[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). OBJECTIVE: To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; P<0.05 for both comparisons). Among 176 physicians with a median of 13 years experience, the median operator volume was 200 cases per year. Operators with fewer than 100 cases per year had higher rates of 30-day death, MI or TVR (13.2% versus 8.7%; P=0.18) and large MI (7.7% versus 3.3%; P=0.06) than those with 100 or more cases per year. The median institutional volume was 1064 cases per year. Canadian and US centres had similar operator and institutional volumes. By multivariate modelling, operator volume was not predictive of adverse clinical events. However, the rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR fell by 3% for every 100 patients treated by the institution (OR 0.97; P=0.058 and P=0.002, respectively). Enrollment in Canada was associated with improved outcomes at 30 days (OR 0.50; P=0.001) and one year (OR 0.66; P=0.001) despite inclusion of volume variables in the models. CONCLUSIONS: In the ESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries
The Canadian journal of cardiology 09/2009; 25(8). · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unfractionated heparin is widely used in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes but has important limitations. Anticoagulants with predictable kinetics and anticoagulant effects, better efficacy, and greater safety are needed.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of a direct, selective factor Xa inhibitor, DX-9065a (Daiichi Pharmaceuticals LTD, Inc.) compared with heparin, in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes.
Patients (n = 402) from the USA, Canada, and Japan were randomized to blinded, weight-adjusted heparin, low-dose DX-9065a, or high-dose DX-9065a.
The primary efficacy endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization, or ischemia on continuous ST-segment monitoring occurred in 33.6%, 34.3%, and 31.3% of patients assigned to heparin, low-dose DX-9065a, and high-dose DX-9065a (P = 0.91 for heparin vs. combined DX-9065a). The composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization occurred in 19.5%, 19.3%, and 11.9% (P = 0.125 for heparin vs. high-dose DX-9065a) of patients; major or minor bleeding occurred in 7.7%, 4.2%, and 7.0% of patients; and major bleeding in 3.3%, 0.8%, and 0.9% of patients. Higher concentrations of DX-9065a were associated with a lower likelihood of ischemic events (P = 0.03) and a non-significant tendency toward a higher likelihood of major bleeding (P = 0.32).
In this small phase II trial, there was a non-significant tendency toward a reduction in ischemic events and bleeding with DX-9065a compared with heparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The absence of an effect on ST-monitor ischemia warrants further investigation. These data provide the rationale for adequately powered studies of DX-9065a in acute coronary syndromes or percutaneous intervention.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2005; 3(3):439-47. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct factor (F)Xa inhibition is an attractive method to limit thrombotic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
To investigate drug levels achieved, effect on coagulation markers, and preliminary efficacy and safety of several doses of DX-9065a, an intravenous, small molecule, direct, reversible FXa inhibitor during PCI.
Patients undergoing elective, native-vessel PCI (n = 175) were randomized 4 : 1 to open-label DX-9065a or heparin in one of four sequential stages. DX-9065a regimens in stages I-III were designed to achieve concentrations of > 100 ng mL-1, > 75 ng mL-1, and > 150 ng mL-1. Stage IV used the stage III regimen but included patients recently given heparin.
At 15 min median (minimum) DX-9065a plasma levels were 192 (176), 122 (117), 334 (221), and 429 (231) ng mL-1 in stages I-IV, respectively. Median whole-blood international normalized ratios (INRs) were 2.6 (interquartile range 2.5, 2.7), 1.9 (1.8, 2.0), 3.2 (3.0, 4.1), and 3.8 (3.4, 4.6), and anti-FXa levels were 0.36 (0.32, 0.38), 0.33 (0.26, 0.39), 0.45 (0.41, 0.51), and 0.62 (0.52, 0.65) U mL-1, respectively. Stage II enrollment was stopped (n = 7) after one serious thrombotic event. Ischemic and bleeding events were rare and, in this small population, showed no clear relation to DX-9065a dose.
