Chris Corcoran

Utah State University, Logan, Ohio, United States

Are you Chris Corcoran?

Claim your profile

Publications (48)213.77 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Prior research identifies that psychological outcomes among dementia caregivers are associated with their use of coping strategies. Few studies have tested the association of coping and health longitudinally. Method: This study examined factors associated with the use of coping strategies over time and their associations with physical and mental health outcomes in a population-based sample of 226 dementia caregivers in Cache County, Utah, USA. Caregivers annually completed the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a health interview. Care-recipient cognitive and functional abilities were obtained using the Mini-Mental State Exam and the Clinical Dementia Rating. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results: Caregivers most frequently identified providing care as a problem (37.6%). Linear mixed models of caregiver coping strategies found that the use of most strategies were stable except for increasing Avoidance among adult child caregivers (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). On average, increased Wishful Thinking (β = 2.48, p < 0.001) or Blames Self (β = 1.06, p = 0.002) was associated with higher anxiety scores. Increased use of Blames Others among males (interaction, β = 0.28, p = 0.02) and greater use of Wishful Thinking among younger caregivers (interaction, β = -0.01, p = 0.01) were associated with more caregiver health conditions. Coping strategies were not associated with change in anxiety or health conditions over time. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of caregiver coping strategies on caregiver health and well-being and may identify subgroups of persons at risk for worse outcomes.
    Aging and Mental Health 08/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: There is limited research on factors that influence the rate of progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk for AD, but its role on the rate of dementia progression after the onset of AD has not been examined. Methods: A population-based cohort of 325 persons with incident AD was followed for up to 11 years. The sample was 65% female with a mean (SD) age of dementia onset = 84.4 (6.4) years. History of TBI was categorized as number, severity (with or without loss of consciousness), and timing in relation to dementia onset (within ten years or more than ten years). Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry of AD battery, and functional ability was assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes. Results: In linear mixed models, a history of TBI within ten years of onset showed faster progression of functional impairment (LR x2 = 10.27, p = 0.006), while those with TBI more than ten years before dementia onset had higher scores on a measure of list learning (β = 1.61, p = 0.003) and semantic memory (β = 0.75, p = 0.0035). Conclusions: History of TBI and its recency may be a useful factor to predict functional progression in the course of AD.
    International Psychogeriatrics 05/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the use of antihypertensive medications has been associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it remains unclear which class provides the most benefit. The Cache County Study of Memory Health and Aging is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of dementing illnesses among the elderly population of Cache County, Utah. Using waves I to IV data of the Cache County Study, 3417 participants had a mean of 7.1 years of follow-up. Time-varying use of antihypertensive medications including different class of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers was used to predict the incidence of AD using Cox proportional hazards analyses. During follow-up, 325 AD cases were ascertained with a total of 23,590 person-years. Use of any antihypertensive medication was associated with lower incidence of AD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.97). Among different classes of antihypertensive medications, thiazide (aHR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.53-0.93), and potassium-sparing diuretics (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99) were associated with the greatest reduction of AD risk. Thiazide and potassium-sparing diuretics were associated with decreased risk of AD. The inverse association of potassium-sparing diuretics confirms an earlier finding in this cohort, now with longer follow-up, and merits further investigation.
    Neurobiology of Aging 05/2014; · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Experiencing the death of a child is associated with negative short-term mental health consequences, but less is known about cognitive outcomes and whether such associations extend to late life. We tested the hypothesis that experiencing an offspring death (OD) is associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in late life. This population-based longitudinal study observed four cognitive statuses spaced 3-4 years apart, linked to an extensive database containing objective genealogic and vital statistics data. Home visits were conducted with 3,174 residents of a rural county in northern Utah, initially without dementia, aged 65-105. Cognitive status was measured with the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam at baseline and at 3-, 7-, and 10-year follow-ups. OD was obtained from the Utah Population Database, which contains statewide birth and death records. In linear mixed models, controlling for age, gender, education, and apolipoprotein E status, subjects who experienced OD while younger than age 31 years experienced a significantly faster rate of cognitive decline in late life, but only if they had an ε4 allele. Reclassifying all OD (regardless of age) according to subsequent birth of another child, OD was only related to faster cognitive decline when there were no subsequent births. Experiencing OD in early adulthood has a long-term association with cognitive functioning in late life, with a gene-environment interaction at the apolipoprotein E locus. Subsequent birth of another child attenuates this association.