[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bibimpap, a Korean rice dish with mixed vegetables, is very popular around the world. The origin, its unique structure, and the health benefits of bibimbap have attracted interest. Although there are many hypotheses about the origin and development of bibimbap, most of them lack strong scientific evidence. The existence of various theories about the origin of bibimbap suggests that none of these theories have strong support. Therefore, it is crucial to take a scientific approach in analyzing each hypothesis. This article will discuss the origin of bibimbap on the basis of the structure of the Korean traditional meal table. Furthermore, it will analyze its development based on historical references to bibimbap. Someone have made false arguments that the first written recording of bibimbap is from the Siuijonseo (是議全書), and that the name, bibimbap, came from koldongban (混沌飯). We should, however, firmly exclude unsupported claims which can hinder further understanding of bibimbap in the global market. Moreover, this article will focus on Jeonju bibimbap and the health benefits of bibimbap based on previous research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human milk fat substitutes were synthesized using non-preprocessed natural fats and oils with lipase. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin and oleic acid was carried out in isooctane. The reaction reached equilibrium after 12 h and the reaction conditions were partially optimized as a molar ratio of tripalmitin to oleic acid of 1:5, an initial water content of 0.01 g/L, and a water removal time of 1 h. After interesterification of tripalmitin and oleic acid, the reaction products contained 55.2% 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol (OPO). The OPO yield was 25.2% when commercial palm oil and camellia oil were used as substrates, and the OPO concentration was increased to 53.3% after fractional crystallization of the reaction product.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia.
Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat).
The ascending order of control < LSP < MSP and SSP potentiated the phosphorylation of CREB and GSK and inhibited Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus which in turn inhibited β-amyloid accumulation. The inhibition by MP and SP reduced the memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats.
The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gochujang (Korean fermented red pepper sauce, also written in Kochujang), along with kimchi, is an age-old ethnic food made with Korea’s representative ingredient, red pepper. A typical Korean meal (Bapsang) is composed of rice (Bap), from which calories are derived, soup (Kuk), which helps in the chewing and digesting of the rice, and side dishes (Banchan), which provide additional nutrition and flavor. To add even more variety to the taste, seasoning (Yangnyum) is added. Gochujang has become the most fundamental of these kinds of food in Korea over thousands of years, functioning to make add flavor to rice taste better while aiding the digestive system. Gochujang also serves as a simple seasoning when making dishes such as braised spicy chicken, and provide additional nutrients. According to age-old documents, the development process used to manufacture Gochujang requires the basic ingredients of Meju (block made with cooked soy bean) powder, rice or glutinous rice flour, and red pepper powder. Sunchang Gochujang is one variety known for its great taste that was often consumed by kings during the Chosun dynasty. The basic method for making Gochujang in the present is almost the same as it was in the past. Gochujangis not just used to season food; it is also known for its nutritional value For example, it is widely accepted among Koreans that when a person has a weak stomach (due to the poor functionality of the stomach and spleen), and cannot digest food well., Gochujang can be eaten alleviates the symptoms. Recently many studies have been done to prove the medical functions of Gochujang scientifically. Due improvements in science and technology in the area of biology, it has also been discovered that Gochujang has the ability to prevent obesity and diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effects on several diseases. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with resveratrol may suppress joint inflammation and destruction in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gochu (Korean red pepper) that goes into Korean traditional fermented foods such as kimchi (fermented cabbage) and gochujang (spicy red pepper paste) should have a mild spiciness and its Scoville heat unit (the unit that measures spiciness) is <1,000. The kimchi and gochujang that are fermented only with Korean gochu can be eaten. Kimchi and gochujang cannot be prepared even with cheongyangkochu (Scoville heat unit is approximately 3,000), which is a hybrid of Korean gochu and Thai gochu. When these foods are prepared with other spicier gochu, such as Thai pepper, Southern Asian red pepper, Central American red pepper, or Mexico's aji (which is 500 times spicier than Korean gochu), they will be too spicy to consume. Biologically, Korean gochu is different from the red peppers of Central American countries (such as Mexico and Colombia), Indonesia, India, and Thailand. Therefore, the statement that the Central American red pepper came to Korea during the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592 is not true. We can refer to a research paper in the magazine “Nature” that Korea's gochu arrived at the Korean peninsula millions of years ago, having been spread by birds. It states that gochu has evolved for millions of years, therefore, we can infer that Korean gochu existed as a completely different variety. In addition, gochujang and kimchi can be made using gochu only, which proves that people in Korea cultivated gochu thousands of years ago and have been eating it since then. Furthermore, many old Korean documents support the fact that Koreans have been planting and harvesting gochu for the last 1,500 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since Korean mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used