Elective PCI is feasible using a direct FXa inhibitor for anticoagulation. Predictable plasma drug levels can be rapidly obtained with double-bolus and infusion DX-9065a dosing. Monitoring of DX-9065a may be possible using whole-blood INR. Direct FXa inhibition is a novel and potentially promising approach to anticoagulation during PCI that deserves further study.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2004; 2(2):234-41. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Total Occlusion Study of Canada (TOSCA) is a multicenter, randomized trial evaluating the effect of stenting with > =1 heparin-coated stent on long-term patency after percutaneous coronary intervention by balloon angioplasty of occluded coronary arteries. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of stenting and balloon angioplasty on global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional wall motion and to examine what clinical and angiographic factors may have an effect on left ventricular function in this setting.
Analysis at the core angiographic laboratory of paired baseline and follow-up left ventricular angiograms, as well as target vessel patency, was possible in 244 of 410 cases. An improvement in LVEF was observed in the entire group (59.4% +/- 11% to 61.0% +/- 11%, P =.003). The LVEF change was +1.84 +/- 7.54 in the stent group (P =.009) and 1.28 +/- 8.16 in the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty group (P =.085). There was no significant intergroup difference. Patients with duration of occlusion < or =6 weeks had an improvement in LVEF (+2.98 +/- 8.68, P =.0006), whereas those with an occlusion duration of > 6 weeks had no improvement (+0.48 +/- 7.01, P not significant). Multivariate analysis revealed baseline LVEF <60%, duration of occlusion < or =6 weeks, and Canadian Cardiology Society angina class I or II to be independent predictors of improvement in LVEF.
The restoration of coronary patency of nonacute occluded coronary arteries is associated with a small but significant improvement in regional and global left ventricular function, especially in patients with recent occlusions and depressed left ventricular function. In spite of significant effect on long-term patency, stenting of nonacute coronary occlusions does not result in significantly better left ventricular function compared with balloon angioplasty in this setting.
American Heart Journal 09/2001; 142(2):301-8. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the setting of percutaneous coronary revascularization, agents in the class known as platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have significantly reduced the incidence of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. We assessed whether there are differences in safety or efficacy between two such inhibitors, tirofiban and abciximab.
Using a double-blind, double-dummy design at 149 hospitals in 18 countries, we randomly assigned patients to receive either tirofiban or abciximab before undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization with the intent to perform stenting. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or urgent target-vessel revascularization at 30 days. The trial was designed and statistically powered to demonstrate the noninferiority of tirofiban as compared with abciximab.
The primary end point occurred more frequently among the 2398 patients in the tirofiban group than among the 2411 patients in the abciximab group (7.6 percent vs. 6.0 percent; hazard ratio, 1.26; one-sided 95 percent confidence interval of 1.51, demonstrating lack of equivalence, and two-sided 95 percent confidence interval of 1.01 to 1.57, demonstrating the superiority of abciximab over tirofiban; P=0.038). The magnitude and the direction of the effect were similar for each component of the composite end point (hazard ratio for death, 1.21; hazard ratio for myocardial infarction, 1.27; and hazard ratio for urgent target-vessel revascularization, 1.26), and the difference in the incidence of myocardial infarction between the tirofiban group and the abciximab group was significant (6.9 percent and 5.4 percent, respectively; P=0.04). The relative benefit of abciximab was consistent regardless of age, sex, the presence or absence of diabetes, or the presence or absence of pretreatment with clopidogrel. There were no significant differences in the rates of major bleeding complications or transfusions, but tirofiban was associated with a lower rate of minor bleeding episodes and thrombocytopenia.
Although the trial was intended to assess the noninferiority of tirofiban as compared with abciximab, the findings demonstrated that tirofiban offered less protection from major ischemic events than did abciximab.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2001; 344(25):1888-94. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bleeding risk associated with platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) after full-dose thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. We examined the risk and predictors of bleeding complications in patients with AMI who received abciximab during rescue or urgent PTCA after full-dose thrombolytic therapy.
