[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical synthesis of the deuterium isotope, desmosine-d4, has been achieved. This isotopic compound possesses all four deuterium atoms at the alkanyl carbons of the alkyl amino acid substitution in the desmosine molecule and is stable toward acid hydrolysis, this is required in the measurement of two crosslinking molecules, desmosine and isodesmosine, as biomarkers of elastic tissue degradation. The degradation of elastin occurs in several widely prevalent diseases. The synthesized desmosine-d4 is used as the internal standard to develop an accurate and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis which can serve as a generalized method for an accurate analysis of desmosine and isodesmosine as biomarkers in many types of biological tissues involving elastin degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin protein (AAT) augmentation is a prescribed therapy for severe, genetically determined, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), a genetic basis for pulmonary emphysema. AAT, a predominant systemic inhibitor of neutrophil elastase thus far has not been shown to decrease elastin degradation in a significant number of patients on this therapy. The objective of this study was to compare levels of biomarkers of elastin degradation in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) fluid and urine before and after beginning AAT augmentation therapy in patients with AATD. Methods: Desmosine and isodesmosine (DI), which occur only in elastin, are amino acid cross-links in mature elastin. Levels of DI in body fluids measure degradation of elastin and can be measured more specifically by mass spectrometry. This method was used to measure DI levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and urine in cohorts of severe AATD patients on augmentation, not on augmentation and before and after the initiation of augmentation therapy. Results: Statistically significant reductions in plasma DI and in BALF DI were demonstrated in AATD patients receiving intravenous (IV) augmentation therapy as compared with those not receiving it. Administration by aerosol also produced statistically significant reductions in levels of DI in BALF. Conclusions: Results indicate that the currently prescribed doses of AAT augmentation inhibit neutrophil elastase adequately to reduce elastin degradation, both systemically and in the lung per se. The currently prescribed doses did not reduce elastin degradation to control levels, which may be possible with higher doses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and tobacco smoking are confirmed risk factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We hypothesized that variable DNA methylation would be associated with smoking and inflammation, as reflected by the level of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in AAT-deficient subjects. Methylation levels of 1,411 autosomal CpG sites from the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I were analyzed in 316 subjects. Associations of five smoking behaviors and CRP levels with individual CpG sites and average methylation levels were assessed using non-parametric testing, linear regression and linear mixed effect models, with and without adjustment for age and gender. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that methylation levels of 16 CpG sites significantly associated with ever-smoking status. A CpG site in the TGFBI gene was the only site associated with ever-smoking after adjustment for age and gender. No highly significant associations existed between age at smoking initiation, pack-years smoked, duration of smoking, and time since quitting smoking as predictors of individual CpG site methylation levels. However, ever-smoking and younger age at smoking initiation associated with lower methylation level averaged across all sites. DNA methylation at CpG sites in the RUNX3, JAK3 and KRT1 genes associated with CRP levels. The most significantly associated CpG sites with gender and age mapped to the CASP6 and FZD9 genes, respectively. In summary, this study identified multiple potential candidate CpG sites associated with ever-smoking and CRP level in AAT-deficient subjects. Phenotypic variability in Mendelian diseases may be due to epigenetic factors.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 07/2012; 7(7):720-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.
The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.
Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.
IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
Respiratory research 02/2012; 13:16. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem worldwide and is now the third leading cause of death in the United States. There is a lack of therapies that can stop progression of the disease and improve survival. New drug discovery can be aided by the development of biomarkers, which can act as indicators of severity in the course of the disease and responses to therapy. This perspective brings together the laboratory and clinical evidence, which suggest that elastin degradation products can fulfill the need for such a biomarker. Elastin is a recognized target for injury in COPD. The amino acids desmosine and isodesmosine exist only in matrix elastin; can be measured specifically and sensitively in plasma, urine, and sputum; and indicate changes in the systemic balance between elastase activity and elastase inhibition brought on by the systemic inflammatory state. The biomarker levels in sputum reflect the state of elastin degradation in the lung specifically. Clinical data accumulated over several decades indicate correlations of desmosine and isodesmosine levels with COPD of varying severity and responses to therapy.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2011; 184(6):637-41. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a standardized LC-MS/MS method for accurate measurement of desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDS) in all body fluids as biomarkers for in vivo degradation of matrix tissue elastin in man and animals. A reproducible three-step analytical procedure: (1) sample hydrolysis in 6N HCl, (2) SPE by a CF1 cartridge with addition of acetylated pyridinoline as internal standard (IS), and (3) LC/MSMS analysis by SRM monitoring of transition ions; DES or IDS (m/z 526-481+397) and IS (m/z 471-128) was developed. The method achieves accurate measurements of DES/IDS in accessible body fluids (i.e. urine, plasma, and sputum). LOQ of DES/IDS in body fluids is 0.1 ng/ml. The % recoveries and reproducibility from urine, plasma, and sputum samples are above 99 ± 8% (n = 3), 94 ± 9% (n = 3) and 87 ± 11% (n = 3), with imprecision 8%, 9% and 10%, respectively. The proposed method was applied to measure DES/IDS in body fluids of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls. Total DES/IDS in sputum and plasma is increased over normal controls along with the free DES/IDS in urine in patients. DES/IDS can be used to study the course of COPD and the response to therapy. This practical and reliable LC-MS/MS method is proposed as a standardized method to measure DES and IDS in body fluids. This method can have wide application for investigating diseases which involve elastic tissue degradation.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 07/2011; 879(21):1893-8. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor in the development of COPD. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a known risk factor in asthma, bronchitis, and coronary artery disease. Elastin is a recognized target for injury in COPD, and the amino acids desmosine and isodesmosine (D/I), which are specific for elastin degradation, are elevated in COPD. This study determined whether exposure to SHS affects elastin degradation in asymptomatic individuals.
Two cohorts of asymptomatic individuals without evidence of respiratory or circulatory disease, exposed to SHS, were studied. Both cohorts comprised normal nonsmokers, active smokers, and those exposed to SHS. D/I were measured in plasma and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry by published methods. Plasma cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, was also measured.
In each cohort, the levels of D/I in plasma were statistically significantly higher in secondhand-smoke-exposed subjects than in the normal nonexposed subjects. Smokers had the highest levels of D/I but their levels were not statistically significantly higher than those of the secondhand-smoke-exposed. Cotinine levels were elevated in secondhand-smoke-exposed subjects and active smokers but not in most nonsmoking control subjects.
Results indicate a tissue matrix effect of degradation of body elastin from SHS exposure and possible lung structure injury, which may result in COPD. Long-term studies of individuals exposed to SHS for the development of COPD are warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerosolized hyaluronan (HA) has been previously shown to prevent cigarette smoke-induced airspace enlargement and elastic fiber injury in mice when given concurrently with smoke. In the present study, a more stringent test of the therapeutic potential of HA was performed by delaying treatment with this agent for 1 month. After treatment with cigarette smoke for 3 h per day for 5 days per week for 1 month, mice (DBA/2J) began receiving aerosolized HA (0.1%) for 1 h prior to smoke exposure (controls were given aerosolized water). The results indicate that much of the damage to the lung elastic fibers occurred within the first several months of smoke exposure, as measured by levels of desmosine and isodesmosine (DID) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In contrast to previously published studies, where concurrent administration of aerosolized HA significantly reduced BALF DID levels within 3 months of smoke exposure, the same effect was not seen until 6 months when HA treatment was delayed. However, despite the prolonged breakdown of elastic fibers in the current study, a significant reduction in airspace enlargement was observed after only 2 months of HA treatment. These findings provide further support for testing this agent in patients with pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 02/2011; 189(1):51-6. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presents a method for detecting and characterizing peptides of elastin that result from lung matrix injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung elastin degradation was studied by two representative in vivo elastases, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and macrophage metalloproteinase (MMP12). The resulting peptide mixtures were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS) to characterize 40 elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), 24 from HNE and 16 from MMP12 digestions. The peptides constitute major EDPs that are solubilized by the enzymatic digestion. Using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) from LC/MSMS analysis, the transition ions of the peptides were used to investigate the presence of the peptides in selected body fluids of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Four peptides, GYPI, APGVGV, GLGAFPA, and VGVLPGVPT, were detected in plasma or sputum of some COPD patients but not in normal controls. A hexapeptide VGVAPG, which had been widely studied for its chemotactic activity for a possible pathogenic role in COPD, was not detected in lung EDPs by HNE or MMP12 digestion, but only by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) digestion. This study demonstrates a practical methodology to study peptides from matrix degradations in pulmonary disease and a means of investigating their pathogenesis.
