W T Nichols

Merck Animal Health, Summit, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (36)64.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to one of three beta adrenergic agonist (ΒAA: ) supplementation treatments: zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH: ; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH: ; 308 mg/hd/d for 28 d), or no βAA (CON: ) to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5 cm thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler (WBSF: ) and slice shear force (SSF: ), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P < 0.01) than CON or RH, which were similar. An interaction between βAA and aging was observed (P < 0.01) for WBSF, but not SSF. Within steaks aged 14 d, ZH steaks required the most force to shear, RH were intermediate, and CON had the lowest WBSF values; however, RH had a stronger response to aging than CON or ZH, resulting in the lowest WBSF values at 21 d. SSF values were greater (P < 0.01) in steaks from steers fed ZH than CON or RH, which did not differ. Following shear force analyses, steaks within 2 SD of each treatment mean for WBSF were selected randomly for consumer assessment of eating quality. Consumer testing (n = 400; 200/postmortem aging period) was arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial representing 3 quality grades [Select (SEL: ), Low Choice (CHO: ), and Premium Choice (PCH: )] and 3 treatments (ZH, RH, & CON). In steaks aged 14 d, βAA supplementation affected (P < 0.01) tenderness, flavor and overall liking, and tenderness acceptability, resulting in lower consumer scores for ZH than CON and RH; however, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA only influenced (P < 0.01) tenderness and juiciness scores. Despite these differences, βAA did not affect (P > 0.05) acceptability. Quality grade impacted (P < 0.01) all traits and acceptability in steaks aged 14 d and 21 d. In 14-d steaks, PCH typically was scored higher than CHO or SEL; however, consumers rated 21- d CHO and PCH similarly - both receiving greater scores than SEL. Consumers detected several differences in eating quality at 14 d because of βAA supplementation. Increasing aging from 14 to 21 d mitigated differences in shear force and tenderness scores because of feeding ZH, so that tenderness and overall acceptability were similar between ZH, RH, and CON.
    Meat Science 05/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7840 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: British × Continental heifers (n = 3,382; initial BW = 307 kg) were serially slaughtered to determine if increasing days on the finishing diet (DOF) mitigates negative consequences of zilpaterol HCl (ZH) on quality grade and tenderness of beef. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized block design (36 pens; 6 pens/treatment) was used. Zilpaterol HCl (8.33 mg/kg DM) was fed 0 and 20 to 22 d before slaughter plus a 3 to 5 d withdrawal to heifers spending 127, 148, and 167 DOF. Feedlot and carcass performance data were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. Three hundred sixty carcasses (60 carcasses/treatment) were randomly subsampled, and strip loin steaks were aged for 7, 14, and 21 d for assessment of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) with carcass serving as the experimental unit for analysis. No relevant ZH × DOF interactions were detected (P > 0.05). Feeding ZH during the treatment period increased ADG by 9.5%, G:F by 12.5%, carcass ADG by 33.6%, carcass G:F by 35.9%, carcass ADG:live ADG by 15.6%, HCW by 3.2% (345 vs. 356 kg), dressing percent by 1.5%, and LM area by 6.5% and decreased 12th-rib fat by 5.2% and yield grade (YG) by 0.27 units (P < 0.01). Feeding ZH tended to decrease marbling score (437 vs. 442 units; P = 0.10) and increased WBSF at 7 (4.25 vs. 3.47 kg; P < 0.01), 14 (3.57 vs. 3.05 kg; P < 0.01), and 21 d (3.50 vs. 3.03 kg; P < 0.01). Feeding ZH decreased empty body fat percentage (EBF; 29.7% vs. 30.3%; P < 0.01) and increased 28% EBF adjusted final BW (473.4 vs. 449.8 kg; P < 0.01). Analysis of interactive means indicated that the ZH × 148 DOF group had a similar percentage of USDA Prime, Premium Choice, Low Choice, and YG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 carcasses (P > 0.10) and decreased percentage of Select (30.4 vs. 36.6%; P = 0.03) and Standard (0.2 vs. 0.9%; P = 0.05) carcasses compared with the control × 127 DOF group. As a result of ZH shifting body composition, extending the DOF of beef heifers is an effective feeding strategy to equalize carcass grade distributions. This can be accomplished along with sustaining the ZH mediated advantages in feedlot and carcass weight gain.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2012; 90(9):3301-11. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4375 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Steers (n = 560; initial BW = 420 ± 26 kg) were selected from a pool of 1,040 using the IGENITY® Profile DNA test for tenderness, sorted into one of four tenderness genotype (TG) groups {140 tough (TUF), 140 intermediate (INT), 140 tender (TEN), or 140 mixed (MXD)} and subsequently allocated into 56 pens at random, of which one-half (28 pens, 7 pens from each TG) were fed the β-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the balance, a control ration. No TG x ZH interaction (P ≥ 0.15) occurred for any measured trait. Cattle from the INT TG had lesser (P < 0.05) DMI during the pre-treatment (d0 - d118) and entire trial (d0 - d 143) periods than other TG's. Cattle fed ZH had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F and decreased (P < 0.01) DMI during the treatment period (d119 - d143). Cattle from the TEN group had greater (P < 0.01) marbling scores, larger (P < 0.02) calculated USDA yield grades (YG), and more (P < 0.02) calculated empty body fat (EBF) than TUF cattle. Cattle receiving ZH during the treatment period had increased (P < 0.01) HCW, dressed yield, and LM area. Additionally, cattle fed ZH exhibited decreased (P < 0.01) EBF, marbling, KPH, and calculated USDA YG. No difference (P > 0.06) in YG distributions were detected amongst TG's, yet TEN cattle were represented by a greater (P < 0.01) proportion of Prime and premium Choice carcasses. Cattle fed ZH exhibited increased (P < 0.01) frequencies of YG 2 carcasses and fewer (P < 0.01) YG 3, 4, and 5 carcasses concurrent with an increase (P < 0.04) in the percentage of Select carcasses. Longissimus steaks from TUF cattle had greater (P < 0.03) Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) values at 7 and 14 d postmortem than steaks from INT or TEN cattle. Furthermore, ZH fed cattle had increased (P < 0.01) WBSF values for all aging periods compared to control cattle. Frequency of steaks with WBSF values below 3.9 kg (certified tender) were less (P < 0.05) for the TUF group. Feeding ZH resulted in fewer longissimus steaks (P < 0.01) with WBSF values less than 3.0 kg (guaranteed tender) across all aging periods, however no difference in the frequency of steaks with WBSF values less than 3.9 kg was found upon 21 d aging. IGENITY® Profile tenderness scores were correlated (P < 0.05) to carcass finish attributes and WBSF values. Commercially available tenderness panels may have the potential to allow for antemortem sorting of cattle into expected tenderness groupings, which could augment feeding management strategies and ultimately lead to increased marketing value for the beef system.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2012; 90(11). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-5120 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate changes in the muscle conformation of subprimal top-loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from calf-fed Holstein steers fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). Top-loins (n = 100) were transversely cut into 2.54 cm-thick steaks, weighed, and objectively evaluated via image analysis software for muscle area, width, and length traits. Top-loin steaks from steers fed ZH were heavier (P< 0.01; 367 vs. 337 g) and average muscle area per steak was greater (P < 0.05; 80.9 vs. 77.2 cm(2)) as compared to steaks from control steers. Muscle width (medial-lateral) was not different (P = 0.23) between control steers and those fed ZH. However, steaks from steers fed ZH had greater (P < 0.05) depth (dorsal-ventral) than steaks from control steers throughout the top-loin. The increased muscle depth of top-loins from calf-fed Holstein steers fed ZH may improve the center-of-the-plate salability of a cut that has traditionally suffered from poor muscling.
    Meat Science 05/2011; 88(1):209-11. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.12.031 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the shelf life and stability of ground beef. Beef knuckles and plates were obtained from USDA Select beef heifer carcasses from control (CON) animals or those supplemented with ZH (8.33 mg/kg of dietary DM basis) for the last 20 d of the finishing period. Subprimals were coarsely ground and blended to produce an 80% lean product. The mixture was vacuum-stuffed into chubs and placed in dark storage at 2 to 4°C for 7, 14, or 21 d before fine grinding. Each week, the finely ground samples were packaged on expanded polystyrene trays overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film and placed in refrigerated retail cases (0 to 2°C) under continuous fluorescent lighting to simulate retail display. Samples were subjected to a variety of analyses at different time intervals (h) during simulated display, including composition