[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients. The information available on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney is limited. We describe a patient with HIV/leishmania coinfection who developed nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. As far as we know, only 2 cases of this nephropathy in HIV/leishmania coinfection have been reported. Case Report A 47-year-old man developed nephrotic syndrome. He had been diagnosed with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis and was treated with antiretroviral therapy, antimonial compounds, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine, but the leishmania followed a relapsing course. Renal biopsy disclosed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and leishmania amastigotes were seen within glomerular capillary lumens. He was given miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B but the leishmaniasis persisted. Stage 3B chronic renal disease and nephrotic range proteinuria tend to become stable by 15-month follow-up. Conclusions Our case illustrated some aspects of leishmaniasis in HIV patients: its relapsing course, the difficulties in therapy, and the renal involvement.
The American journal of case reports. 01/2015; 16:8-11.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the 5 year effects of an intensive intervention versus the standard-of-care intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
We aimed to characterize depression in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, to determine the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on its incidence, and to investigate whether efavirenz use was associated with a higher risk, compared with non-efavirenz-containing regimens, in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. Methods
CoRIS is a contemporary, multicentre cohort of HIV-infected patients, antiretroviral-naïve at entry, launched in 2004. Poisson regression models were used to investigate demographic, clinical and treatment-related factors associated with a higher incidence of clinically significant depression to October 2010. ResultsIn total, 5185 patients (13 089 person-years) participated in the study, of whom 3379 (65.2%) started ART during follow-up. The incidence rates of depression before and after starting ART were 11.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.01–15.15] and 7.06 (95% CI 5.45–9.13) cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment, there was an inverse association between the occurrence of depression and the initiation of ART [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.53; 95% CI 0.28–0.99], while the likelihood of depression increased in patients of age > 50 years (IRR 1.94; 95% CI 1.21–3.12). Longer exposure to ART was associated with a decreased IRR of depression in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. The IRR for patients receiving < 2, 2–4 and > 4 years of ART was 0.72 (95% CI 0.36–1.44), 0.10 (95% CI 0.04–0.25) and 0.05 (95% CI 0.01–0.17), respectively, compared with ART-naïve patients. This protective effect was also observed when durations of exposure to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens and efavirenz-containing regimens were analysed separately. Conclusions
The incidence of clinically significant depression was lower among HIV-infected patients on ART. The protective effect of ART was also observed with efavirenz-containing regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is due to gain-of-function mutations in the cryopyrin gene, which determines an overactive inflammatory response. AA amyloidosis is a complication of this syndrome. A 53-year-old man was referred to us because of lower limb edema. Past history: at the age of 20, he complained of arthralgia/arthritis and bilateral hypoacusis. At the age of 35, he presented posterior uveitis, several episodes of conjunctivitis, and progressive loss of visual acuity. Laboratory tests disclosed nephrotic syndrome, and renal biopsy showed AA amyloidosis. He was given anakinra with improvement of arthritis. A genetic study revealed the p.D303N mutation in the cryopyrin gene, and he was diagnosed as having AA amyloidosis due to CAPS. Twenty-one months after starting anakinra, the arthritis has disappeared, although nephrotic-range proteinuria persisted. It is important to be aware of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome because it can cause irreversible complications, and there is effective therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. We describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the Mediterranean coast region of Spain during 2007-2011. Clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Raltegravir has been demonstrated to have a favourable impact on several metabolic parameters, including a lack of changes in lipid and glucose concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect on endothelial function of switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based regimen to raltegravir. METHODS: This is a substudy of the SPIRAL study, a multicentre, randomized, open-label clinical trial including HIV-infected patients on a stable PI/r-based antiretroviral regimen and virologically suppressed for at least the previous 6 months. Endothelial function was prospectively evaluated through flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery at baseline and at weeks 24 and 48. RESULTS: Thirty-five HIV-infected patients were included. Sixteen patients were randomly assigned to continue their current PI/r regimen and 19 to switch the PI/r to raltegravir. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased at weeks 16 and 32 in the raltegravir-switch arm, while no changes were observed in the PI/r arm. Triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the raltegravir arm than in the PI/r arm at weeks 16, 32 and 48. No significant changes from baseline occurred in FMD at weeks 24 and 48 within or between the raltegravir and PI/r arms. Adjustment for baseline artery diameter did not have a significant effect on the FMD differences. CONCLUSIONS: Switching from a PI/r-based antiretroviral regimen to raltegravir in patients with virological suppression has a beneficial impact on the lipid profile, but it does not seem to have a clear impact on endothelial function after a 1 year follow-up.