A multicenter retrospective cohort of 147 consecutive patients who underwent PTCA within 48 hours after full-dose thrombolysis for AMI was studied. Bleeding events (major, minor, nuisance) from the onset of AMI to discharge were compared between those who received abciximab (n = 57) and those who did not (n = 90).
Baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. Despite lower doses of procedural heparin, the incidence of non-coronary artery bypass graft-related major and minor bleeding was higher in the abciximab group than in controls (63% vs 39%, P =.004). Although the risk of major bleeding was 4-fold with abciximab (12% vs 3%, P =.04), only one intracranial and one fatal bleeding event occurred. Multivariable regression identified abciximab therapy as the most powerful independent predictor of combined major and minor bleeding, with a hazard risk ratio of 1.9 (P =.04).
In the setting of rescue or urgent PTCA within 48 hours after full-dose thrombolytic therapy after AMI, major and particularly minor bleeding were frequently encountered. The adjunctive use of abciximab increased these bleeding risks by approximately 2-fold.
American Heart Journal 03/2001; 141(2):218-25. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since waiting lists for coronary angiography are generally managed without explicit queuing criteria, patients may not receive priority on the basis of clinical acuity. The objective of this study was to examine clinical and nonclinical determinants of the length of time patients wait for coronary angiography.
In this single-centre prospective cohort study conducted in the autumn of 1997, 357 consecutive patients were followed from initial triage until a coronary angiography was performed or an adverse cardiac event occurred. The referring physicians' hospital affiliation (physicians at Sunnybrook & Women's College Health Sciences Centre, those who practice at another centre but perform angiography at Sunnybrook and those with no previous association with Sunnybrook) was used to compare processes of care. A clinical urgency rating scale was used to assign a recommended maximum waiting time (RMWT) to each patient retrospectively, but this was not used in the queuing process. RMWTs and actual waiting times for patients in the 3 referral groups were compared; the influence clinical and nonclinical variables had on the actual length of time patients waited for coronary angiography was assessed; and possible predictors of adverse events were examined.
Of 357 patients referred to Sunnybrook, 22 (6.2%) experienced adverse events while in the queue. Among those who remained, 308 (91.9%) were in need of coronary angiography; 201 (60.0%) of those patients received one within the RMWT. The length of time to angiography was influenced by clinical characteristics similar to those specified on the urgency rating scale, leading to a moderate agreement between actual waiting times and RMWTs (kappa = 0.53). However, physician affiliation was a highly significant (p < 0.001) and independent predictor of waiting time. Whereas 45.6% of the variation in waiting time was explained by all clinical factors combined, 9.3% of the variation was explained by physician affiliation alone.
Informal queuing practices for coronary angiography do reflect clinical acuity, but they are also influenced by nonclinical factors, such as the nature of the physicians' association with the catheterization facility.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 10/1999; 161(7):813-7. · 6.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Balloon angioplasty (PTCA) of occluded coronary arteries is limited by high rates of restenosis and reocclusion. Although stenting improves results in anatomically simple occlusions, its effect on patency and clinical outcome in a broadly selected population with occluded coronary arteries is unknown.
Eighteen centers randomized 410 patients with nonacute native coronary occlusions to PTCA or primary stenting with the heparin-coated Palmaz-Schatz stent. The primary end point, failure of sustained patency, was determined at 6-month angiography. Repeat target-vessel revascularization, adverse cardiovascular events, and angiographic restenosis (>50% diameter stenosis) constituted secondary end points. Sixty percent of patients had occlusions of >6 weeks' duration, baseline flow was TIMI grade 0 in 64%, and median treated segment length was 30.5 mm. With 95.6% angiographic follow-up, primary stenting resulted in a 44% reduction in failed patency (10.9% versus 19.5%, P=0.024) and a 45% reduction in clinically driven target-vessel revascularization at 6 months (15.4% versus 8.4%, P=0.03). The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events was similar for both strategies (PTCA, 23.6%; stent, 23.3%; P=NS). Stenting resulted in a larger mean 6-month minimum lumen dimension (1.48 versus 1.23 mm, P<0.01) and a reduced binary restenosis rate (55% versus 70%, P<0.01).