analysis, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance analysis (TBA), sensory color, instrumental color, and aerobic plate count. Data analysis revealed trained sensory color and discoloration scores were similar between CON and ZH-treated samples. Instrumental L* and b* values for CON and ZH-treated samples did not differ (P = 0.13 and 0.19, respectively). Instrumental a* values declined (P < 0.05) over the display period for CON and ZH ground beef. However, a* values for ZH ground beef stored for 7 d were greater (P < 0.05) than CON values at 18 through 72 h of display. There was a treatment × storage day interaction (P < 0.001) for TBA values with ZH having smaller TBA values than CON after 7 d of dark storage. There was no difference (P = 0.21) in aerobic plate count between ZH and CON ground beef samples. Overall, ground beef from cattle supplemented with ZH was equal to or better than CON for sensory color and discoloration, instrumental color, and stability variables, including TBA reactive substances and aerobic plate counts.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2011; 89(3):817-25. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3317 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anabolic steroid implants are commonly used to increase growth performance and carcass leanness. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various trenbolone acetate implants on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force, and consumer palatability ratings for USDA Choice and Select beef strip steaks aged for 14 and 21 d from cattle implanted before slaughter. Beef steers (n = 1,740) were subjected to the following treatments: 1) nonimplanted control (CON); 2) Revalor-IS on d 0 and Revalor-S on d 70 (IS/S); or 3) Revalor-XS (RXS) on d 0, and were randomly assigned to pens within blocks. A subsample of USDA Choice (n = 82) and USDA Select (n = 81) carcasses was selected. Strip loins from these carcasses were collected, and steaks measuring 2.54 cm were fabricated and aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Select steaks aged 14 d from RXS cattle had decreased (P < 0.05) WBSF values compared with IS/S steaks, but CON steaks did not differ from either implant treatment. Warner-Bratzler shear force did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05) from USDA Choice steaks aged 14 and 21 d or from Select steaks aged 21 d. Consumer scores for flavor and overall liking for USDA Choice 14-d aged RXS steaks were less (P < 0.05) than CON steaks; however, there were no differences between RXS, IS/S, and CON for tenderness or juiciness, or for tenderness and overall acceptability. Select steaks aged 14 d from IS/S cattle had less (P < 0.05) tenderness, tenderness acceptability, overall acceptability, overall liking, juiciness, and flavor scores than RXS and CON steaks; however, consumers also rated RXS steaks less for tenderness, juiciness, and tenderness acceptability when compared with CON steaks. Consumer scores for overall liking, flavor, and tenderness for USDA Choice steaks aged 21 d from RXS, IS/S, and CON did not differ. However, implant affected (P < 0.05) overall liking, flavor, juiciness, and tenderness for USDA Select steaks aged 21 d. Even so, there were no differences between RXS, IS/S, and CON steaks for tenderness or overall acceptability for steaks aged 21 d, regardless of quality grade. Results indicated that tenderness differences exist among implant strategies when strip steaks were aged 14 d; however, tenderness and overall consumer acceptability were only influenced by implant in Select steaks aged 14 d. Furthermore, aging for 21 d can minimize and even eliminate implant differences in WBSF and slice shear force, as well as tenderness and overall consumer acceptability.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2011; 89(3):792-7. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3115 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four experiments evaluated the effect of implant dose and release pattern on performance and carcass traits of crossbred beef steers. In Exp. 1, steers (4 to 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 315 kg) were fed an average of 174 d. Treatments were 1) no implant (NI); 2) Revalor-S [120 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and 24 mg of estradiol 17β (E(2)); REV-S]; 3) Revalor-IS followed by REV-S (cumulatively 200 mg of TBA and 40 mg of E(2); reimplanted at 68 to 74 d; REV-IS/S); and 4) Revalor-XS (200 mg of TBA and 40 mg of E(2); REV-X). Carcass-adjusted final BW was greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X and REV-IS/S than for REV-S (610, 609, and 598 kg, respectively). Daily DMI did not differ (P > 0.10) among the 3 implants, but carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X and