[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major skin burns are difficult to treat. Patients often require special care and long-term hospitalization. Besides specific complications associated with the wounds themselves, there may be impairment of the immune system and of other organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a recent therapeutic alternative to treat burns, mainly aiming to accelerate the healing process. Several MSC properties favor their use as therapeutic approach, as they promote angiogenesis, stimulate regeneration and enhance the immunoregulatory function. Moreover, since patients with extensive burns require urgent treatment and because the expansion of autologous MSCs is a timeconsuming process, in this present study we chose to evaluate the therapeutic potential of xenogeneic MSCs in the treatment of severe burns in rats. MSCs were isolated from mouse bone marrows, expanded in vitro and intradermally injected in the periphery of burn wounds. MSC-treated rats presented higher survival rates [76.19%] than control animals treated with PBS [60.86%](P<0.05). In addition, 60 days after the thermal injury, the MSC-treated group showed larger proportion of healed areas within the burn wounds [90.81% ± 5.05] than the PBS-treated group [76.11% ± 3.46](P = 0.03). We also observed that T CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in spleens and in damaged skins, as well as the percentage of neutrophils in the burned area, were modulated by MSC treatment. Plasma cytokine (TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6 and CINC-1) levels were also altered in the MSC-treated rats, when compared to controls. Number of injected GFP+ MSCs progressively decreased over time, and sixty days after injections, few MSCs were still detected in the skins of treated animals. This study demonstrates the therapeutic effectiveness of intradermal application of MSCs in a rat model of deep burns, providing basis for future regenerative therapies in patients suffering from deep burn injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple infusions of allogeneic MSCs on glucose homeostasis and morphometry of pancreatic islets in high- fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Swiss mice were fed standard diet (C group) or HFD (HFD group). After 8 weeks, animals of HFD group received sterile phosphate-buffered saline infusions (HFD-PBS) or four infusions of MSCs one week apart (HFD-MSCs). Fasting glycemia (FG) was determined weekly and glucose (GTT) and insulin (ITT) tolerance tests were performed 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the infusions of MSCs. The MSCs transplanted mice were classified as responder (FG < 180 mg/dL, 72.2% of transplanted mice) or non-responder (FG > 180mg/dL, 28.8%) Seven weeks after MSCs infusions, FG decreased in HFD-MSCs responder mice compared with the HFD-PBS group. Sixteen weeks post MSCs infusions, GTT and ITT areas under the curve (AUC) decreased in HFD-MSCs responder mice compared to HFD-PBS group. Serum insulin concentration was higher in HFD-PBS group than in control animals and was not different compared with the other groups. The relative volume of α-cells was significantly smaller in HFD-PBS group than in C group and significantly higher in HFD-MSCs-NR than in HFD-PBS and HFD-MSCs-R groups. Cell apoptosis in the islets was higher in HFD-PBS group than in C group, and lower in HFD-MSCs responder mice than in HFD-PBS group and non-responder animals. The results demonstrate the ability of multiple infusions of MSCs to promote prolonged decrease in hyperglycemia and apoptosis in pancreatic islets and increase in insulin sensitivity in HFD fed mice.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0124369. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124369 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the ability to express and secrete a wide range of immunomodulatory molecules, cytokines, growth factors and antiapoptotic proteins. MSCs modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses making them potential candidates for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, one problem frequently associated with the systemic MSCs administration is the entrapment of the cells mainly in the lungs. In this sense, trying to avoid the lung barrier, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term therapeutic efficacy and biodistribution of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) injected via two different delivery routes (intrasplenic/I.Sp and intrapancreatic/I.Pc) in a murine model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ).
Experimental diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by multiple low-doses of STZ. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue (ADMSCs) of Balb/c mice. A single dose of 1x10(6) ADMSCs was microinjected into the spleen or into the pancreas of diabetic mice. Control group received injection of PBS by I.Sp or I.Pc delivery routes. Glycemia, peripheral glucose response, insulin-producing β cell mass, regulatory T cell population, cytokine profile and cell biodistribution were evaluated after ADMSCs/PBS administration.
