[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soluble amyloid beta peptide (A β ) is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble A β alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different A β peptides, we also compared Aβ 25-35 and Aβ 1-42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μ M). We found that Aβ 25-35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ 1-42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ 25-35 but was reduced by Aβ 1-42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function.
International Journal of Peptides 06/2013; 2013(1):328140. DOI:10.1155/2013/328140
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinogenesis is a developmental process that involves the sequential formation of neurons and glia from retinal progenitors. Once retinogenesis is completed, Müller glial cells can be stimulated to differentiate into neuronal lineages and constitute a retina-intrinsic source of neural progenitors. The identification of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control proliferation and differentiation of Müller cells or retinal progenitors is needed in order to fully define their potential therapeutic use in regenerative approaches. Here we determined the response of retinal progenitors derived from Müller glia primary cell cultures to GABA-activated signal transduction cascades.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oscillatory activity in the entorhinal cortex has been associated with several cognitive functions. Accordingly, Alzheimer Disease-associated cognitive decline has been related to amyloid beta-induced disturbances in several of these oscillatory patterns. We have previously shown that acute application of amyloid beta inhibits the generation of slowfrequency oscillations (7-20 Hz). In contrast, alterations in faster oscillations recorded in Alzheimer Disease-transgenic mice that over-express amyloid beta have been controversial. Since transgenic mice may produce complex responses due to compensatory mechanisms, we tested the effect of acute application of amyloid beta on fast oscillations (beta-gamma bursts) generated by entorhinal cortex slices in vitro in a Mg2+-free solution. We also explored the participation of the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) in this effect. Our results show that bath application of a clinically relevant concentration of amyloid beta (10 nM) activates GSK-3 and reduces the power of beta-gamma bursts in the entorhinal cortex. The reduction of beta-gamma bursts by amyloid beta is blocked by inhibiting GSK-3 either with lithium or with SB 216763. Our results suggest that amyloid beta-induced inhibition of entorhinal cortex beta-gamma activity involves GSK-3 activation, which may provide a molecular mechanism for amyloid beta-induced neural network disruption and support the use of GSK-3 inhibitors to treat Alzheimer Disease.
Current Alzheimer research 05/2012; 9(7):857-63. DOI:10.2174/156720512802455403 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breathing and the activity of its generator (the pre-Bötzinger complex; pre-BötC) are highly regulated functions. Among neuromodulators of breathing, somatostatin (SST) is unique: it is synthesized by a subset of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons, but acts as an inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, SST regulates breathing both in normoxic and in hypoxic conditions. Although it has been implicated in the neuromodulation of breathing, neither the locus of SST modulation, nor the receptor subtypes involved have been identified. In this study, we aimed to fill in these blanks by characterizing the SST-induced regulation of inspiratory rhythm generation in vitro and in vivo. We found that both endogenous and exogenous SST depress all preBötC-generated rhythms. While SST abolishes sighs, it also decreases the frequency and increases the regularity of eupnea and gasping. Pharmacological experiments showed that SST modulates inspiratory rhythm generation by activating SST receptor type-2, whose mRNA is abundantly expressed in the pre-Bötzinger complex. In vivo, blockade of SST receptor type-2 reduces gasping amplitude and consequently, it precludes auto-resuscitation after asphyxia. Based on our findings, we suggest that SST functions as an inhibitory neuromodulator released by excitatory respiratory neurons when they become overactivated in order to stabilize breathing rhythmicity in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) patients show alterations in both neuronal network oscillations and the cognitive processes associated to them. Related to this clinical observation, it has been found that amyloid beta protein (Abeta) differentially affects some hippocampal network activities, reducing theta and gamma oscillations, without affecting sharp waves and ripples. Beta-like oscillations is another cognitive-related network activity that can be evoked in hippocampal slices by several experimental manipulations, including bath application of kainate and increasing extracellular potassium. Here, we tested whether or not different Abeta peptides differentially affect beta-like oscillatory patterns. We specifically tested the effects of fresh dissolved Abeta(25-35) and oligomerized Abeta(1-42) and found that kainate-induced oscillatory network activity was affected, in a slightly concentration dependent-manner, by both fresh dissolved (mostly monomeric) Abeta(25-35) and oligomeric Abeta(1-42). In contrast, potassium-induced oscillatory activity, which is reduced by oligomeric Abeta(1-42), is not affected by monomeric Abeta(25-35) at any of the concentrations tested. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of a generalized inhibitory effect of Abeta peptides on neuronal network function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-selective cationic channels (NSCC) are a heterogeneous family of channels, widely expressed in non-excitable and excitable cells, that share several functional characteristics but have diverse molecular origin. NSCC can be formed by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, calcium activated non-selective channels, hyperpolarization activated cation currents, acid-sensitive cationic channels (ASIC), etc. As a result of its wide expression, as well as to the fact that the activation of such currents produce a persistent membrane depolarization, NSCC have been involved in a variety of neuronal processes such as signal transduction, firing pattern (including plateau potentials and bursting mechanisms) as well as synaptic transmission. Due to the relevance of such channels, alterations in their normal function have been associated with the pathophysiology of several nervous system diseases. Over the last years several blockers of such channels have been discovered. Here we review the pharmacology of NSCC blockers including trivalent cations, verapamil derivates, flufenamic acid, the "typical" TRP blockers 2-APB, ACA and SKF 96365 as well as ASIC blockers. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties of such drugs and their potential use for the understanding of the nervous system as well as for the treatment of neurological diseases.
Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 08/2008; 8(8):812-9. DOI:10.2174/138955708784912166 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following hyposmotic swelling induced, cell volume regulation is achieved by the efflux of osmolytes and osmotically obligated water. The role of amino acids as organic osmolytes is widely reported in brain preparations. Results on mechanisms of the osmosensitive taurine release have been often extrapolated to other amino acids. In the present work we present results showing that amino acids such as glutamate, which serve the dual role of osmolytes and neurotransmitters deviate from the taurine release features in several brain preparations, including cultured astrocytes and neurons, and brain slices. Taurine efflux as previously reported is inhibited by chloride channel blockers and by tyrosine kinase and PI3K inhibitors, and was insensitive to manipulation of PKC activity. Glutamate efflux (followed as 3H-d-aspartate) was reduced by chloride channel blockers in cultured cell preparations, while it was unaffected in brain slices. PKC activation markedly enhanced hyposmotic-induced glutamate release in all preparations, pointing to a role of this kinase in the osmosensitive glutamate release. These results suggest that in cell cultures glutamate may share a common efflux pathway with taurine, but in more integrated preparation, the hyposmotic challenge activates a different pathway modulated by PKC. This mechanism may be identical to the stimulation-secretion vesicular release typical of neurotransmitter amino acids. However, no difference in the release mechanism was observed between neuroblasts and differentiated neurons. Moreover, the PKC-sensitive pathway is also present in fibroblasts in which such vesicular release does not operate. However, this does not exclude the activation by hyposmolarity of exocytotic mechanisms dependent on PKC activity.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2008; 81:98-99. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.81.s1.38_3.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPC5 forms Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels important for neurite outgrowth and growth cone morphology of hippocampal neurons.
Here we studied the activation of mouse TRPC5 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary and human embryonic kidney 293 cells by agonist
stimulation of several receptors that couple to the phosphoinositide signaling cascade and the role of calmodulin (CaM) on
the activation. We showed that exogenous application of 10 μm CaM through patch pipette accelerated the agonist-induced channel activation by 2.8-fold, with the time constant for half-activation
reduced from 4.25 ± 0.4 to 1.56 ± 0.85 min. We identified a novel CaM-binding site located at the C terminus of TRPC5, 95
amino acids downstream from the previously determined common CaM/IP3R-binding (CIRB) domain for all TRPC proteins. Deletion of the novel CaM-binding site attenuated the acceleration in channel
activation induced by CaM. However, disruption of the CIRB domain from TRPC5 rendered the channel irresponsive to agonist
stimulation without affecting the cell surface expression of the channel protein. Furthermore, we showed that high (>5 μm) intracellular free Ca2+ inhibited the current density without affecting the time course of TRPC5 activation by receptor agonists. These results demonstrated
that intracellular Ca2+ has dual and opposite effects on the activation of TRPC5. The novel CaM-binding site is important for the Ca2+/CaM-mediated facilitation, whereas the CIRB domain is critical for the overall response of receptor-induced TRPC5 channel
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (24 h serum-starved) during 3 min to 30% hyposmotic medium activated the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 in the absence of its ligand. Hyposmolarity also activated the non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, and the tyrosine kinase target phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K). The hyposmotic-induced activation of these kinases required the prior phosphorylation of ErbB4 as shown by the effect of ErbB4 blockade with AG213 reducing by 85-95% the phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2, by 74% and 36% that of PI3K and Src, respectively. These results suggest a key role of ErbB4 as a signal integrator of events associated with hyposmolarity. PI3K seems to be an important connecting element in the signaling network evoked by the hyposmolarity/ErbB4 activation as: (i) the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with ErbB4 and with FAK; (ii) PI3K blockade with wortmannin reduced the hyposmotic activation of FAK (90%) and ERK1/2 (84-91%). Inhibition of Src with PP2 reduced ErbB4 phosphorylation and inhibited the subsequent cytosolic kinase activation with the same potency as ErbB4 blockade. These results point to Src and ErbB4 and as early targets of the hyposmotic stimulus and osmosignaling. The functional significance for cell volume regulation of the ErbB4-Src-PI3K signaling cascade is indicated by the 48-66% decrease of the hyposmotic taurine efflux observed by inhibition of these kinases.