Primary stenting of broadly selected nonacute coronary occlusions is superior to PTCA alone, improving late patency and reducing restenosis and target-vessel revascularization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with the monoclonal-antibody fragment abciximab reduces the acute ischemic complications associated with percutaneous coronary revascularization, whereas coronary-stent implantation reduces restenosis. We conducted a trial to determine the efficacy of abciximab and stent implantation in improving long-term outcome.
A total of 2399 patients were randomly assigned to stent implantation and placebo, stent implantation and abciximab, or balloon angioplasty and abciximab. The patients were followed for six months.
At six months, the incidence of the composite end point of death or myocardial infarction was 11.4 percent in the group that received a stent and placebo, as compared with 5.6 percent in the group that received a stent and abciximab (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.68; P<0.001) and 7.8 percent in the group assigned to balloon angioplasty and abciximab (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.92; P=0.01). The hazard ratio for stenting plus abciximab as compared with angioplasty plus abciximab was 0.70 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 1.04; P=0.07). The rate of repeated revascularization of the target vessel was 10.6 percent in the stent-plus-placebo group, as compared with 8.7 percent in the stent-plus-abciximab group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.13; P=0.22) and 15.4 percent in the angioplasty-plus-abciximab group (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.97; P=0.005). The hazard ratio for stenting plus abciximab as compared with angioplasty plus abciximab was 0.55 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.74; P<0.001). Among patients with diabetes, the combination of abciximab and stenting was associated with a lower rate of repeated target-vessel revascularization (8.1 percent) than was stenting and placebo (16.6 percent, P=0.02) or angioplasty and abciximab (18.4 percent, P=0.008).
For coronary revascularization, abciximab and stent implantation confer complementary long-term clinical benefits.
New England Journal of Medicine 08/1999; 341(5):319-27. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of recent developments in coronary angioplasty on the broad spectrum of patients treated in routine practice is largely undefined. Analysis of population-based data can provide insight into trends in clinical outcomes and associated costs of coronary angioplasty procedures.
With the use of a comprehensive hospital discharge database covering more than 11 million Canadians, we analyzed 12,748 first-time angioplasty procedures performed from 1992 to 1995 inclusive. Patient demographics and major adverse events were recorded. With the use of forward linkage, readmissions within 12 months were classified according to procedure performed and/or most responsible diagnosis. The proportion of patients readmitted, the number of readmissions per index procedure, and diagnosis-specific readmission costs were compared by calendar year. Over the 4-year study period, there was a 21% increase in the annual volume of index procedures. There were no statistically significant differences between 1992 and 1995 in sex distribution, mean age, comorbid conditions, length of stay, or need for coronary bypass surgery related to the index procedure. The all-cause readmission rate declined from 51.6% to 47.2% between 1992 and 1995 (P <.001), primarily because of a decline in the admission rate for repeat revascularization from 24.8% to 19.6% (P <.001). The 12-month readmission cost declined by $435 (1994 Canadian dollars) per patient.
The clinical outcomes of coronary angioplasty in a broad cohort of patients have improved in recent years. Although readmissions within 1 year of an angioplasty procedure remain common, the number related to repeat revascularization has declined, with an associated decline in downstream costs.
American Heart Journal 07/1999; 137(6):1012-8. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laboratory evidence supports the use of adenosine-supplemented cardioplegia. An initial phase 1 dose-ranging clinical evaluation demonstrated that an adenosine concentration of 15 mumol/L could be safely administered with warm blood cardioplegia and suggested that phase 2 studies were warranted.