Experimental Lung Research 11/2010; 36(9):548-57. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by low blood levels of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha₁-PI) and may lead to emphysema. Alpha₁-PI protects pulmonary tissue from damage caused by the action of proteolytic enzymes. Augmentation therapy with Prolastin® (Alpha₁-Proteinase Inhibitor [Human]) to increase the levels of alpha₁-PI has been used to treat individuals with AAT deficiency for over 20 years. Modifications to the Prolastin manufacturing process, incorporating additional purification and pathogen-reduction steps, have led to the development of an alpha₁-PI product, designated Prolastin®-C (Alpha₁-Proteinase inhibitor [Human]). The pharmacokinetic comparability of Prolastin-C to Prolastin was assessed in subjects with AAT deficiency.
In total, 24 subjects were randomized to receive 60 mg/kg of functionally active Prolastin-C or Prolastin by weekly intravenous infusion for 8 weeks before crossover to the alternate treatment for another 8 weeks. Pharmacokinetic plasma samples were drawn over 7 days following last dose in the first treatment period and over 10 days following the last dose in the second period. The primary end point for pharmacokinetic comparability was area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over 7 days post dose (AUC₀₋₇ (days)) of alpha₁-PI determined by potency (functional activity) assay. The crossover phase was followed by an 8-week open-label treatment phase with Prolastin-C only.
Mean AUC₀₋₇ (days) was 155.9 versus 152.4 mg*h/mL for Prolastin-C and Prolastin, respectively. The geometric least squares mean ratio of AUC₀₋₇ (days) for Prolastin-C versus Prolastin had a point estimate of 1.03 and a 90% confidence interval of 0.97-1.09, demonstrating pharmacokinetic equivalence between the 2 products. Adverse events were similar for both treatments and occurred at a rate of 0.117 and 0.078 per infusion for Prolastin-C (double-blind treatment phase only) and Prolastin, respectively (p = 0.744). There were no treatment-emergent viral infections in any subject for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or C, or parvovirus B19 during the course of the study.
Prolastin-C demonstrated pharmacokinetic equivalence and a comparable safety profile to Prolastin.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00295061.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by low blood levels of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) and may lead to emphysema. Alpha1-PI protects pulmonary tissue from damage caused by the action of proteolytic enzymes. Augmentation therapy with Prolastin® (Alpha1-Proteinase Inhibitor [Human]) to increase the levels of alpha1-PI has been used to treat individuals with AAT deficiency for over 20 years. Modifications to the Prolastin manufacturing process, incorporating additional purification and pathogen-reduction steps, have led to the development of an alpha1-PI product, designated Prolastin®-C (Alpha1-Proteinase inhibitor [Human]). The pharmacokinetic comparability of Prolastin-C to Prolastin was assessed in subjects with AAT deficiency. Methods In total, 24 subjects were randomized to receive 60 mg/kg of functionally active Prolastin-C or Prolastin by weekly intravenous infusion for 8 weeks before crossover to the alternate treatment for another 8 weeks. Pharmacokinetic plasma samples were drawn over 7 days following last dose in the first treatment period and over 10 days following the last dose in the second period. The primary end point for pharmacokinetic comparability was area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over 7 days post dose (AUC0-7 days) of alpha1-PI determined by potency (functional activity) assay. The crossover phase was followed by an 8-week open-label treatment phase with Prolastin-C only. Results Mean AUC0-7 days was 155.9 versus 152.4 mg*h/mL for Prolastin-C and Prolastin, respectively. The geometric least squares mean ratio of AUC0-7 days for Prolastin-C versus Prolastin had a point estimate of 1.03 and a 90% confidence interval of 0.97-1.09, demonstrating pharmacokinetic equivalence between the 2 products. Adverse events were similar for both treatments and occurred at a rate of 0.117 and 0.078 per infusion for Prolastin-C (double-blind treatment phase only) and Prolastin, respectively (p = 0.744). There were no treatment-emergent viral infections in any subject for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or C, or parvovirus B19 during the course of the study. Conclusion Prolastin-C demonstrated pharmacokinetic equivalence and a comparable safety profile to Prolastin. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00295061