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: We aimed to characterize non-AIDS events (NAEs) occurring in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in a contemporary cohort. METHODS:: CoRIS is a prospective, multicentre cohort of HIV-infected patients antiretroviral naïve at entry, established in 2004. We evaluated the incidence of- and the mortality due to NAEs and AIDS events through October-2010. Poisson regression was used to investigate factors associated with a higher incidence of NAEs. RESULTS:: Overall, 5,185 patients (13.306 person-years of follow-up), median age (interquartile range) 36 (29-43) years, participated in the study. 86.5% patients had been diagnosed in 2004 or later. The incidence rate (IR) of NAEs was 28.93 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.15-32.07), and of AIDS-defining events 25.23 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 22.60-28.16). The most common NAEs were psychiatric, hepatic, malignant, renal, and cardiovascular-related. After adjustment, age, higher HIV-viral load and lower CD4 count at cohort entry were associated with the occurrence of NAEs, while likelihood significantly decreased with sexual transmission and higher educational level. Additionally, antiretroviral therapy was inversely associated with the development of some NAEs, specifically of psychiatric (IR ratio [95%CI] 0.54 [0.30-0.96]) and renal-related (IR ratio [95%CI] 0.31 [0.13-0.72]) events. 173 (3.33%) patients died during the study period. NAEs contributed to 28.9% of all deaths, with an IR (95%CI) of 3.75 (2.84-4.94) per 1000-person-years. CONCLUSION:: In patients newly diagnosed of HIV infection, NAEs are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results suggest a protective effect of antiretroviral therapy in the occurrence of NAEs, in particular of psychiatric and renal-related events.
AIDS (London, England) 09/2012; · 6.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. To report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Spain.Methods. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed of HCC in 18 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2010 were included. The main characteristics of HCC cases are described and comparisons between cases according to the year of diagnosis are presented.Results. Eighty-two cases of HCC in HIV-infected patients were included, all of them related to viral hepatitis coinfection: hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 66 (81%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 6 (7%), and HBV/HCV in 10 (12%). From 1999, when the first case of HCC was diagnosed, a progressive increment in the incidence of HCC in the cohort has occurred. In patients coinfected with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the incidence HCC increased from 0.2 to 2.8 cases per 1000 person-years between 2000 and 2009. Death occurred in 65 patients (79%), with a median survival of 91 days (interquartile range, 31-227 days). Three of 11 patients (28%) who received potentially curative therapy died, compared with 62 of 71 patients (87%) who did not receive curative therapy (P = .0001). Compared with cases of HCC diagnosed before 2005, cases diagnosed later did not show a higher survival rate.Conclusions. HCC is an emerging complication of cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients. A sharp increase in its incidence has occurred in those also infected by HCV in the recent years. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality continues to be very high, with no significant changes in recent years. Earlier diagnosis, which may allow potentially curative therapy, is necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundDiagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the most effective strategy to control tuberculosis (TB) among patients with HIV infection. The tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only available method to identify LTBI. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the usefulness of the interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs): QuantiFERON-tuberculosis (TB) Gold-In-Tube test (QFG) and T-SPOT.TB for the diagnosis of LTBI in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsA prospective study was carried out in consecutive patients cared for in a single institution in Spain from January 2009 to October 2010. IGRAs and TST were performed simultaneously. TST induration ≥ 5 mm was considered positive.ResultsQFG, T-SPOT.TB and TST were performed in 373 subjects. Median CD4 cell count was 470/μl with a median nadir of 150/μl. TST, QFG and T-SPOT.TB were positive in 13.3%, 7.5% and 18.5% cases respectively. Among 277 patients with neither past or current TB nor previous treatment for LTBI and who had TST results, a positive TST result was obtained in 20 (7.2%) cases. When adding QFG results to TST, there were a total of 26 (8.6%) diagnoses of LTBI. When the results of both IGRAs were added, the number of diagnoses increased to 54 (17.9%) (incremental difference: 10.7% [95% confidence interval [CI]:5.3-16.2%] [p < 0.001]), and when both IGRAs were added, the number of diagnoses reached 56 (18.5%) (incremental difference: 11.3% [95% CI:5.7%–16.9%] [p < 0.001]). Patients with a CD4 cell count greater than 500 cells/μl and prior stay in prison were more likely to have a diagnosis of LTBI by TST and/or QFG and/or T-SPOT.TB (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4 – 9.9; and aOR: 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3 – 8.3, respectively).ConclusionsIGRAs were more sensitive than TST for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected patients. Dual sequential testing with TST and IGRAs may be the optimal approach for LTBI screening in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFG) for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection among patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases before antitumor necrosis factor-α therapy. A prospective study including 153 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 53), psoriasis (n = 45), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 25), and spondyloarthropathy (n = 22) were included. QFG and TST were performed simultaneously. TST was positive in 43/153 (28.1 %) patients. QFG (cutoff ≥ 0.35 IU/ml) was positive in 15/153 (9.8 %) patients, and indeterminate in one (0.7 %). QFG (cutoff ≥ 0.10 IU/ml) was positive in 25/153 (16.3 %). 