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 08/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of potentially modifiable risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important. This study longitudinally explores modifiable vascular risk factors for NPS in AD. METHODS: Participants enrolled in the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging with no dementia at baseline were subsequently assessed over three additional waves, and those with incident (new onset) dementia were invited to join the Dementia Progression Study for longitudinal follow-up. A total of 327 participants with incident AD were identified and assessed for the following vascular factors: atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina, coronary artery bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and use of antihypertensive or diabetes medicines. A vascular index (VI) was also calculated. NPS were assessed over time using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Affective and Psychotic symptom clusters were assessed separately. The association between vascular factors and change in NPI total score was analyzed using linear mixed model and in symptom clusters using a random effects model. RESULTS: No individual vascular risk factors or the VI significantly predicted change in any individual NPS. The use of antihypertensive medications more than four times per week was associated with higher total NPI and Affective cluster scores. CONCLUSIONS: Use of antihypertensive medication was associated with higher total NPI and Affective cluster scores. The results of this study do not otherwise support vascular risk factors as modifiers of longitudinal change in NPS in AD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 05/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the gene encoding the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 2B (PPP3R1, rs1868402) and the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, rs3785883) gene were recently associated with higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels in samples from the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University (WU) and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). In these same samples, these SNPs were also associated with faster functional decline, or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes scores (CDR-sb). We attempted to validate the latter association in an independent, population-based sample of incident AD cases from the Cache County Dementia Progression Study (DPS). METHODS: All 92 AD cases from the DPS with a global CDR-sb ≤1 (mild) at initial clinical assessment who were later assessed on CDR-sb data on at least two other time points were genotyped at the two SNPs of interest (rs1868402 and rs3785883). We used linear mixed models to estimate associations between these SNPs and CDR-sb trajectory. All analyses were performed using Proc Mixed in SAS. RESULTS: Although we observed no association between rs3785883 or rs1868402 alone and change in CDR-sb (P > .10), there was a significant association between a combined genotype model and change in CDR-sb: carriers of the high-risk genotypes at both loci progressed >2.9 times faster than noncarriers (P = .015). When data from DPS were combined with previously published data from WU and ADNI, change in CDR-sb was 30% faster for each copy of the high-risk allele at rs3785883 (P = .0082) and carriers of both high-risk genotypes at both loci progressed 6 times faster (P < .0001) than all others combined. CONCLUSIONS: We replicate a previous report by Cruchaga et al that specific variations in rs3785883 and rs1868402 are associated with accelerated progression of AD. Further characterization of this association will provide a better understanding of how genetic factors influence the rate of progression of AD and could provide novel insights into preventative and therapeutic strategies.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2013; · 14.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few longitudinal studies have studied the influence of the care environment on the clinical progression of dementia. We examined whether caregiver coping strategies predict dementia progression in a population-based sample. Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Cache County (Utah) population. A total of 226 persons with dementia, and their caregivers, were assessed semiannually for up to 6 years. Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Mean (SD) age of dementia onset in persons with dementia was 82.11 (5.84) years and mean caregiver age was 67.41 (13.95) years. Mean (SD) follow-up was 1.65 (1.63) years from baseline. In univariate linear mixed-effects models, increasing use of problem-focused and counting blessings by caregivers was associated with slower patient worsening on the MMSE. Problem-focused coping, seeking social support, and wishful thinking were associated with slower Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) worsening. Considering covariates, increasing use of problem-focused coping was associated with 0.70 points per year less worsening on the MMSE and 0.55 points per year less worsening on the CDR-sb. Compared with no use, the "regular" use of this strategy was associated with 2 points per year slower worsening on the MMSE and 1.65 points per year slower worsening on the CDR-sb. Caregiver coping strategies are associated with slower dementia progression. Developing interventions that target these strategies may benefit dementia patients.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 01/2013; 21(1):57-66. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256).Method. Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287-P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. RESULTS: Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia.Discussion.These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 12/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Observational studies suggest reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in users of hormone therapy (HT), but trials show higher risk. We examined whether the association of HT with AD varies with timing or type of HT use. METHODS: Between 1995 and 2006, the population-based Cache County Study followed 1,768 women who had provided a detailed history on age at menopause and use of HT. During this interval, 176 women developed incident AD. Cox proportional hazard models evaluated the association of HT use with AD, overall and in relation to timing, duration of use, and type (opposed vs unopposed) of HT. RESULTS: Women who used any type of HT within 5 years of menopause had 30% less risk of AD (95% confidence interval 0.49-0.99), especially if use was for 10 or more years. By contrast, AD risk was not reduced among those who had initiated HT 5 or more years after menopause. Instead, rates were increased among those who began "opposed" estrogen-progestin compounds within the 3 years preceding the Cache County Study baseline (adjusted hazard ratio 1.93; 95% confidence interval 0.94-3.96). This last hazard ratio was similar to the ratio of 2.05 reported in randomized trial participants assigned to opposed HT. CONCLUSIONS: Association of HT use and risk of AD may depend on timing of use. Although possibly beneficial if taken during a critical window near menopause, HT (especially opposed compounds) initiated in later life may be associated with increased risk. The relation of AD risk to timing and type of HT deserves further study.