Two separate double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials were performed in patients undergoing primary, isolated, nonemergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients were randomized to receive adenosine 15 mumol/L versus placebo in the first study (n = 200) and adenosine 50 or 100 mumol/L versus placebo in the second study (n = 128). Adenosine was infused with both initial and final doses of warm antegrade blood cardioplegia. The data from the 2 trials were combined using the methods of Mantel and Haenszel, and the results of the meta-analysis are presented as the relative risk with their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The different study groups were comparable with respect to all preoperative clinical characteristics, angiographic findings, and intraoperative variables. In both trials 1 and 2, no differences were found between groups in the incidence of the individual primary or secondary outcomes. Similarly, when both studies were combined, there was no significant evidence of any consistent treatment benefit (primary: death: relative risk [RR] = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.06, 16.6; myocardial infarction by CK-MB: RR = 0.84, CI = 0.54, 1.31; low output syndrome: RR = 1.38, CI = 0.29, 6.42; any of the above: RR = 0.98, CI = 0.78, 1.25; secondary: Q-wave myocardial infarction: RR = 1.30, CI = 0.41, 4.13; myocardial infarction by troponin T: RR = 0.7, CI = 0.40, 1.21; inotrope requirement: RR = 0.9, CI = 0.46, 1.79; intra-aortic balloon pump requirement: RR = 0.6, CI = 0.07, 4.81; P > 0.20).
Despite promising experimental data, adenosine supplementation of warm blood cardioplegia did not demonstrate any statistically significant benefit in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Although sample sizes were relatively small, based on our interim analyses, it is unlikely that increased patient enrollment would reveal any substantive clinical differences between groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left internal thoracic artery (LITA) grafts to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) during coronary bypass surgery (CABG) have greater patency rates than saphenous vein grafts and reduce long-term cardiac morbidity and mortality rates. The benefits of multiple versus single arterial grafts and the role of different arterial conduits with respect to short- and medium-term outcome remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the perioperative and intermediate-term results of: (1) patients receiving 2 arterial grafts versus 1 arterial graft and (2) patients receiving a right internal thoracic artery (RITA) versus a radial artery (RA) as the second arterial graft.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data on consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG at our institution between 1989 and 1996 was conducted. The first section of the study compared outcomes for 1 arterial graft (LITA to LAD, n = 2333) versus 2 arterial grafts (LITA + RA or LITA + RITA, n = 378). The second section of the study compared outcomes for the RITA (n = 132) versus the RA (n = 171) as second arterial grafts since 1992, when the radial series was initiated. Part I: By multivariable stepwise logistic regression, the use of 1 arterial graft was associated with an increased incidence of perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.3), with the use of our current patient selection criteria. Double-arterial graft patients had a nonsignificant trend toward increased intermediate-term actuarial survival (P = 0.12) and cardiac event-free survival (P = 0.09). Part II: Comparison of preoperative demographics revealed a higher incidence of diabetes (27% vs 11%, P < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (16% vs 8%, P = 0.03), and elderly age (13% vs 2%, P = 0.001) in patients receiving an RA versus those receiving a RITA as the second arterial graft. Perioperative outcome analysis revealed a decreased intensive care unit stay in the RA versus RITA group (median 30.4 vs 36.2 hours, respectively, P = 0.005) but no significant difference in hospital length of stay. There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality or cardiac morbidity rates. RITA patients had a higher incidence of sternal wound infection (5.3% vs 0.6%, P = 0.01), however, and tended to have increased blood product transfusion rates (51% vs 40%, P = 0.06).