for alleviating metabolic diseases, it may also prevent the impairment of energy, glucose, lipid, and bone metabolisms in an estrogen-deficient animal model. We determined that long-term consumption of Korean mistletoe water extract (KME) can alleviate menopausal symptoms such as hot flush, increased abdominal fat mass, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased bone mineral density in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a high-fat diet, and explored the mechanisms of the effects. OVX rats were divided into four groups and fed high-fat diets supplemented with either 0.6% dextrin (control), 0.2% lyophilized KME + 0.4% dextrin (KME-L), or 0.6% lyophilized KME (KME-H). Sham rats were fed with the high-fat diets with 0.6% dextrin as a normal-control without estrogen deficiency. After eight weeks, OVX rats exhibited impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, and decreased uterine and bone masses. KME-L did not alleviate energy dysfunction. However, KME-H lowered serum levels of total-, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and elevated serum HDL-cholesterol levels in OVX rats with dyslipidemia, to similar levels as normal-control rats. Furthermore, KME-H improved HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance, in OVX rats. Surprisingly, KME-H fed rats had greater lean mass in the abdomen and leg without differences in fat mass but neither dosage of KME altered bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur. The increased lean mass was related to greater phosphorylation of mTOR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in the quadriceps muscles. Hepatic triglyceride contents were lowered with KME-H in OVX rats by increasing carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) expression and decreasing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression. In conclusion, KME may be useful for preventing some menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and loss of muscle mass in post-menopausal women.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 09/2014; 240(4). DOI:10.1177/1535370214551693 · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saponin compounds in cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soy food, were quantitatively evaluated, and their antiobesity effect was studied. Two saponin groups, i.e., soyasapogenol A and B, were isolated from cheonggukjang. The soyasapogenol B content was more than four times that of soyasapogenol A, and the proportion of both saponin groups was unaltered during the fermentation process despite a slight decrease in the saponin content due to steam treatment and fermentation. The saponin content of cheonggukjang fermented for 45 h was comparable to that of commercial soy products. The saponin extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Accumulation of triglycerides was inhibited by 25%, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of energy balance and fat metabolism, was affected by the saponin extract. AMPK activation was stimulated more by soyasapogenol B than by soyasapogenol A. Therefore, that cheonggukjang saponin may be a potential antiobesity agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effects of yuja peel extract (Citrus junos Tanaka) on experimental colitis and colorectal cancer cells were evaluated. Yuja peel extracted with 70% ethanol (YPEE) reduced LPS-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by reduction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and p38 phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells. YPEE at 100 mg/(kg·day) also reduced both disease activity index (DAI) and colon shortening induced by Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in mice. COX-2 expression was decreased in colon tissue by YPEE. In addition, YPEE induced apoptotic body appearance in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells via decreasing COX-2. Furthermore, YPEE at 100 mg/(kg·day) inhibited tumour growth in tumour xenografts, which was accompanied by reduced COX-2 expression in colon tissue. Taken together, Yuja may be useful in preventing colitis and colorectal cancer via reduction of COX-2 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults.
This study was designed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group format. Eighty healthy participants with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000cells/muL were randomly assigned to take six capsules per day of either 3 g RBEP or 3 g placebo for 8 weeks. Three participants in the placebo group were excluded after initiation of the protocol; no severe adverse effects from RBEP supplementation were reported. NK cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay kits and serum cytokine concentrations included interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0000536).
Supplementation of RBEP significantly increased IFN-gamma production compared with the placebo group (P = 0.012). However, RBEP supplementation did not affect either NK cell activity or cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-alpha, compared with the placebo group.
The data obtained in this study indicate that RBEP supplementation increases IFN-gamma secretion without causing significant adverse effects, and thus may be beneficial to healthy individuals. This new rice bran-derived product may therefore be potentially useful to include in the formulation of solid and liquid foods designed for treatment and prevention of pathological states associated with defective immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain insulin resistance is related to both diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether both chungkookjangs, soybeans fermented in a traditional method (TFC) and with Bacillus lichenifomis (SFC), can protect against cognitive dysfunction and glucose dysregulation in rats with Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.
Partial pancreatectomy (Px) and ICV β-amyloid (25-35) infusion into the CA1 region were fed either control diet (AD-CON), 10 % cooked soybeans (CSB), 10 % TFC, or 10 % SFC in a high fat diet for 8 weeks. Px rats infused β-amyloid (35-25) as a normal-control group (Non-AD-CON).