    Neurology 10/2012; · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Stressful life events (SLE) have been associated with increased dementia risk, but their association with cognitive decline has been inconsistent. In a longitudinal population-based study of older individuals, we examined the association between SLE and cognitive decline, and the role of potential effect modifiers. METHODS: A total of 2665 non-demented participants of the Cache County Memory Study completed an SLE questionnaire at Wave 2 and were revisited 4 and 7 years later. The events were represented via several scores: total number, subjective rating (negative, positive, and unexpected), and a weighted summary based on their impact. Cognition was assessed at each visit with the modified Mini-Mental State Exam. General linear models were used to examine the association between SLE scores and cognition. Effect modification by age, education, and APOE genotype was tested. RESULTS: Years of formal education (p = 0.006) modified the effect of number of SLE, and age (p = 0.009) modified the effect of negative SLE on the rate of cognitive decline. Faster decline was observed among those with fewer years of education experiencing more SLE and also among younger participants experiencing more negative SLE. There was no association between other indicators of SLE and cognitive decline. APOE genotype did not modify any of the aforementioned associations. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of SLE on cognition in late life are complex and vary by individual factors such as age and education. These results may explain some of the contradictory findings in the literature. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several observational studies have suggested a link between health status and rate of decline among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to quantify the relationship in a population-based study of incident AD, and to compare global comorbidity ratings to counts of comorbid conditions and medications as predictors of AD progression. This was a case-only cohort study arising from a population-based longitudinal study of memory and aging, in Cache County, Utah. Participants comprised 335 individuals with incident AD followed for up to 11 years. Patient descriptors included sex, age, education, dementia duration at baseline, and APOE genotype. Measures of health status made at each visit included the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR), number of comorbid medical conditions, and number of non-psychiatric medications. Dementia outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating - sum of boxes (CDR-sb), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Health status tended to fluctuate over time within individuals. None of the baseline medical variables (GMHR, comorbidities, and non-psychiatric medications) was associated with differences in rates of decline in longitudinal linear mixed effects models. Over time, low GMHR ratings, but not comorbidities or medications, were associated with poorer outcomes (MMSE: β = -1.07 p = 0.01; CDR-sb: β = 1.79 p < 0.001; NPI: β = 4.57 p = 0.01). Given that time-varying GMHR, but not baseline GMHR, was associated with the outcomes, it seems likely that there is a dynamic relationship between medical and cognitive health. GMHR is a more sensitive measure of health than simple counts of comorbidities or medications. Since health status is a potentially modifiable risk factor, further study is warranted.
    International Psychogeriatrics 06/2012; 24(10):1561-70. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Closer relationships between caregivers and care recipients with dementia are associated with positive outcomes for care recipients, but it is unclear if closeness is a risk or protective factor for the health and psychological wellbeing of caregivers. We examined 234 care dyads from the population-based Cache County Dementia Progression Study. Caregivers included spouses (49%) and adult offspring (51%). Care recipients mostly had dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (62%). Linear mixed models tested associations between relationship closeness at baseline or changes in closeness prior to versus after dementia onset, with baseline levels and changes over time in caregiver affect (Affect Balance Scale, ABS), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and mental and physical health (components of the Short-Form Health Survey, SF-12). After controlling for demographic characteristics of the caregiver, number of caregiver health conditions, and characteristics of the care recipient (type of dementia, functional ability, and behavioral disturbances), we found that higher baseline closeness predicted higher baseline SF-12 mental health scores (better mental health) and lower depression. Higher baseline closeness also predicted greater worsening over time in ABS and SF-12 mental health. In addition, caregivers who reported a loss of closeness in their relationship with the care recipient from pre- to post-dementia displayed improved scores on ABS and SF-12 mental health, but worse SF-12 physical health over the course of the study. These results suggest that closeness and loss of closeness in the care dyad may be associated with both positive and adverse outcomes for caregivers, both cross-sectionally and over time.