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2005; 93(5):1189-98. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03110.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volume changes and whole cell ionic currents activated by gradual osmolarity reductions (GOR) of 1.8 mosM/min were characterized in C6 glioma cells. Cells swell less in GOR than after sudden osmolarity reductions (SOR), the extent of swelling being partly Ca(2+) dependent. In nominally Ca(2+)-free conditions, GOR activated predominantly whole cell outward currents. Cells depolarized from the initial -79 mV to a steady state of -54 mV reached at 18% osmolarity reduction [hyposmolarity of -18% (H-18%)]. Recordings of Cl(-) and K(+) currents showed activation at H-3% of an outwardly rectifying Cl(-) current, with conductance of 1.6 nS, sensitive to niflumic acid and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, followed at H-18% by an outwardly rectifying K(+) current with conductance of 4.1 nS, inhibited by clofilium but insensitive to the typical K(+) channel blockers. With 200 nM Ca(2+) in the patch pipette, whole cell currents activated at H-3% and at H-13% cells depolarized from -77 to -63 mV. A K(+) current activated at H-1%, showing a rapid increase in conductance, suppressed by charybdotoxin and insensitive to clofilium. These results show the operation of two different K(+) channels in response to GOR in the same cell type, activated by Ca(2+) and osmolarity and with different osmolarity activation thresholds. Taurine and glutamate efflux, monitored by labeled tracers, showed delayed osmolarity thresholds of H-39 and H-33%, respectively. This observation clearly separates the Cl(-) and amino acid osmosensitive pathways. The delayed amino acid efflux may contribute to counteract swelling at more stringent osmolarity reductions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of cultured Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts to 35% hyposmotic solution activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation to a greater extent than the ligand, EGF. Concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) had the same effect. EGFR phosphorylation seems to be involved in the transduction signalling for hyposmotically induced taurine release, as suggested by the latter's reduction when EGFR phosphorylation was blocked by 50 microM AG213 or AG112 and, conversely, its potentiation by EGF (200 ng/ml). The relationship between hyposmotically induced taurine efflux and reduced osmolarity showed saturable kinetics, following a sigmoidal function. EGF shifted the relationship to the left, implying an increase in sensitivity to hyposmolarity. EGF increased taurine efflux only marginally under isosmotic conditions. EGF and agglutinins also potentiated the hyposmotically induced release of 86Rb but, in contrast to taurine, the efflux was unaffected by EGFR inhibition. EGF and agglutinins markedly increased 86Rb release under isosmotic conditions. The EGF-evoked isosmotic 86Rb release, together with the hyposmotic efflux, accounted fully for the observed potentiation by EGF, raising the possibility of an overlapping of these two effects, rather than a true potentiation. A link between EGFR, phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and hyposmotically induced taurine (but not 86Rb) release is suggested by the increase in PI3K activity elicited by hyposmolarity, which was fully prevented by EGFR inhibition, and by a marked reduction of hyposmotically induced taurine (but not 86Rb) release, by wortmannin. The present findings, together with results showing EGF activation of osmosensitive Cl- fluxes implicate EGFR as an important modulator of osmolyte efflux pathways.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 04/2004; 447(6):830-9. DOI:10.1007/s00424-003-1211-z · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A decrease in external osmolarity results in cell swelling and the immediate activation of a mechanism to restore cell volume, known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). When exposed to a gradual osmolarity decrease (GODE), some cells do not swell. This reflects the operation of an active regulatory process known as isovolumetric regulation (IVR). The mechanisms underlying IVR appear similar to those activated during RVD, namely the extrusion of K+, Cl-, amino acids, and other organic molecules. A previous study has documented IVR in cerebellar granule neurons, parallel to an early efflux of taurine and Cl-, whereas K+ efflux is delayed. In this work we briefly review the importance of amino acids in the mechanisms of cell volume control in the brain, with emphasis on IVR. We also present experiments showing the response to GODE in cerebellar astrocytes. The currents activated during GODE, recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique, indicate the early activation of an anion current, followed by a more delayed cation current. A correlation between the time course of amino acid efflux during GODE and the occurrence or not of IVR in various cell types, suggest the importance of these osmolytes in the volume regulatory process in this model.