SFC increased isoflavonoid aglycones, DDMP soyasaponin βg, E soyasaponin Be and lysoposphatidylcholines in comparison to CSB. SFC markedly decreased its accumulation in β-amyloid deposition in AD rats and improved hippocampal insulin signaling (pAkt → pGSK → pTau) that exacerbated in AD-CON rats. AD rats markedly impaired cognitive function than Non-AD-CON rats as measured by a water maze and passive avoidance tests while the disturbance was prevented in an ascending order of CON < CSB and TFC < SFC. In comparison to Non-AD rats, AD-CON rats lowered whole body glucose infusion rates and increased hepatic glucose output at hyperinsulinemic state during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp which SFC normalized in AD rats. Interestingly, insulin secretion, especially at the second phase during hyperglycemic clamp, was higher in AD-CON rats, compared to Non-AD rats while CSB, TFC, SFC lowered it in AD-rats. However, SFC restored β-cell mass in AD rats that reduced β-cell mass by increased β-cell apoptosis.
β-Amyloid accumulation in the hippocampus exacerbated insulin resistance and decreased β-cell mass and SFC prevented their exacerbation in AD diabetic rats.
European Journal of Nutrition 04/2014; 54(1). DOI:10.1007/s00394-014-0687-y · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that differences in red peppers pungencies and bioactive compounds are associated with different effects on obesity and glucose tolerance, and tested the hypothesis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed high fat diets. Increasing red pepper pungency was associated higher concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and total capsaicinoids; and lower concentrations of β-carotene, total carotenoids and chlorogenic acid. After 8 weeks of consuming 1% different types of red peppers, moderately and severely pungent red peppers (MSP and SSP) improved energy homeostasis better than less pungent red pepper (LSP): MSP and SSP increased energy expenditure and decreased visceral fat mass. This was related to elevated uncoupling proteins (UCP)-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 expressions and decreased expressions of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. LSP enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved hepatic insulin signaling. In conclusion, red peppers with different color and pungency differently modulate energy and glucose homeostasis in OVX rats fed high fat diets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of KLF5 to basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the inhibition of obesity in Korean children. A variation of KLF5 (rs3782933) was genotyped in 62 Korean children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we developed a model to predict BMR in children. We divided them into several groups; normal versus overweight by body mass index (BMI) and low BMR versus high BMR by BMR. There were no differences in the distributions of alleles and genotypes between each group. The genetic variation of KLF5 gene showed a significant correlation with several clinical factors, such as BMR, muscle, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Children with the TT had significantly higher BMR than those with CC (p = 0.030). The highest muscle was observed in the children with TT compared with CC (p = 0.032). The insulin and C-peptide values were higher in children with TT than those with CC (p= 0.029 vs. p = 0.004, respectively). In linear regression analysis, BMI and muscle mass were correlated with BMR, whereas insulin and C-peptide were not associated with BMR. In the high-BMR group, we observed that higher muscle, fat mass, and C-peptide affect the increase of BMR in children with TT (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.018, respectively), while Rohrer's index could explain the usual decrease in BMR (adjust r(2) = 1.000, p < 0.001, respectively). We identified a novel association between TT of KLF5 rs3782933 and BMR in Korean children. We could make better use of the variation within KLF5 in a future clinical intervention study of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capsaicin has been reported to regulate blood glucose levels and to ameliorate insulin resistance in obese mice. This study demonstrates that capsaicin increases glucose uptake directly by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 muscle cells, which manifested as an attenuation of glucose uptake when compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was co-administered with capsaicin. However, the insulin signaling molecules insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Akt were not affected by capsaicin. Additional results showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is also involved in capsaicin-induced glucose transport downstream of AMPK because capsaicin increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation significantly and its specific inhibitor SB203580 inhibited capsaicin-mediated glucose uptake. Treatment with an AMPK inhibitor reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor had no effect on AMPK. Capsaicin stimulated ROS generation in C2C12 muscle cells, and when ROS were captured using the nonspecific antioxidant NAC, the increase in both capsaicin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and capsaicin-induced glucose uptake was attenuated, suggesting that ROS function as an upstream activator of AMPK. Taken together, these results suggest that capsaicin, independent of insulin, increases glucose uptake via ROS generation and consequent AMPK and p38 MAPK activations.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2013; 439(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.027 · 2.28 Impact Factor