    Aging and Mental Health 05/2012; 16(6):699-711. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Observational studies suggest that cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine may delay clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 40% of individuals taking the medications. Given this response and existence of side effects, we sought to quantify medication use and benefits in a population-based study of incident AD cases. The Cache County Dementia Progression Study enrolled and followed a cohort of 327 incident AD cases for a maximum of 9 years. Drug exposure was expressed using a persistency index (PI), calculated as total years of drug use divided by total years of observation. Linear mixed-effects models examined PI, and interactions with sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) as predictors of clinical progression on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes. A total of 69 participants (21.1%) reported having ever used cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine. There was a strong three-way interaction between PI, sex, and time. Among women, a higher PI (i.e., greater duration of use) of cholinesterase inhibitors was associated with slower progression on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes, particularly among those with an APOE ɛ4 allele. In contrast, higher PI was associated with faster progression in males. A low percentage of individuals with AD in the community are taking cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine. This study suggests that women, particularly those with an APOE ɛ4 allele, may benefit the most from these medications. With the newly approved increased dose of donepezil, it will be imperative to determine whether a higher dose is needed in men or whether other factors warrant consideration.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 02/2012; 8(3):180-7. · 14.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early parental death is associated with lifelong tendencies toward depression and chronic stress. We tested the hypothesis that early parental death is associated with higher risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) in offspring. A population-based epidemiological study of dementia with detailed clinical evaluations, linked to one of the world's richest sources of objective genealogical and vital statistics data. Home visits with residents of a rural county in northern Utah. 4,108 subjects, aged 65-105. Multistage dementia ascertainment protocol implemented in four triennial waves, yielding expert consensus diagnoses of 570 participants with AD and 3,538 without dementia. Parental death dates, socioeconomic status, and parental remarriage after widowhood were obtained from the Utah Population Database, a large genealogical database linked to statewide birth and death records. Mother's death during subject's adolescence was significantly associated with higher rate of AD in regression models that included age, gender, education, APOE genotype, and socioeconomic status. Father's death before subject age 5 showed a weaker association. In stratified analyses, associations were significant only when the widowed parent did not remarry. Parental death associations were not moderated by gender or APOE genotype. Findings were specific to AD and not found for non-AD dementia. Parental death during childhood is associated with higher prevalence of AD, with different critical periods for father's versus mother's death, with strength of these associations attenuated by remarriage of the widowed parent.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 09/2011; 19(9):814-24. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2011; 7(4). · 17.47 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2011; 7(4). · 17.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progression of Alzheimer dementia (AD) is highly variable. Most estimates derive from convenience samples from dementia clinics or research centers where there is substantial potential for survival bias and other distortions. In a population-based sample of incident AD cases, we examined progression of impairment in cognition, function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the influence of selected variables on these domains. Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Cache County (Utah). Three hundred twenty-eight persons with a diagnosis of possible/probable AD. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes (CDR-sb), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Over a mean follow-up of 3.80 (range: 0.07-12.90) years, the mean (SD) annual rates of change were -1.53 (2.69) scale points on the MMSE, 1.44 (1.82) on the CDR-sb, and 2.55 (5.37) on the NPI. Among surviving participants, 30% to 58% progressed less than 1 point per year on these measures, even 5 to 7 years after dementia onset. Rates of change were correlated between MMSE and CDR-sb (r = -0.62, df = 201, p < 0.001) and between the CDR-sb and NPI (r = 0.20, df = 206, p < 0.004). Female subjects (LR χ = 8.7, df = 2, p = 0.013) and those with younger onset (likelihood ratio [LR] χ = 5.7, df = 2, p = 0.058) declined faster on the MMSE. Although one or more apolipoprotein E ε 4 alleles and ever use of FDA-approved antidementia medications were associated with initial MMSE scores, neither was related to the rate of progression in any domain. A significant proportion of persons with AD progresses slowly. The results underscore differences between population-based versus clinic-based samples and suggest ongoing need to identify factors that may slow the progression of AD.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2011; 19(6):532-42. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vascular factors have been shown to affect the rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, the effect of the APOE ε4 allele on rate of progression has been ambiguous. Little research to date has examined an interaction between vascular factors and the APOE ε4 allele in predicting decline among AD patients. 216 participants with incident AD from a population of elderly persons in Cache County, Utah, were followed for a mean of 3.3 years and 4.2 follow-up visits. A history of vascular risk factors and conditions and anti-hypertensive use was assessed at the diagnostic visit. Linear mixed effects models tested interactions between the vascular factors, APOE ε4, and time as predictors of clinical progression on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB). Multiple comparisons were corrected using the Holm-Bonferroni method. There was a 3-way interaction between stroke, APOE ε4 and time in predicting MMSE decline (LR χ² = 10.32, 2 df, p = 0.006). For the CDR-SB, there were 3-way interactions between the APOE ε4, time and either myocardial infarction (LR χ² = 17.83, 2 df, p = 0.0001) or stroke (LR χ² = 11.48, 2 df, p = 0.003. Results suggest a complex relationship between the APOE ε4 and vascular factors in predicting cognitive and functional progression. Among individuals with a history of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline, progression of AD is influenced by APOE ε4 carrier status and varies by time after AD diagnosis.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 05/2011; 26(1):127-34. · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ε4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 03/2011; 66(4):416-25. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2011; 7(4).

Publication Stats

378 Citations
213.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Utah State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Family, Consumer, and Human Development
      • • Department of Mathematics and Statistics
      Logan, Ohio, United States
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Division of Neurology
      Durham, NC, United States