The use of 2 arterial grafts is safe, with a reduction in perioperative cardiac morbidity or mortality rates compared with 1 arterial graft after adjustment for other risk variables. When comparing RITA to RA as second arterial grafts, patients receiving an RA have a lower incidence of sternal wound infection and decreased transfusion requirements, with no difference in perioperative or intermediate-term cardiac morbidity or mortality rates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In autumn 1996, shortly after the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab was approved for clinical use by the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada, seven interventional cardiologists met in a roundtable forum to review the use of abciximab in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). While a compelling body of data was presented that argued strongly for adjunctive abciximab in conventional balloon angioplasty, the participants found in difficult to extrapolate the findings to contemporary interventional practice dominated by stent implantation. This uncertainty stemmed from the lack of clinical trials of abciximab during the stent era. Concerns were also raised that the unrestricted use of two expensive therapeutic modalities (stent implantation and GP IIb/IIIa inhibition) would place severe strains on catheterization laboratory budgets. The general consensus was that, pending the availability of further data, abciximab should probably be reserved for selected at-risk patients. This article summarized the roundtable discussions to provide cardiologists' perspectives on the use of abciximab in interventional practice. An overview of platelet physiology and the rationale for GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition; a summary of the results of recent randomized clinical trials that assessed the efficacy of abciximab in PTCA; an account of how stents became the most prevalent technique used in coronary intervention; a summary of the available data evaluating abciximab in conjunction with stent implantation; and a synopsis of the conference discussions are included.
The Canadian journal of cardiology 09/1998; 14(8):1057-66. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection of elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the occurrence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities after revascularization procedures have been the subject of recent controversy. This report represents an effort to achieve a consensus among a group of researchers with data on this subject. Creatine kinase (CK) or CK-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) elevations occur in 5% to 30% of patients after a percutaneous intervention and commonly during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Although Q wave formation is rare, other ECG changes are common. The rate of detection is highly dependent on the intensity of enzyme and ECG measurement. Because most events occur without the development of a Q wave, the ECG will not definitively diagnose them; even the ECG criteria for Q wave formation signifying an important clinical event have been variable. At least 10 studies evaluating > 10,000 patients undergoing percutaneous intervention have demonstrated that elevation of CK or CK-MB is associated not only with a higher mortality, but also with a higher risk of subsequent cardiac events and higher cost. Efforts to identify a specific cutoff value below which the prognosis is not impaired have not been successful. Rather, the risk of adverse outcomes increases with any elevation of CK or CK-MB and increases further in proportion to the level of intervention. This information complements similar previous data on CABG. Obtaining preprocedural and postprocedural ECGs and measurement of serial cardiac enzymes after revascularization are recommended. Patients with enzyme levels elevated more than threefold above the upper limit of normal or with ECG changes diagnostic for Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) should be treated as patients with an MI. Patients with more modest elevations should be observed carefully. Clinical trials should ensure systematic evaluation for myocardial necrosis, with attention paid to multivariable analysis of risk factors for poor long-term outcome, to determine the extent to which enzyme elevation is an independent risk factor after considering clinical history, coronary anatomy, left ventricular function and clinical evidence of ischemia. In addition, tracking of enzyme levels in clinical trials is needed to determine whether interventions that reduce periprocedural enzyme elevation also improve mortality.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/1998; 31(2):241-51. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various strategies exist for the use of cardiac catheterization in unstable angina or non-Q wave myocardial infarction. At the authors' institution, the overall volume of cardiac catheterization has increased in recent years.
To investigate whether this increased volume of cardiac catheterization was due to adoption of a more invasive approach to the management of patients with acute ischemic syndromes.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using detailed chart review of coronary care unit admissions during 1990/91 and 1993/94.
A university-affiliated tertiary care referral centre with facilities for cardiac catheterization.
One hundred patients randomly selected from among those with unstable angina, non-Q wave myocardial infarction or chest pain not yet diagnosed in each of the study years. Detailed follow-up was complete for all patients.
The use of cardiac catheterization during the index admission was documented.
There was a trend towards more frequent use of same admission cardiac catheterization in the later period (21% [CI 14% to 31%] versus 12% [CI 7% to 20%], P = 0.09). However, after controlling for baseline characteristics and in-hospital events, the year of admission did not independently predict the use of catheterization (P = 0.60). By multivariate logistic regression, recurrence of chest pain and evidence of myocardial necrosis were most closely associated with same-admission cardiac catheterization.