ADMSCs injected by both delivery routes were able to decrease blood glucose levels and improve glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. ADMSCs injected by I.Sp route reverted hyperglycemia in 70% of diabetic treated mice, stimulating insulin production by pancreatic β cells. Using the I.Pc delivery route, 42% of ADMSCs-treated mice responded to the therapy. Regulatory T cell population remained unchanged after ADMSCs administration but pancreatic TGF-β levels were increased in ADMSCs/I.Sp-treated mice. ADMSCs administrated by I.Sp route were retained in the spleen and in the liver and ADMSCs injected by I.Pc route remained in the pancreas. However, ADMSCs injected by these delivery routes remained only few days in the recipients.
Considering the potential role of MSCs in the treatment of several disorders, this study reports alternative delivery routes that circumvent cell entrapment into the lungs promoting beneficial therapeutic responses in ADMSCs-treated diabetic mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) has been experimented as a treatment in patients affected by severe forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) who failed to respond to standard immunotherapy. The rationale of AHSCT is to "reboot" the immune system and reconstitute a new adaptive immunity. The aim of our study was to identify through a robust and unbiased transcriptomic analysis any changes of gene expression in T cells potentially underlying the treatment effect in patients who underwent non-myeloablative AHSCT for treatment of MS. We evaluated by microarray DNA-chip technology the gene expression of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets sorted from patients with MS patients before AHSCT, at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after AHSCT and from healthy control subjects. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that reconstituted CD8+ T cells of MS patients at 2 years post-transplantation aggregated together with healthy controls, suggesting a normalization of gene expression in CD8+ cells post-therapy. When we compared the gene expression in MS patients before and after therapy we detected a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in both CD8+ and CD4+ T cell subsets at all time-points after transplantation. We catalogued the biological function of DEG and we selected 27 genes known to be involved in immune function for accurate quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR. The analysis confirmed and extended with quantitative data a number of significant changes in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subsets from MS post-transplant. Notably, CD8+ T cells revealed more extensive changes in the expression of genes involved in effector immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered orally to patients receiving a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-six patients treated with oral busulfan (1 mg/kg/6 h for 4 days) were divided into two groups according to the concomitant administration of fludarabine (n = 11; 30 mg/m(2) for 5 days) or subsequent administration of cyclophosphamide (n = 15; 60 mg/kg for 2 days). Serial blood samples were collected on Day 4 of busulfan administration. Plasma busulfan concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the WinNonlin program. Patients concomitantly treated with fludarabine showed reduced apparent clearance of busulfan (110.5 mL/h/kg vs. 157.4 mL/h/kg) and higher AUC0-6 (area under the plasma concentrations vs. time curve) than patients subsequently treated with cyclophosphamide (7.9 µg h/mL vs. 5.7 µg h/mL). No association was observed between busulfan AUC0-6 and clinical evolution of the patients. Although plasma busulfan concentrations were higher in patients receiving concomitant fludarabine, myelosuppression-related toxicity was less frequent than in patients treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest that patients treated with fludarabine should receive 30% lower busulfan doses during conditioning protocols for HSCT.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2013; 53(11). DOI:10.1002/jcph.130 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under many circumstances, the host constituents that are found in the tumor microenvironment support a malignancy network and provide the cancer cells with advantages in proliferation, invasiveness and metastasis establishment at remote organs. It is known that Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed not only on immune cells but also on cancer cells and it has suggested a deleterious role for TLR3 in inflammatory disease. Hypothesizing that altered IFNγ signaling may be a key mechanism of immune dysfunction common to cancer as well CXCR4 is overexpressed among breast cancer patients, the mRNA expression of TLR3, CXCR4 and IFNγ in breast cancer tumor tissues was investigated. No statistically significant differences in the expression of CXCR4 mRNA, IFNγ and TLR3 between healthy and tumor tissues was observed, however, it was verified a positive correlation between mRNA relative expression of TLR3 and CXCR4 (p < 0.001), and mRNA relative expression of TLR3 was significantly increased in breast cancer tumor tissue when compared to healthy mammary gland tissue among patients expressing high IFNγ (p = 0.001). Since the tumor microenvironment plays important roles in cancer initiation, growth, progression, invasion and metastasis, it is possible to propose that an overexpression of IFNγ mRNA due to the pro-inflammatory microenvironment can lead to an up-regulation of CXCR4 mRNA and consequently to an increased TLR3 mRNA expression even among nodal negative patients. In the future, a comprehensive study of TLR3, CXCR4 and IFNγ axis in primary breast tumors and corresponding healthy tissues will be crucial to further understanding of the cancer network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron death, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death usually within 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. Most cases are sporadic, with still undefined etiopathogenesis. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in ALS, with special participation of T lymphocytes and microglia. Inflammation plays a dual role in the disease, protective and T regulatory cell rich in the early stages and deleterious as disease progresses. Attempts to modulate immune/inflammatory system response are reported in the literature, and while beneficial effects are achieved in ALS animal models, results of most clinical trials have been disappointing. The impaired blood–brain barrier is an important feature in the pathogenesis of ALS and likely affects the immune system response. The present review describes the role of the immune system in ALS pathogenesis and the tight coupling of immunity and central nervous system barrier function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with a complicated and poorly understood pathogenesis. Strong evidence indicates impairment of all neurovascular unit components including the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB/BSCB) in both patients and animal models. The present review provides an updated analysis of the microvascular pathology and impaired BBB/BSCB in ALS. Based on experimental and clinical ALS studies, the roles of cellular components, cell interactions, tight junctions, transport systems, cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and free radicals in the BBB/BSCB disruption are discussed. The impact of BBB/BSCB damage in ALS pathogenesis is a novel research topic, and this review will reveal some aspects of microvascular pathology involved in the disease and hopefully engender new therapeutic approaches.
International Review of Neurobiology 07/2012; 102:91-106. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-386986-9.00004-1 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce the conversion of activated T cells into regulatory T cells in vitro. The marker CD69 is a target of canonical nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signalling and is transiently expressed upon activation; however, stable CD69 expression defines cells with immunoregulatory properties. Given its enormous therapeutic potential, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of regulatory cells by MSCs. Peripheral blood CD3+ T cells were activated and cultured in the presence or absence of MSCs. CD4+ cell mRNA expression was then characterized by microarray analysis. The drug BAY11-7082 (BAY) and a siRNA against v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B (RELB) were used to explore the differential roles of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signalling, respectively. Flow cytometry and real-time PCR were used for analyses. Genes with immunoregulatory functions, CD69 and non-canonical NF-κB subunits (RELB and NFKB2) were all expressed at higher levels in lymphocytes co-cultured with MSCs. The frequency of CD69+ cells among lymphocytes cultured alone progressively decreased after activation. In contrast, the frequency of CD69+ cells increased significantly following activation in lymphocytes co-cultured with MSCs. Inhibition of canonical NF-κB signalling by BAY immediately following activation blocked the induction of CD69; however, inhibition of canonical NF-κB signalling on the third day further induced the expression of CD69. Furthermore, late expression of CD69 was inhibited by RELB siRNA. These results indicate that the canonical NF-κB pathway controls the early expression of CD69 after activation; however, in an immunoregulatory context, late and sustained CD69 expression is promoted by the non-canonical pathway and is inhibited by canonical NF-κB signalling.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 05/2012; 16(6):1232 - 1244. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01391.x · 4.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A balance between proinflammatory (Th17 and Tc17) and anti-inflammatory (regulatory T cells) subsets of T cells is essential to maintain immunological tolerance and prevent the onset of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. However, the kinetics of these subsets and disease severity during the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes course has not been determined. Thus, susceptible C57BL/6 mice were administrated with multiple low doses of STZ and we evaluated the frequency/absolute number of these T cell subsets in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) and spleen and Th1, Th17, Treg cytokine production in the pancreatic tissue. At different time points of the disease progression (6, 11, 18 and 25 days after the last STZ administration), the histopathological alterations were also evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. During the initial phase of diabetes development (day 6), we noted increased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in spleen and PLNs. At the same time, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in PLNs were also enhanced. In addition, the early augment of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumoral necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-17 levels in pancreatic tissue correlated with pancreatic islet inflammation and mild β-cell damage. Notably, the absolute number of Treg cells increased in PLNs during over time when compared to control group. Interestingly, increased IL-10 levels were associated with control of the inflammatory process during the late phase of the