, H-FABP (heart-type fatty acid-binding protein), ACS (acyl-CoA synthetase) and LCAD (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) expressions increased. An electron microscopic examination indicated the lipid droplets that accumulated in the hearts of fasting Balb/c mice. During the development of SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats, VLDL receptor, LPL, FAT/CD36, H-FABP, ACS, and LCAD mRNAs concomitantly increased with growth. However, PK (pyruvate kinase) mRNA expression was negligible. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, VLDL receptor expression increased with days in culture. Oil red-O staining showed that cardiomyocytes after 7 days in culture (when the VLDL receptor protein is present) accumulated beta-migrating VLDL. Thereby, we showed that the cardiac VLDL receptor pathway for delivery of remnant lipoprotein particles might be part of a cardiac fatty acid metabolism.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2002; 293(3):1007-13. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified and characterized two murine cDNAs encoding medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (MACS). One, designated MACS1, is a novel protein and the other the product of the Sa gene (Sa protein), which is preferentially expressed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Based on the murine MACS1 sequence, we also identified the location and organization of the human MACS1 gene, showing that the human MACS1 and Sa genes are located in the opposite transcriptional direction within a 150-kilobase region on chromosome 16p13.1. Murine MACS1 and Sa protein were overexpressed in COS cells, purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Among C4-C16 fatty acids, MACS1 preferentially utilizes octanoate, whereas isobutyrate is the most preferred fatty acid among C2-C6 fatty acids for Sa protein. Like Sa gene transcript, MACS1 mRNA was detected mainly in the liver and kidney. Subcellular fractionation revealed that both MACS1 and Sa protein are localized in the mitochondrial matrix. (14)C-Fatty acid incorporation studies indicated that acyl-CoAs produced by MACS1 and Sa protein are utilized mainly for oxidation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2001; 276(38):35961-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACS4) is an arachidonate-preferring enzyme abundant in steroidogenic tissues. We demonstrate that ACS4 expression in steroidogenic tissues in vivo is induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and suppressed by glucocorticoid. ACTH also induced ACS4 protein but not its mRNA in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells, whereas both ACS4 mRNA and protein were increased by dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) and forskolin. Furthermore, the levels of ACS4 mRNA and protein in Y1 cells were induced by arachidonate. These data suggest that ACS4 expression in steroidogenic cells is regulated in coordination with induced steroidogenesis and arachidonate released by cholesterol ester hydrolase.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2000; 274(3):741-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isolation and characterization of rabbit and human cDNAs revealed a new low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) designated as LRP5. Human LRP5 cDNA encodes a 1, 616-amino acid type I membrane-like protein with three ligand binding repeats in its extracellular region. LDLR-deficient cells transduced by recombinant adenovirus containing human LRP5 exhibited increased binding of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-enriched beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization revealed a high level of LRP5 expression in hepatocytes and the adrenal gland cortex. In LDLR-deficient Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, LRP5 mRNA was increased in the liver and accumulated in cholesterol-laden foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions.
Journal of Biochemistry 01/1999; 124(6):1072-6. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two types of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), designated ACS1 and ACS2, are structurally similar isozymes with different tissue distributions. The two enzymes are organized into the following five regions: an NH2 terminus; two luciferase-like regions; a linker connecting the luciferase-like regions; a COOH terminus. Under the control of a lac promoter, rat ACS1 and ACS2 were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The specific activities of the purified ACS1 and ACS2 were 26.2 mumol.min-1.mg-1 and 7.4 mumol.min-1.mg-1, respectively, and the most efficiently utilized saturated fatty acids were those with 10-18 carbon atoms. Among unsaturated fatty acids with 16-22 carbon atoms, the most preferred substrates were palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate for ACS1, and, for ACS2, oleate, arachidonate, eicosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate. To determine the functionally important regions in the ACS isozymes, we constructed five ACS1 mutants lacking each of the five regions. Introduction of these mutants into E. coli revealed that all five regions in ACS1 are required for functional expression of the enzyme in E. coli; deletion of any one of the five regions almost completely abolished the enzyme activity.
European Journal of Biochemistry 01/1997; 242(2):186-90. · 3.58 Impact Factor