Although clinical factors partially explain the increased use of catheterization over time, there may have also been shift towards a more aggressive practice style at the authors' institution. Further study is needed to address this possibility.
The Canadian journal of cardiology 11/1997; 13(10):939-44. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Canadian Coronary Atherectomy Trial (CCAT) assessed, in a randomized comparison, the clinical and angiographic outcomes following atherectomy with those following balloon angioplasty for the treatment of de novo lesions in the proximal one-third of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Although the procedural success rate was somewhat higher and the postprocedure lumen larger in patients treated with atherectomy, lumen dimensions, restenosis rates and clinical outcomes were similar in the two groups at six months. To determine whether late differences emerged between the groups, clinical follow-up was obtained at a median of 18 (range 10 to 31) months after randomization.
Patients were contacted monthly by telephone for the first six months. Subsequent follow-up information was obtained in 272 (99%) of the 274 randomized patients via a clinic visit or telephone interview with the patient and/or a relative. Additional information was obtained from the referring physician as required. There were no differences in adverse events between the two groups during follow-up. In patients randomized to atherectomy compared with balloon angioplasty, death occurred in 1.5% versus 2.2% (cardiac death 0.7% versus 0.7%); myocardial infarction in 5.1% versus 5.9% (Q wave 1.5% versus 1.5%); coronary bypass surgery in 13.1% versus 12.6%; and repeat target lesion intervention in 22.6% versus 21.5%. Persistent or recurrent Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III/IV angina not treated by a further intervention was present in 1.5% versus 2.2%. The combined end-point of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in nine (6.6%) versus 11 (8.1%) patients and any adverse cardiac event in 50 (36.5%) versus 53 (39.3%). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that unstable angina, reference vessel size and preprocedure minimum lumen diameter were the only variables independently associated with adverse events.
The initial choice of directional atherectomy or balloon angioplasty had no impact on clinical outcome over a period of 18 months in this patient population. With either technique, just over 60% of patients with proximal LAD disease experienced sustained symptomatic improvement without an adverse event following a single procedure, and 80% achieved this status following a repeat percutaneous intervention.
The Canadian journal of cardiology 10/1997; 13(9):825-30. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine whether there are international variations in the use of evidence-based medical therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. We analyzed the medical therapy of patients in the United States (US) (n = 878), Europe (n = 134), and Canada (n = 274) who underwent percutaneous coronary revascularization in either the Coronary Angioplasty Versus Excisional Atherectomy Trial (CAVEAT-I) (enrollment from August 1991 to April 1992) or the Canadian Coronary Atherectomy Trial (CCAT) (enrollment from July 1991 to August 1992). We found that at the time of hospital admission, Canadian patients had the highest rates of treatment with aspirin (95% vs 57% US and 78% Europe; p = 0.002), calcium antagonists (75% vs 48% US and 43% Europe; p 0.0001), beta blockers (60% vs 32% US and 46% Europe; p = 0.02), and combination anti-ischemic therapy (67% vs 43% US and 56% Europe; p = 0.0001). By discharge, however, Canadian patients had the lowest rates of treatment with nitrates (12% vs 40% US and 44% Europe; p = 0.0001) and combination anti-ischemic therapy (29% vs 53% US and 47% Europe; p < 0.01). At both admission and discharge, rates of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid-lowering agents were < 15% in all 3 regions. We conclude that significant international variations exist in the use of evidence-based medical therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization.
The American Journal of Cardiology 05/1997; 79(7):867-72. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardioprotective role of adenosine in various models of ischemia-reperfusion, including adenosine supplementation to cardioplegic formulations, has been studied extensively. The appropriate dose of adenosine in humans is uncertain and could be limited by systemic hypotension or AV block.