REV-IS/S than for REV-S (0.197 and 0.195 vs. 0.188). Both HCW and LM area were greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X and REV-IS/S than for REV-S. Marbling scores were greatest (P < 0.05) for REV-S and least (P < 0.05) for REV-IS/S; REV-X was intermediate to NI and REV-IS/S. In Exp. 2, steers (10 pens/treatment; initial BW = 391 kg) were fed 131 d, with treatments of REV-S, REV-IS/S (reimplanted at 44 to 47 d), and REV-X. Carcass-adjusted final BW (598 kg), ADG (1.6 kg), DMI (9.4 kg), G:F (0.17), and HCW did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. The percentage of Choice was less (P < 0.05) and percentage of Select greater (P < 0.05) for REV-IS/S than for REV-S and REV-X. In Exp. 3, steers (10 pens/treatment; initial BW = 277 kg) were fed 197 d and received either REV-IS/S (reimplanted at 90 to 103 d) or REV-X. Carcass-adjusted final BW (625 vs. 633 kg) and ADG (1.81 vs. 1.76 kg) were greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X-implanted steers. Daily DMI did not differ, but G:F tended (P < 0.10) to be increased and HCW was greater (P < 0.05) for REV-X than for REV-IS/S. In Exp. 4, steers (8 pens/treatment; initial BW = 238 kg) were fed 243 d and received either REV-IS/S (reimplanted at 68 to 71 d) or REV-X. Carcass-adjusted final BW (612 kg), ADG (1.54 kg), DMI (7.55), and G:F (0.21) did not differ (P > 0.10) for REV-IS/S and REV-X-implanted steers. Carcass traits did not differ among implants, but the percentage of Choice carcasses was greater (P < 0.05) and percentage of Select was less (P < 0.05) for REV-X than for REV-IS/S. These data indicate that when TBA/E(2) dose is equal, the altered release rate of REV-X can improve performance and quality grade, but these effects depend on duration of the feeding period and timing of initial and terminal implants.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2010; 89(3):863-73. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3447 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles from 117 steers plus LL, gluteus medius (GM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles from 132 heifers were evaluated for effects of feeding duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax(R); ZH; 7.56g/907kg on a dry matter basis) and aging time on tenderness. Both genders were blocked by initial weight into six blocks of four pens. Pens were assigned to treatments of control (C), or 20, 30 or 40days on ZH, with a 3day withdrawal. Steaks from each subprimal were vacuum aged individually for 7, 14 or 21days, frozen, thawed, and cooked to 71 degrees C for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). All muscles from steers and heifers from ZH30 and ZH40 treatments had higher (P<0.05) WBSF than those of C. The WBSF of steer LL and heifer TB from the ZH20 treatment was higher (P<0.05) than C. There was a treatment by aging interaction (P>0.05) for WBSF of GM steaks from heifers. Percentage of intramuscular fat had little effect on tenderness. Percentages of steer LL and heifer TB steaks with WBSF values below thresholds of either 5.0 or 4.6kg from the ZH20 treatment were quite high, whereas percentages of heifer LL and GM muscles below 5.0kg (67%) and 4.6kg (57%) were low. Feeding ZH20days generally increased WBSF values, but mean WBSF values for steer LL and heifer TB were below 4.6kg. Feeding ZH 20days resulted in>40% of GM steaks with WBSF values above 4.6kg.
    Meat Science 06/2010; 85(2):347-55. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.002 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two trials investigated zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) feeding duration, enhancement, blade tenderization, and postmortem aging effect on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; trial 1) and consumer sensory ratings (trial 2). For trial 1, USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH (6.8 g/t on 90% DM) the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of the feeding period. One-half of each strip loin was enhanced (110%) with a brine solution, whereas the remaining portion was not enhanced. Both pieces were portioned into steaks, which were aged 7, 14, or 21 d for WBSF analysis. For trial 2, paired USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH the last 0 or 20 d of feeding. Paired strip loins were fabricated into 4 pieces and assigned to control, moisture enhanced, blade tenderized, and blade tenderized + moisture enhanced treatments. Strip loin pieces were then portioned into steaks that were aged 14 or 21 d postmortem. Consumers panelists (n = 458) indicated their like or dislike of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of each sample using 8-point, verbally anchored scales, as well as tenderness and overall acceptability. With exception of 20 d ZH-treated