type 1 diabetes (day 25). In agreement, mice lacking the expression of IL-17 receptor (Il17r) showed impairment in STZ-induced diabetes progression, reduced peri-insulitis and beta cells preservation when compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that dynamic changes of pathogenic Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell subsets numbers is associated with early strong inflammation in the pancreatic islets followed by late regulatory profile during the experimental STZ-induced diabetes course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main current therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are aimed at controlling the exacerbated inflammation in the gut. Although these therapies have been successful, they are not curative and it is not possible to predict whether a beneficial response will occur or which patients will be refractory to the treatment. Total body irradiation (TBI) associated with chemotherapy is the first choice in the treatment of some hematological disorders and is an applicable option in the preparation of patients with hematologic diseases for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Then, in this study we investigated the association of TBI as immunosuppressive therapy and bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation as a strategy to induce colitis recovery and immune reconstitution in the TNBS model of intestinal inflammation. TNBS mice treated with TBI associated with BMC transplantation presented elevated gain of weight and an overall better outcome of the disease when compared to those treated only with TBI. In addition, TBI associated or not with BMC reduced the frequency of inflammatory cells in the gut and restored the goblet cell counts. These results were accompanied by a down regulation in the production of inflammatory cytokines in the colon of mice treated with TBI alone or in association with BMC transplantation. The BMC infused were able to repopulate the ablated immune system and accumulate in the site of inflammation. However, although both treatments (TBI or TBI+BMC) were able to reduce gut inflammation, TBI alone was not enough to fully restore mice weight and these animals presented an extremely reduced survival rate when their immune system was not promptly reconstituted with BMC transplantation. Finally, these evidences suggest that the BMC transplantation is an efficient strategy to reduce the harmful effects of TBI in the colitis treatment, suggesting that radiotherapy may be an important immunosuppressive therapy in patients with IBD, by modulating the local inflammatory response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of long-term disability in the United
States. Most patients, excluded from the available treatment with plasminogen activator (tPA), present permanent neurological
impairment and may benefit from restorative treatments with stem cells. Inflammation is a key feature in stroke and it plays
a dual role, either increasing injury in early phases or impairing neural survival at later stages. Stem cells can be opportunely
used to modulate inflammation, abrogate cell death and, therefore, preserve neural function. To date, there is no consensus
about the most adequate cell type, route of delivery or timing for transplantation, as experimental and clinical studies are
still inconclusive. Menstrual blood stem cells have been recently studied for their availability, proliferative capacity,
pluripotentiality and angiogenic features, which make them a relevant resource for the treatment of stroke.
KeywordsCerebrovascular diseases-Plasminogen activator-Neutrophils-Central nervous system (CNS)-Stem cell-Endometrium
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research aimed to analyze the quality of life of patients submitted to Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation (HSCT). The sample consisted of 12 patients submitted to HSCT within a maximum period of 100 days preceding the research, in an average of 96 days. The quality of life scale SF-36 and the specific Bone Marrow Transplantation functionality scale (FACT-BMT) were used. The procedure of analysis was started by listing/coding and data classification made by two judges, psychologists with expertise in psychological assessment, independently. On the SF-36, it was found that most quality of life domains were preserved, except for Physical Aspects. The commitment of the Physical Aspect domain may be associated with the implications inherent in the HSCT itself. Professional teams should pay special attention to these results when planning intervention strategies, considering patients’ singularity and the effects of HSCT on their quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell therapy has been established as an important field of research with considerable progress in the last years. At the same time, the progressive aging of the population has highlighted the importance of discovering therapeutic alternatives for diseases of high incidence and disability, such as stroke. Menstrual blood is a recently discovered source of stem cells with potential relevance for the treatment of stroke. Migration to the infarct site, modulation of the inflammatory reaction, secretion of neurotrophic factors, and possible differentiation warrant these cells as therapeutic tools. We here propose the use of autologous menstrual blood cells in the restorative treatment of the subacute phase of stroke. We highlight the availability, proliferative capacity, pluripotency, and angiogenic features of these cells and explore their mechanistic pathways of repair. Practical aspects of clinical application of menstrual blood cells for stroke will be discussed, from cell harvesting and cryopreservation to administration to the patient.