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic condition associated with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is significant variability in lung function impairment among persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype. Early identification of persons at highest risk of developing lung disease could be beneficial in guiding monitoring and treatment decisions. Using a multicenter, family-based study sample (2002-2005) of 372 persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype, the authors developed prediction models for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and the presence of severe COPD using demographic, clinical, and genetic variables. Half of the data sample was used for model development, and the other half was used for model validation. In the training sample, variables found to be predictive of both FEV(1) and severe COPD were age, sex, pack-years of smoking, bronchodilator responsiveness, chronic bronchitis symptoms, and index case status. In the validation sample, the predictive model for FEV(1) explained 50% of the variance in FEV(1), and the model for severe COPD exhibited excellent discrimination (c statistic = 0.88).
American journal of epidemiology 10/2009; 170(8):1005-13. · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States but is often undertreated. COPD often overlaps with other conditions such as hypertension and osteoporosis, which are less morbid but may be treated more aggressively. We evaluated the prevalence of these comorbid conditions and compared testing, patient knowledge, and management in a national sample of patients with COPD.
A survey was administered by telephone in 2006 to 1003 patients with COPD to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid conditions, diagnostic testing, knowledge, and management using standardized instruments. The completion rate was 87%.
Among 1003 patients with COPD, 61% reported moderate or severe dyspnea and 41% reported a prior hospitalization for COPD. The most prevalent comorbid diagnoses were hypertension (55%), hypercholesterolemia (52%), depression (37%), cataracts (31%), and osteoporosis (28%). Only 10% of respondents knew their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-12) compared with 79% who knew their blood pressure (95% CI, 76-83). Seventy-two percent (95% CI, 69-75) reported taking any medication for COPD, usually a short-acting bronchodilator, whereas 87% (95% CI, 84-90) of patients with COPD and hypertension were taking an antihypertensive medication and 72% (95% CI, 68-75) of patients with COPD and hypercholesterolemia were taking a statin.
Although most patients with COPD in this national sample were symptomatic and many had been hospitalized for COPD, COPD self-knowledge was low and COPD was undertreated compared with generally asymptomatic, less morbid conditions such as hypertension.
The American journal of medicine 05/2009; 122(4):348-55. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desmosine and Isodesmosine (D/I) are cross-linking amino acids which are present only in mature elastin. Changes in their concentration in body fluids indicate changes in elastin degradation and can be a reflection of tissue elastase activity. This study was undertaken to determine whether continuous therapy with the long-acting bronchodilator Tiotropium bromide (TTP) could result in reductions in D/I as measured by mass spectrometry in plasma, urine and sputum.
Twelve not currently smoking patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), never on TTP, were selected for study. Levels of D/I, along with measurements of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. were determined before starting TTP daily, and then one and two months after.
D/I decreased in plasma (10 of 12 patients), in sputum all (12 of 12), and in the percentage of free D/I in urine (10 of 12). Most patients showed slight increases in FVC and FEV1 percent predicted over two months.
The results are consistent with an effect of prolonged bronchodilitation by anti-cholinergic blockade to also result in reduced lung elastin degradation.