steaks, results from trial 1 indicate WBSF values decreased (P < 0.05) with enhancement. Among enhanced steaks, steaks from cattle fed ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values than controls. Among nonenhanced steaks, 20 d ZH-treated steaks had WBSF values similar to 0, 30, and 40 d ZH-treated steaks, whereas 30 and 40 d ZH-treated steaks had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values than controls. Postmortem aging for 21 d improved (P < 0.05) WBSF values for all ZH durations when compared with 7-d aging treatments. Results from trial 2 indicate ZH feeding for 20 d had no effect on flavor scores, decreased tenderness scores (P < 0.05), and tended (P < 0.10) to decrease juiciness and overall like scores when compared with controls for steaks aged 14 d. After 21 d aging, steaks from 20 d ZH-fed cattle had reduced (P < 0.05) tenderness, juiciness, and overall like scores and tended (P < 0.10) to have decreased flavor scores when compared with controls. These results indicate enhancement improved WBSF, but was not sufficient to overcome the detrimental effect of ZH feeding duration on WBSF until steaks were aged for 21 d postmortem. Consumer scores indicate 20 d ZH feeding had no effect on overall acceptability, but decreased tenderness and tenderness acceptability scores when compared with controls.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2010; 88(5):1809-16. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2383 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses were conducted to evaluate the ability of the USDA yield grade equation to detect differences in subprimal yield of beef-type steers and calf-fed Holstein steers that had been fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE) as well as those that had not been fed ZH. Beef-type steer (n = 801) and calf-fed Holstein steer (n = 235) carcasses were fabricated into subprimal cuts and trim. Simple correlations between calculated yield grades and total red meat yields ranged from -0.56 to -0.62 for beef-type steers. Reliable correlations from calf-fed Holstein steers were unobtainable; the probability of a type I error met or exceeded 0.39. Linear models were developed for the beef-type steers to predict total red meat yield based on calculated USDA yield grade within each ZH duration. At an average calculated USDA yield grade of 2.9, beef-type steer carcasses that had not been fed ZH had an estimated 69.4% red meat yield, whereas those fed ZH had an estimated 70.7% red meat yield. These results indicate that feeding ZH increased red meat yield by 1.3% at a constant calculated yield grade. However, these data also suggest that the calculated USDA yield grade score is a poor and variable estimator (adjusted R(2) of 0.31 to 0.38) of total red meat yield of beef-type steer carcasses, regardless of ZH feeding. Moreover, no relationship existed (adjusted R(2) of 0.00 to 0.01) for calf-fed Holstein steer carcasses, suggesting the USDA yield grade is not a valid estimate of calf-fed Holstein red meat yield.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2010; 88(6):2139-43. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2739 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beef steers (n = 11,877) from 7 studies were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0 or 20 to 40 d before slaughter to determine the effects of ZH on subprimal weight and yield. Carcasses were selected based on mean HCW of treatment groups for fabrication into boneless, closely trimmed, or denuded subprimals, lean, fat, and bone. Data from the 7 trials were pooled for statistical analysis. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.05) weights of all major subprimals compared with steers not supplemented with ZH. Also, subprimals from the hindquarter, including valuable cuts like the tenderloin, strip loin, and top sirloin butt, increased (P < 0.05) as a percentage of cold carcass weight from steers fed ZH. The tenderloin was 0.06 percentage units greater (P < 0.05), the strip loin was 0.08 percentage units greater (P < 0.05), and the top sirloin butt was 0.11 percentage units greater (P < 0.05) in ZH-fed steers when compared with steers not fed ZH. Supplementation of ZH greatly increased (P < 0.05) total saleable carcass yield by 1.76 percentage units, whereas ZH inclusion decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of fat trim and bone by 0.58 and 1.10 percentage units, respectively. Therefore, ZH can be utilized by the beef industry to improve red meat yield efficiency throughout the beef production chain.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2010; 88(5):1817-22. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2386 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Animal Science 01/2010; 88(1):416-416. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-88-1-0416 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions.