59.5 % of the patients were on immunosuppressive therapy at the time of testing. There was a significant difference in the rate of positive QFG between patients with and without immunosuppressive therapy after adjustment for age and gender (cutoff ≥ 0.35 IU/ml, 4.6 vs. 17.4 %; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.2; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.8; p = 0.03 and cutoff ≥ 0.10 IU/ml, 11.2 vs. 24.2 %; AOR, 0.3; 95 % CI, 0.1-0.93; p = 0.04). Agreement between TST and QFG was 'fair' (κ = 0.354 and κ = 0.365, for cutoffs ≥ 0.35 and ≥0.10 IU/ml, respectively). Among patients without immunosuppressive therapy, the concordance between TST and QFG was 'moderate-substantial' (κ = 0.593 and κ = 0.690, for cutoffs ≥ 0.35 IU/ml and ≥0.10 IU/ml, respectively). By contrast, among patients on immunosuppressive therapy the concordance was 'poor' (κ = 0.085; κ = 0.041, respectively). Immunosuppressive therapy affects negatively QFG performance. In patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, QFG may have a limited role for screening of latent tuberculosis infection.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine 06/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relationship of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. We evaluated endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients with and without HCV.
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and circulating levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) were measured in HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT).
63 (31%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 138 (69%) HIV-monoinfected patients were included. Median soluble vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular CAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (P < 0.001 for both cases). Median (interquartile range) FMD was 6.21% (2.86-9.62) in HCV/HIV-coinfected and 5.54% (2.13-9.13) in HIV-monoinfected patients (P = 0.37). Adjustment for variables associated with HCV and FMD disclosed similar results. FMD correlated inversely with cIMT and age. Carotid IMT did not differ between HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients in unadjusted (0.61 [0.55-0.65] mm vs 0.60 [0.53-0.72] mm; P = 0.39) or adjusted analyses.
HCV infection was associated with higher levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, but no evidence of increased subclinical atherosclerosis was found when endothelial function was evaluated through FMD, or when assessing the cIMT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic investigation of pneumococcal co-infection in patients with a diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and any risk factor for complications or with severity criteria. We found 14% prevalence, with one third of patients having nonpneumonic infections. A severity assessment score >1 and high C-reactive protein levels were predictors of pneumococcal co-infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with bone loss, which may be more intense with regimens including tenofovir. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Cross-sectional data have linked tenofovir with higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. We performed a longitudinal study with a 48-week follow-up to evaluate sequential changes in PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in patients starting cART with either tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine. Fifty-seven patients were included, 31 initiating tenofovir/emtricitabine and 26 initiating abacavir/lamivudine. Median PTH levels turned out to be significantly higher among tenofovir/emtricitabine users at week 4 (p=0.01), week 24 (p=0.008), and week 36 (p=0.02), and were above the upper limits of normal values (ULN) at weeks 24, 36, and 48 only in patients receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine. 25(OH)D, serum and urine calcium and phosphate, and renal-tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate to the glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR) levels did not differ between the two treatment arms over the study period. Among tenofovir/emtricitabine users, median (interquartile range) PTH concentrations were significantly higher in patients with suboptimal 25(OH)D levels (<30 μg/liter) at week 24 [63 (57.8-82.4) ng/liter vs. 54.3 (34.4-63.067.5) ng/liter, p=0.05] and week 48 [67.5 (59.6-86.0) ng/liter vs. 41.9 (37.3-68.8) ng/liter, p=0.03]. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that tenofovir/emtricitabine use was an independent predictor of high PTH levels (≥53 ng/liter). Starting cART with tenofovir regimens is associated with an elevation in PTH plasma concentrations soon after introducing the drug. Suboptimal baseline 25(OH)D levels increase the risk of developing secondary hyperparathyroidism among tenofovir users.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2011; 28(3):242-6. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. For each immigrant woman, one Spanish pregnant woman of the same age cared for in the same day was recruited (Spanish control group). A total of 1,627 migrant pregnant women participated in this study. The adherence to screening among migrants was 91.9% (95% CI, 90.5-93.1%), similar than that found in Spaniards (92.2%; 95% CI, 90.8-93-4%). Among migrant women, 619 were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (41.4%; 95% CI, 38.9-43.9%), compared with 12.0% (95% CI, 10.5-13.8%) among Spaniards (odds ratio (OR), 5.2 (95% CI, 4.3-6.3). Seroprevalence in pregnant women from Latin America, northern Africa, Eastern Europe, Africa Sub-Saharan and Western Europe was higher than in the Spanish control group (OR, 5.4, 5.8, 6.5, 5.4, and 2.4, respectively; p < 0.001). No Asian pregnant woman was immune. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in migrant pregnant women: 15-25 years, 38.2%; 26-35 years, 40.7%; and 36-45 years, 52.8%. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in migrant pregnant women living in Spain was higher than in the native population. However, no cases were found in Asian immigrants, highlighting the importance of primary prevention of this infection in pregnant women coming from that geographic region.