Respiratory research 03/2009; 10:12. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES) are two unusual, tetrafunctional, pyridinium ring-containing amino acids involved in elastin cross-linking. Being amino acids unique to mature, cross-linked elastin, they are useful for discriminating peptides derived from elastin breakdown from precursor elastin peptides. According to these features, DES and IDES have been extensively discussed as potentially attractive indicators of elevated lung elastic fibre turnover and markers of the effectiveness of agents with the potential to reduce elastin breakdown. In the present manuscript, immunology-based and separation methods for the evaluation of DES and IDES are discussed, along with studies reporting increased levels of urine excretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with and without alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency. The results of the application of DES and IDES as surrogate end-points in early clinical trials in COPD are also reported. Finally, recent advances in detection techniques, including liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence, are discussed. These techniques allow detection of DES and IDES at very low concentration in body fluids other than urine, such as plasma or sputum, and will help the understanding of whether DES and IDES are potentially useful in monitoring therapeutic intervention in COPD.
European Respiratory Journal 12/2008; 32(5):1146-57. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a proven genetic risk factor for COPD, but there is marked variation in the development of COPD among AAT deficient subjects. To investigate familial aggregation of lung function in subjects with AAT deficiency, we estimated heritability for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) in 378 AAT deficient subjects from 167 families in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study; all subjects were verified homozygous for the Z AAT deficiency allele. Heritability was evaluated for models that included and excluded an ascertainment correction, as well as for models that excluded, included and were stratified by a cigarette smoking covariate. In models without an ascertainment correction, and in all models without a covariate for smoking, no evidence for familial aggregation of lung function was observed. In models conditioned on the index proband with covariates for smoking, post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC demonstrated significant heritability (0.26 +/- 0.14, p = 0.03). When we limited the analysis to subjects with a smoking history, post-bronchodilator FEV1 demonstrated significant heritability (0.47 +/- 0.21, p = 0.02). Severity rate phenotypes were also assessed as potential phenotypes for genetic modifier studies. Significant heritability was found with all age-of-onset threshold models that included smoking and ascertainment adjustments. Using the t-distribution, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.43 to 0.64, depending on the age-of-onset of FEV1 decline used for the severity rate calculation. Correction for ascertainment and consideration of gene-by-smoking interactions will be crucial for the identification of genes that may modify susceptibility for COPD in families with AAT deficiency.
Human Heredity 11/2008; 67(1):38-45. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of IV augmentation therapy with plasma-derived alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) has become the standard of care for the treatment of pulmonary disease associated with the severe genetic deficiency of AAT. The Medical and Scientific Advisory Committee of the Alpha-1 Foundation has become aware that physicians are prescribing this expensive blood product for the treatment of individuals with a single abnormal AAT gene, primarily the PI*MZ genotype. We are aware of no evidence that such therapy is effective in this patient population. The most important therapeutic interventions in such patients remain smoking cessation and elimination of other risk factors for lung disease. This commentary discusses the treatment of AAT deficiency and the concerns regarding treatment of PI*MZ individuals. We conclude that clinicians should avoid prescribing augmentation therapy for this heterozygote population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in individuals who smoke. There is marked variability in the development of lung disease in individuals homozygous (PI ZZ) for this autosomal recessive condition, suggesting that modifier genes could be important. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of obstructive lung disease may be modifiers of airflow obstruction in individuals with severe AAT deficiency. To identify modifier genes, we performed family-based association analyses for 10 genes previously associated with asthma and/or COPD, including IL10, TNF, GSTP1, NOS1, NOS3, SERPINA3, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and EPHX1. All analyses were performed in a cohort of 378 PI ZZ individuals from 167 families. Quantitative spirometric phenotypes included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC). A qualitative phenotype of moderate-to-severe COPD was defined for individuals with FEV(1) </= 50 percent predicted. Six of 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 (P = 0.0005-0.05) and 3 of 5 SNPs in TNF (P = 0.01-0.05) were associated with FEV(1) and/or FEV(1)/FVC. IL10 SNPs also demonstrated association with the qualitative COPD phenotype. When phenotypes of individuals with a physician's diagnosis of asthma were excluded, IL10 SNPs remained significantly associated, suggesting that the association with airflow obstruction was independent of an association with asthma. Haplotype analysis of IL10 SNPs suggested the strongest association with IL10 promoter SNPs. IL10 is likely an important modifier gene for the development of COPD in individuals with severe AAT deficiency.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 02/2008; 38(1):114-20. · 4.15 Impact Factor