    Journal of Animal Science 12/2009; 88(3):1168-83. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-2369 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment investigated the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the steroidal implant Revalor-S (RS; 120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24 mg of estradiol-17beta) on finishing steer performance and the mRNA concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) types I and II, and types I, IIA, and IIX myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. A total of 2,279 feedlot steers weighing 426 +/- 6.4 kg were administered no implant or RS on d 0, and fed 0 or 8.3 mg of ZH/kg of diet DM during the last 30 d with a 3-d withdrawal. Treatments were randomly assigned to 24 pens (n = 6 pens/treatment). At slaughter, semimembranosus muscle tissue was excised for RNA isolation from 4 carcasses per pen. No interactions were detected for any of the variables measured in the experiment. Administration of ZH during the last 30 d of the feeding period increased (P < 0.01) ADG, G:F, HCW, and LM area; decreased (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat depth and marbling; and improved (P < 0.01) yield grade. Treatment had no effect on beta1-AR mRNA levels, but there was an increase (P = 0.01) in beta(2)-AR mRNA levels due to ZH inclusion. Myosin heavy chain-I (MHC-I) mRNA levels were unaffected by treatment. For MHC-IIA mRNA concentrations, administration of RS tended (P = 0.08) to increase mRNA levels, whereas ZH feeding the last 30 d tended (P = 0.08) to decrease mRNA levels for this isoform of myosin. Feeding ZH the last 30 d before slaughter increased (P < 0.01) mRNA concentrations of MHC-IIX in semimembranosus muscle of steers. These data indicate the combined use of ZH and RS additively contributes to BW and carcass gain in finishing feedlot steers and decreases marbling scores and USDA quality grades. The LM area increased and fat thickness decreased. In addition, ZH feeding changes the mRNA levels of MHC isoforms to a faster, more glycolytic fiber type in bovine skeletal muscle. These changes in mRNA concentrations of MHC isoforms, due to ZH feeding, could be affecting skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2009; 88(1):330-7. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1797 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the effects of an extended withdrawal period after feeding the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d at the end of the feeding period. Three hundred eighty-four crossbred beef steers were blocked by BW and randomly allocated into 64 pens (6 steers/pen). Pens were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Main effects were the addition of 0 (control) or 8.3 mg/kg of ZH (DM basis) to the finishing diet for 20 d before estimated average slaughter date and paired withdrawal periods of 3, 10, 17, or 24 d before slaughter. Individual BW were measured initially, 1 d before ZH feeding, and 1 d before slaughter. The ZH feeding period was initiated so that control cattle in the 3-d withdrawal group would be expected to average 65% USDA Choice Quality grade and have 1.27 cm of 12th-rib fat based on visual appraisal. Carcass data were collected at slaughter. For the 3-d withdrawal steers, 2 steers from each pen were selected to determine visceral organ and total offal mass at slaughter. The ZH x withdrawal day interaction was not significant (P > 0.10) for the majority of variables. There was no difference (P > or = 0.12) due to ZH feeding for final BW, carcass-adjusted final BW, or ADG. However, DMI was decreased (P = 0.02) and G:F increased (P = 0.01) in steers fed ZH vs. control steers. As day after withdrawal of ZH increased, there was a linear increase (P < 0.001) in final BW and carcass-adjusted final BW, but a linear decrease (P < 0.001) in ADG over the finishing period and over the ZH plus withdrawal period. Overall, HCW was 380 and 369 kg (P < 0.001) for ZH and control steers, respectively. However, the difference between ZH and control was 14, 17, 5, and 6 kg with 3, 10, 17, and 24 d withdrawal, respectively (ZH x withdrawal day, P = 0.09). Feeding ZH increased dressing percentage (65.8 vs. 64.6%; P < 0.001) and LM area (94.8 vs. 89.7 cm(2); P < 0.001), and decreased calculated yield grade (2.69 vs. 2.91; P = 0.03) and percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (31.1 vs. 42.3%; P = 0.03) compared with controls. Small intestinal mass (g/kg of empty BW) was greater (P = 0.03) for steers fed ZH compared with controls. There were no other differences (P > or = 0.11) in mass of body components, expressed in kilograms or as a fraction of empty BW. In this experiment, improvements in animal performance and HCW due to feeding ZH were generally maintained when withdrawal was extended through 10 d.