Neurochemical Research 02/2004; 29(1):65-72. DOI:10.1023/B:NERE.0000010434.06311.18 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK or Kir3) form functional heterotetramers gated by Gbetagamma subunits. GIRK channels are critical for functions as diverse as heart rate modulation and neuronal post-synaptic inhibition. GIRK5 (Kir3.5) is the oocyte homologue of the mammalian GIRK subunits that conform the K(ACh) channel. It has been claimed that even when the oocytes express GIRK5 proteins they do not form functional channels. However, the GIRK5 gene shows three initiation sites that suggest the existence of three isoforms. In a previous work we demonstrated the functionality of homomultimers of the shortest isoform overexpressed in the own oocytes. Remarkably, the basal GIRK5-Delta25 inward currents were not coupled to the activation of a G-protein receptor in the oocytes. These results encouraged us to study this channel in another expression system. In this work we show that Sf21 insect cells can be successfully transfected with this channel. GIRK5-Delta25 homomultimers produce time-dependent inward currents only with GTPgammaS in the recording pipette. Therefore, alternative modes of stimulus input to heterotrimeric G-proteins should be present in the oocytes to account for these results.
Life Sciences 03/2003; 72(13):1509-18. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)02447-5 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water gain in the brain consequent to hyponatremia is counteracted by mechanisms that initially include a compensatory displacement of liquid from the interstitial space to cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation and subsequently an active reduction in cell water accomplished by extrusion of intracellular osmolytes to reach osmotic equilibrium. Potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), amino acids, polyalcohols, and methylamines all contribute to volume regulation, with a major contribution of ions at the early phase and of organic osmolytes at the late phase of the regulatory process. Experimental models in vitro show that osmolyte fluxes occur via leak pathways for organic osmolytes and separate channels for Cl- and K+. Osmotransduction signaling cascades for Cl- and taurine efflux pathways involve tyrosine kinases and phosphoinositide kinases, while Ca2+ and serine-threonine kinases modulate K+ pathways. In-depth knowledge of the cellular and molecular adaptive mechanisms of brain cells during hyponatremia contributes to a better understanding of the associated complications, including the risks of inappropriate correction of the hyponatremic condition.
Archives of Medical Research 05/2002; 33(3):237-44. DOI:10.1016/S0188-4409(02)00353-3 · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyposmolarity activates amino acid efflux as part of the corrective volume process in a variety of cells. This review discusses the mechanism of amino acid release in brain cells preparations. Results present evidence of substantial differences between the efflux of taurine and that of GABA and glutamate, which besides a possible role as osmolytes, have a main function as synaptic transmitters. The differences found concern the efflux time course, the sensitivity to C1- channel blockers, the modulation by tyrosine kinases, the influence of PKC and the effect of cytoskeleton disruptive agents. While taurine efflux features fit well with the mechanisms so far described in most cell types, the efflux of GABA and glutamate does not. Alternate mechanisms for the release of these two amino acids are discussed, including a PKC-modulated, actin-dependent exocytosis.