Parasitology Research 05/2011; 109(5):1447-52. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have pneumonia and advanced chronic kidney disease. He presented with anuria and hemodialysis, by temporary femoral catheter, was initiated. He was empirically treated with imipenem/cilastatin 500 mg/24 h after hemodialysis. After 10 days of antibiotic intake, he developed severe diarrhea. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile (CD)-associated diarrhea was confirmed by detection of the toxins A and B in his stool. Imipenem therapy was discontinued; Vancomycin 500 mg orally every 6 h and 1000 mg per rectum every day was added. After two weeks of this treatment, the patient reported complete resolution of the diarrhea and stool samples were negative for Clostridium toxin. In this case, the most possible cause of CD colitis was considered to be imipenem because of the temporal relationship between exposure to the drug and onset of symptoms.
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 05/2011; 22(3):541-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.
To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.
Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.
20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.
Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.
Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.
Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
Annals of internal medicine 04/2011; 154(8):509-15. · 16.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionImmigration is an inexorable process. Immigrants may suffer infectious diseases commonly seen in our environment, or those more exotic or more prevalent in their own environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients initiating abacavir or tenofovir.
Consecutive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine were included. Plasma levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured at baseline and at different time points throughout 48 weeks. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, ART status at inclusion, viral load, lipodystrophy, Framingham score and hepatitis C virus co-infection status.
50 patients were analyzed, 28 initiating abacavir and 22 tenofovir. The endothelial biomarker sVCAM-1 declined significantly in both treatment groups. hsCRP tended to increase soon after starting therapy with abacavir, a trend that was not seen in those initiating tenofovir. IL-6 significantly increased only at week 24 from baseline in patients on abacavir (+225%, p < 0.01) although the differences were not significant between groups. The procoagulant biomarker PAI-1 plasma levels increased from baseline at week 12 (+57%; p = 0.017), week 24 (+72%; p = 0.008), and week 48 (+149%; p < 0.001) in patients on tenofovir, but differences between groups were not statistically significant.
Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function are not different in viremic patients starting ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. These changes occur in the early phases of treatment and include anti- and pro-atherosclerotic effects with both drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immigration is an inexorable process. Immigrants may suffer infectious diseases commonly seen in our environment, or those more exotic or more prevalent in their own environment.
A study was performed including all immigrants see in an Infectious Diseases Unit of a general hospital from June 2001 to May 2010.
We studied 1,071 patients from Latin America (n=405, 37.8%), Northern Africa (n=281, 26.2%), Eastern Europe (n=186, 17.4%), sub-Saharan Africa (n=178, 16.6%), and Asia (21, 2.0%). Transmissible infectious diseases were the leading cause of consultation (53.8%), and they were more common among people coming from Northern Africa (61.6%) and Eastern Europe (69.4%) (P=.001). The second reason for consultation was for common infectious diseases (29%). Tropical infectious diseases were diagnosed in 16.4% of the patients, particularly from sub-Saharan Africa (36%), and Latin America (25.9%) (P<.001). The most common diagnoses were latent tuberculous infection (20.8%) [most common in those from Eastern Europe (27.4%) (P=.004)], respiratory tract infection (12.5%), sexually transmitted infections (10.6%) [most common in patients from Northern Africa (17.1%) (P=.004)], chronic hepatitis (10.4%) [most common in patients from Eastern Europe (26.3%) (P<.001) and sub-Saharan Africa (16.9%) (P=.004)], and active tuberculosis (8.7%) [most common in sub-Saharan Africa patients (15.7%) (P=.001)].
The spectrum of infectious diseases in the immigrant population in our area is broad, and includes a wide variety of tropical and communicable diseases, but also of common infections. While communicable diseases are the leading cause of consultation, common infections constitute an important part of health care activity.