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2009; 88(1):338-48. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1798 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Top sirloin butt steaks were used to determine the effects on color stability of supplementing zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to beef and calf-fed Holstein steers. This study compared the effects of dietary ZH supplementation for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d on feed. One-half of the top sirloin butts were enhanced and packaged in modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP); the remaining one-half were packaged in polyvinylchloride (PVC) film. Beef steaks packaged with PVC from cattle supplemented for 30 d had a tendency (P = 0.07) to produce a redder (a* = 18.31) steak than the control cattle (a* = 17.00) or cattle supplemented for 40 d (a* = 17.05). In beef steaks, ZH had no effect on subjective visual color (P = 0.15 to 0.27) and discoloration (P = 0.10 to 0.59) of steaks packaged with PVC when stratified by day of display, with the exception of visual color on d 5. Beef steaks under MAP from cattle supplemented for 20 d were redder (a* = 19.50, P < 0.05) than those from cattle supplemented for 30 (a* = 18.07) or 40 d (a* = 17.57), but were similar to the control steaks (a* = 18.68). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of retail display day and day of supplementation on objective or subjective color of calf-fed Holstein steaks packaged with PVC. Dietary supplementation for 20 d produced a greater (P < 0.05) b* value on d 1 of display in MAP-packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. If recommending a period of dietary supplementation, 20 to 30 d would be suggested to result in, on average, the brightest, reddest sirloin butt steaks.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2009; 87(11):3669-76. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1815 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed ZH for 0 or 20 d. Steaks from 0- and 20-d ZH treatments were different for tenderness for the 14-d aged USDA Choice and the calf-fed Holstein study groups. No differences were shown for all other 0- and 20-d ZH treatments for tenderness. The 21-d aged USDA Select steaks were improved with aging, which aided in removing the effects of ZH treatment. The ZH treatment of 30 d before slaughter resulted in increased WBSF values and decreased consumer tenderness, juiciness, and overall palatability ratings for 14-d-aged USDA Choice. No differences were shown for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability consumer ratings for 0- and 20-d steaks from 21-d Choice and 14- and 21-d Select quality and aging periods. Overall, USDA Choice Holstein steaks aged 14 and 21 d had differences in tenderness with ZH.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(11):3712-21. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1837 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is designed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH on a DM basis for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. After slaughter, steers were fabricated into 4 pieces (round, loin/flank, rib/plate, and chuck), packaged in combos, shipped to 2 locations, and further fabricated into subprimal pieces and trim. Trim was collected from each primal and separated into groups based on composition of 90, 80, and 50% lean. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P = 0.01) CSW by 6.22 kg and saleable yield by 6.4 kg when included in the diet for 20 d. Furthermore, saleable yield as a percentage of CSW was increased (P = 0.03) 1.18 percentage units when included in the diet for 20 d. Steers fed ZH for 20 d had heavier strip loins (4.47 vs. 4.12 kg, P = 0.02), tenderloins (2.75 vs. 2.49 kg, P = 0.02), and ribeye rolls (5.74 vs. 5.30 kg, P = 0.01) than steers not fed ZH. These advantages are further demonstrated as a percentage of CSW. Strip loins (P = 0.06), tenderloins (P = 0.04), and ribeye rolls (P = 0.04) of ZH-fed steers had a greater percentage of CSW than controls. Zilpaterol hydrochloride also increased the percentage of CSW of the 3 primary components of the round when fed for 20 d. The knuckle was 0.10 percentage units heavier (P = 0.11), the top round was 0.24 percentage units heavier (P = 0.04), and the bottom round was 0.22 percentage units heavier (P = 0.03) in ZH-fed steers when compared with steers not fed ZH. Based on these data, it can be concluded that ZH significantly increased subprimal cutting weights, yields, and percentage saleable yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for at least 20 d before slaughter. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased percentage of CSW of subprimal cuts from Holstein steers in the round and to a lesser degree in the loin.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(11):3722-9. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1830 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d (ZH0, ZH20, ZH30, ZH40) on semimembranosus (SM) steak color and color stability in 3 packaging systems, SM subprimals were removed from 60 calf-fed Holstein steers 24 h postmortem. A 7.62-cm-thick portion was removed from each subprimal and stored (2 degrees C) for 21 d; then two 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film, and assigned to 0 or 3 d of display. Remaining portions of the subprimals were vacuum packaged for 10 d and then enhanced (10% with a solution containing 0.3% sodium chloride, 0.35% phosphate, and 0.05% rosemary extract), cut into steaks, packaged in high-oxygen (HO-MAP) or carbon monoxide (CO-MAP) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and assigned to 0, 3, or 5 d (HO-MAP) or 0 or 9 d (CO-MAP) of display. Panelists evaluated the deep and superficial portions of SM steaks for initial color, display color, discoloration, pH, L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and saturation indices. Feeding duration did not affect (P > 0.05) initial color scores of steaks in PVC. Steaks displayed in PVC from ZH20 or ZH30 diets were slightly brighter and less discolored than the ZH40 treatment. For enhanced steaks in HO-MAP, ZH20 steaks were darker on d 5 (P < 0.05) and more discolored (P < 0.05) on d 3 through 5 than all other diet treatments. For enhanced steaks from steers fed ZH40 and in CO-MAP, the deep and superficial SM tended (P > 0.05) to have improved display color compared with other dietary regimens; however, steaks in CO-MAP from all feeding durations had less than 20% metmyoglobin through d 9 of display. Overall, feeding ZH20 might result in steaks with slightly less color stability when packaged in HO-MAP; however, feeding ZH20 or ZH30 to calf-fed Holstein steers will yield steaks that have equal to or more desirable color traits when packaged in PVC or CO-MAP. Regardless of ZH feeding regimen, HO-MAP and CO-MAP extended the color life of the SM. The CO-MAP system minimized color differences between the superficial and deep portions of the SM muscle and extended total case life compared with traditional and HO-MAP packaging.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(11):3751-63. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1844 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), fed for 0, 20, or 30 d, on meat quality attributes of calf-fed Holstein steers. Steers were slaughtered at a commercial facility, and carcasses were selected by HCW to represent the pen mean. Further carcass selection was based on quality grade (Choice and Select) and yield grade. Proximate composition, measures of water holding capacity, and tenderness using Warner-Bratzler shear force after 7, 14, or 21 d postmortem were evaluated on the shoulder clod (triceps brachii), top butt (gluteus medius), and strip loin (longissimus lumborum). Percentage of purge for the 3 subprimals was not different (P > 0.05) among ZH treatments. Steers fed ZH for 20 d or 30 d had decreased (P < 0.05) percentages of fat in the triceps brachii, compared with 0-d ZH. Percentage of fat was less (P < 0.05) in the gluteus medius and longissimus lumborum when steers were fed ZH for 30 d compared with those steers fed ZH for 0 d. Percentage of fat was greater in Choice triceps brachii (P < 0.05) and longissimus lumborum (P < 0.10) compared with Select. Thaw loss was not different (P > 0.05) for any muscle due to ZH treatment. Only longissimus had a greater (P < 0.05) cooking loss with ZH treatment. Cooking loss was not different (P > 0.05) for the gluteus medius or longissimus lumborum due to quality grade or aging day. At each aging day, the 20- and 30-d ZH longissimus lumborum had greater (P < 0.05) shear force values than 0 d; however, 20- and 30-d ZH had a greater absolute change in shear force from 7 to 21 d than that of 0 d ZH. Triceps brachii steaks were less tender (P < 0.05) after ZH treatment, but gluteus medius steaks were not different (P > 0.05). There was no difference (P > 0.05) in shear force due to quality grade. Results illustrate the use of ZH in calf-fed Holstein steers will have minimal effects on purge, thaw, or cooking loss. Percentage of intramuscular fat will decrease, especially when fed for longer durations. Steaks from ZH treated steers were tougher than steaks from control animals at all aging times, but ZH steaks became more tender with postmortem aging.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2009; 87(11):3730-8. DOI:10.2527/jas.2009-1838 · 1.92 Impact Factor