Neurochemical Research 03/2002; 27(1-2):59-65. DOI:10.1023/A:1014850505400 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introducción La capacidad de mantener un volumen celular constante es una característica que se ha mantenido a través de la evolución, en prácticamente todas las especies. La preservación del volumen es un imperativo homeostático en la célula, ya que una variación en la concentración de iones y moléculas puede dar información equívoca en el sistema de señales que es la base de la función celular y de la comunicación intercelular. En condiciones fisiológicas la osmolaridad del medio extracelular está controlada con precisión. La presión coloido-osmótica de las macromoléculas intracelulares cargadas eléctricamente lleva a una entrada continua de Na + a la célula, que, sin embargo, no modifica el volumen celular debido a la función de la ATPasa de Na + /K + . Esta situación puede cambiar en condiciones patológicas, en las que la osmolaridad del plasma se modifica, como en la hiponatremia, o en las que la actividad del Arenal Mena IP, Cea Bonilla A, Vázquez Contreras E, Riveros Rosas H (eds). Mensaje Bio-químico, Vol XXVI. Depto Bioquímica, Fac Me-dicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured cerebellar granule neurons exposed to gradual reductions in osmolarity (-1.8 mOsm/min) maintained constant volume up to -50% external osmolarity (pi(o)), showing the occurrence of isovolumetric regulation (IVR). Amino acids, Cl-, and K+ contributed at different phases of IVR, with early efflux threshold for [3H]taurine, D-[3H]aspartate (as marker for glutamate) of pi(o) -2% and -19%, respectively, and more delayed thresholds of -30% for [3H]glycine and -25% and -29%, respectively, for Cl- (125I) and K+ (86Rb). Taurine seems preferentially involved in IVR, showing the lowest threshold, the highest efflux rate (five-fold over other amino acids) and the largest cell content decrease. Taurine and Cl- efflux were abolished by niflumic acid and 86Rb by 15 mM Ba2+. Niflumic acid essentially prevented IVR in all ranges of pi(o). Cl--free medium impaired IVR when pi(o) decreased to -24% and Ba2+ blocked it only at a late phase of -30% pi(o). These results indicate that in cerebellar granule neurons: (i) IVR is an active process of volume regulation accomplished by efflux of intracellular osmolytes; (ii) the volume regulation operating at small changes of pi(o) is fully accounted for by mechanisms sensitive to niflumic acid, with contributions of both Cl- and amino acids, particularly taurine; (iii) Cl- contribution to IVR is delayed with respect to other niflumic acid-sensitive osmolyte fluxes (osmolarity threshold of -25% pi(o)); and (iv), K+ fluxes do not contribute to IVR until a late phase (< -30% pi(o)).
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2001; 79(1):143-51. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2001.00546.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium (Ca2+) dependence of potassium (K+) efflux activated by hyposmolarity in cultured cerebellar astrocytes was investigated, measuring in parallel experiments (86)Rb release and changes in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Hyposmotic (50%) medium increased [Ca2+]i from 117 to 386 nM, with contributions of extracellular Ca2+ and Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. Hyposmotic medium increased (86)Rb efflux rate from 0.015 min(-1) to a maximal of 0. 049 min(-1) and a net release of 30%. This osmosensitive efflux was inhibited by Ba(2+) (0.028 min(-1)), quinidine (0.024 min(-1)), and charybdotoxin (0.040 min(-1)), but was unaffected by TEA, 4-AP, or apamin. Removal of external Ca2+ from the hyposmotic medium increased (86)Rb efflux to a maximal rate constant of 0.056 min(-1) and a net release of 38% and caused a delay of inactivation. These changes were due to the overlaping of an efflux activated by Ca2+ removal in isosmotic medium. This isosmotic 86Rb efflux was unaffected by TEA or 4-AP, reduced by verapamil, and abolished by Ba2+, nitrendipine, and Mg2+. With the swelling-induced [Ca2+]i rise suppressed by ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid-acetoxy-methyl ester (EGTA-AM), hyposmotic (86)Rb was 30% reduced. The Ca2+ entry blockers Cd2+, Ni2+, La3+, and Gd3+ did not affect (86)Rb efflux. A 40% decrease observed with verapamil and nitrendipine was found unrelated to Ca2+, because these agents did not affect the [Ca2+]i rise and the inhibition persisted in the absence of external Ca2+. The phospholipase C blocker U-73122 did not affect [Ca2+]i nor (86)Rb efflux. Blockers of Ca2+/calmodulin W7 and KN-93 decreased (86)Rb efflux to the same extent as EGTA-AM. Ionomycin markedly potentiated (86)Rb release in hyposmotic conditions only when [Ca2+]i was raised to about 1 microM, suggesting the implication of maxi-K+ channels at this [Ca2+]i threshold, which nonetheless, was not attained during hyposmotic swelling. It is concluded that (86)Rb efflux in cerebellar astrocytes is largely (70%) Ca2+-independent and the Ca2+-dependent fraction is sustained essentially by Ca2+ released from the endoplasmic reticulum and mediated by a mechanism involving Ca2+/calmodulin.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/1999; 57(3):350-8. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19990801)57:3<350::AID-JNR7>3.0.CO;2-Z · 2.59 Impact Factor