An open-label, nonrandomized phase 1 adenosine dose-ranging study was performed. Patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary bypass surgery were eligible for the study. Antegrade warm blood potassium cardioplegia (ratio, 4:1, blood to crystalloid) was administered in the routine fashion, with adenosine added to the initial 1000-mL dose and final 500-mL dose. Patients were studied in blocks of 4 per concentration. An escalating adenosine dosage schedule was planned to produce blood cardioplegia concentrations from 0 to 250 mumol/L, and the blocks were tested sequentially. Stopping rules were defined for systemic hypotension (phenylephrine dose during cardiopulmonary bypass > or = 5.0 mg; phenylephrine dose during cardioplegic induction > or = 800 micrograms) and AV block (permanent pacemaker insertion; temporary pacing dependency for > 90 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass). Doses of 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 mumol/L were well tolerated. With 50 mumol/L, systemic hypotension occurred during cardioplegic induction in 3 of 4 patients versus 1 of 24 (P < .005) at all lower concentrations (880 +/- 217 versus 297 +/- 286 micrograms phenylephrine per patient). The studies were repeated with an 8:1 blood-to-crystalloid cardioplegia delivery system. Adenosine concentrations of 0 (n = 4), 15 (n = 12), 20 (n = 8), and 25 mumol/L (n = 4) were tested. Hypotension during cardioplegic induction was more prevalent (P = .05) with the higher doses (15 mumol/L, 394 +/- 189 micrograms, 1 of 12 patients; 20 mumol/L, 360 +/- 355 micrograms, 2 of 8 patients; 25 mumol/L, 600 +/- 478 micrograms, 2 of 4 patients). There were no differences with respect to systemic hypotension during cardiopulmonary bypass or for pacing > 90 minutes after discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and no patient required permanent pacing. There have been no deaths, Q-wave myocardial infarctions, intra-aortic balloon pump insertions, or cerebral infarctions in the total sample of 56 patients.
Our initial investigations have shown that adenosine can be safely administered during cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors recommend that further studies are warranted using adenosine 15 to 25 mumol/L, depending on the delivery system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether preprocedural lesion morphology differentially affects the outcome of directional coronary atherectomy versus standard balloon angioplasty.
Despite previous studies (Canadian Coronary Atherectomy Trial [CCAT]/Coronary Angioplasty Verus Excisional Atherectomy Trial [CAVEAT]), directional coronary atherectomy continues to be recommended on the basis of lesion-specific features, although the validity of this approach has never been proved.
A retrospective, subgroup analysis of the CCAT data base (group average +/- SD) was performed.
In the long term (6 months), both procedures were equally successful in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (directional atherectomy 0.62 +/- 0.70 mm vs. coronary angioplasty 0.70 +/- 0.72 mm, p = NS), with atherectomy tending to perform best in relatively "simple" lesions (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association [ACC/AHA] type A: atherectomy 0.57 +/- 0.70 mm vs. angioplasty 0.50 +/- 0.77 mm; ACC/AHA type B1: atherectomy 0.65 +/- 0.68 mm vs. angioplasty 0.60 +/- 0.68 mm) and those with moderate dystrophic calcification (atherectomy 0.79 +/- 0.56 mm vs. angioplasty 0.45 +/- 0.73 mm). Although greatest minimal lumen diameter gains were seen in larger (> 3 mm) coronary arteries (atherectomy 0.76 +/- 0.62 mm vs angioplasty 0.80 +/- 0.72 mm, p = NS) and those with severe obstruction (preprocedural minimal lumen diameter < 1.0 mm: atherectomy 0.80 +/- 0.62 mm vs. angioplasty 0.84 +/- 0.63 mm, p = NS), neither technique was superior, and eccentric stenoses (symmetry index < 0.5) had similar outcomes (atherectomy 0.59 +/- 0.49 mm vs. angioplasty 0.62 +/- 0.65 mm, p = NS).
These data refute many preconceptions regarding the choice of directional coronary atherectomy on the basis of anatomic criteria.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/1996; 27(3):543-51. · 14.09 Impact Factor