BioMed Research International 11/2011; 2011(3):194720. DOI:10.1155/2011/194720 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, we present (1) a brief discussion of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe and refractory autoimmune diseases (AIDs) from its beginning in 1996 through recently initiated prospective randomized clinical trials; (2) an update (up to July 2009) of clinical and laboratory outcomes of 23 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), who underwent autologous HSCT at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil; (3) a discussion of possible mechanisms of action of HSCT in AIDs, including preliminary laboratory data obtained from our patients; and (4) a discussion of future perspectives of stem cell therapy for T1DM and type 2 DM, including the use of stem cell sources other than adult bone marrow and the combination of cell therapy with regenerative compounds.
Kidney International Supplements 09/2011; 1(3):94-98. DOI:10.1038/kisup.2011.22 · 10.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research aimed to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing allogeneic, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, comparing the pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation phase with the phase of protective isolation in the ward and theimmediate post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The sample comprised seven patients (four men and three women) who were submitted to this procedure in the first half of 2008. For the data collection, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used and individually applied in face-to-face situations. The comparison between mean data collected in the pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation phase and in the ward revealed a statistically significant difference in Functional Capacity (p=0.022) and Pain (p=0.036). When comparing the ward and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation phases, a significant difference in General Health (p=0.036) was clearly shown. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation variables. Thus, when comparing the three transplantation phases, it was found that the quality of life diminished during protective confinement in the ward, followed by the recovery of the evaluated aspects.
Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) 06/2011; 28(2):187-197. DOI:10.1590/S0103-166X2011000200006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of chemokines has been extensively analyzed both in cancer risk and tumor progression. Among different cytokines, CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 have been recently subjected to a closer examination. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 (previously known as CXCL12-A/SDF1-3'A) in the CXCL12 gene and the relative expression of mRNA CXCL12 in peripheral blood were assessed in breast cancer patients, since the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 regulate leukocyte trafficking and many essential biological processes, including tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis of different types of tumors. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism) using MspI restriction enzyme and the expression analyses by quantitative RT-PCR. No difference in GG genotype and allele A carrier frequencies were observed between breast cancer patients and healthy blood donors and nor when CXCL12 mRNA expression was assessed among patients with different tumor stages. However a significant difference was observed when CXCL12 mRNA relative expression was analyzed in breast cancer patients in accordance to the presence or absence of the CXCL12 rs1801157 allele A. Allele A breast cancer patients presented a mRNA CXCL12 expression about 2.1-fold smaller than GG breast cancer patients. Estrogen positive patients presenting CXCL12 allele A presented a significantly lower expression of CXCL12 in peripheral blood (p=0.039) than GG hormone positive patients. Our findings demonstrated that allele A is associated with low expression of CXCL12 in the peripheral blood from ER-positive breast cancer patients, which suggests implications on breast cancer clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the short-term (10 months) safety of a single intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or cone-rod dystrophy.
A prospective, Phase I, nonrandomized, open-label study including 3 patients with retinitis pigmentosa and 2 patients with cone-rod dystrophy and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Evaluations including best-corrected visual acuity, full-field electroretinography, kinetic visual field (Goldman), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline and 1, 7, 13, 18, 22, and 40 weeks after intravitreal injection of 10 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (0.1 mL) into 1 study eye of each patient.
No adverse event associated with the injection was observed. A 1-line improvement in best-corrected visual acuity was measured in 4 patients 1 week after injection and was maintained throughout follow-up. Three patients showed undetectable electroretinography responses at all study visits, while 1 patient demonstrated residual responses for dark-adapted standard flash stimulus (a wave amplitude approximately 35 μV), which remained recordable throughout follow-up, and 1 patient showed a small response (a wave amplitude approximately 20 μV) recordable only at Weeks 7, 13, 22, and 40. Visual fields showed no reduction (with a Goldman Standard V5e stimulus) for any patient at any visit. No other changes were observed on optical coherence tomography or fluorescein and indocyanine green angiograms.
Intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in eyes with advanced retinitis pigmentosa or cone-rod dystrophy was associated with no detectable structural or functional toxicity over a period of 10 months. Further studies are required to investigate the role, if any, of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy in the management of retinal dystrophies.