[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maurocalcine (MCa) is the first natural cell penetrating peptide to be discovered in animal venom. In addition to the fact that it represents a potent vector for the cell penetration of structurally diverse therapeutic compounds, MCa also displays several distinguishing features that make it a potential peptide of choice for clinical and biotechnological applications. The aim of the present study was to gain new information about the properties of MCa in vivo in order to delineate the future potential applications of this vector. For this purpose, two analogues of this peptide with (Tyr-MCa) and without (Lin-Tyr-MCa) disulfide bridges were synthesized, radiolabeled with (125)I, and their in vitro stabilities were first evaluated in mouse blood. The results indicated that (125)I-Tyr-MCa was stable in vitro and that the disulfide bridges conferred a competitive advantage for the stability of peptide. Following in vivo injection in mice, (125)I-Tyr-MCa targeted peripheral organs with interesting quantitative differences and the main route of peptide elimination was renal.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11/2015; 16(11):27730-27740. DOI:10.3390/ijms161126054 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The storage and catabolism of Ultrasmall SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles was analyzed through a multiscale approach combining Two Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy (TPLSM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) at different times after intravenous injection in an atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mouse model. The atherotic plaque features and the USPIOs heterogeneous biodistribution were revealed down from organ's scale to subcellular level. The biotransformation of the nanoparticle iron oxide (maghemite) core into ferritin, the non-toxic form of iron storage, was demonstrated for the first time ex vivo in atherosclerotic plaques as well as in spleen, the iron storage organ. These results rely on an innovative spatial and structural investigation of USPIO's catabolism in cellular phagolysosomes. This study showed that these nanoparticles were stored as non-toxic iron compounds: maghemite oxide or ferritin, which is promising for MRI detection of artherotic plaques in clinic using these USPIOs. (Graphical abstract: Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2015.08.005 · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
RNA interference is efficient in in vitro studies, and appears as a therapeutic tool of major clinical interest. Nevertheless, the clinical utilisation of siRNAs is restrained by the poor availability of biodistribution data on this new class of pharmaceutics. This study aimed at defining the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics properties of an siRNA directed to the Casein Kinase-2 beta (CK2β) subunit, a potential target in cancer therapy.
Four CK2β siRNAs were chemically modified on each extremity of sense or anti-sense strand and radioiodinated. The biodistribution of each entity was analysed in glioblastoma-bearing mice using nuclear imaging and compared to a control GFP siRNA.
The labelling process was associated with preservation of interference activity, except when applied to the 5' antisense terminus. Radioactivity was predominantly observed in organs of the excretory system after intravenous administration: liver, kidneys and bladder. Tumor/Contralateral muscle ratio showed significant differences depending on the labelling site. Activity associated with CK2β5's was quite constant over 2hours, while CK2β3'as activity decreased by 40% in tumor. Finally, synchrotron X-ray analysis showed that CK2β3's is more abundant in tumor than in liver, brain or muscle, and uniformly distributed between intra- and extracellular compartments.
In this study, we highlighted the large influence of siRNAs radiolabelling position on their biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profiles, and proposed a systematic approach for the imaging of all siRNAs of clinical interest.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2015.04.007 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recent advances in nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have made it possible to develop a dual-isotope protocol for high-speed acquisition with image quality and radiation delivery comparable to that obtained with conventional single isotope protocols. So far, no study has compared dual-isotope high-speed MPI to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in a large cohort using a Cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT system.
Over a 1-year period (May 2011 to April 2012), 1366 patients underwent dual-isotope high-speed MPI. Patients with ICA within 3 months after dual-isotope high-speed MPI were included together with patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD) in order to assess normalcy rate. Global summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were calculated, and ICA results were analyzed independently. The main end point was a patient-based assessment of the diagnostic performance of dual-isotope high-speed MPI in detecting or ruling out significant CAD (>70% reduction in lumen diameter).
Inclusion criteria were fulfilled for 214 patients (143 men; age 60 ± 14 years; ICA, n = 104; low likelihood for CAD, n = 110). An exercise stress test was performed in 62% of patients and a pharmacological stress test was performed with either dipyridamole (32%) or dobutamine (6%). Average examination duration was 22.4 ± 4.5 minutes. Mean SSS, SRS, and SDS were 8.0 ± 4.9, 3.1 ± 4.3, and 5.0 ± 3.2, respectively. Prevalence of angiographic CAD was 75%. ICA detected stenosis in the left main trunk, left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery, and right coronary artery in 4, 33, 31, and 42 patients, respectively. Sensitivity of dual-isotope high-speed MPI was 94%, normalcy rate was 92%, and accuracy was 83% for detecting CAD.
Dual-isotope high-speed MPI is reliable at detecting or ruling out CAD. NCT01785589.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous works have explained the process of naturally fluorescent proflavine derivatives labelling Abeta deposits in vitro. The present study aimed to further characterize the properties of the proflavine COB231 derivative as a probe. This compound was therefore evaluated on human post-mortem and mice brain slices and in vivo in 18-month-old 3xTgAD mice presenting the main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). COB231 labelled amyloid plaques on brain slices of AD patients, and 3xTgAD mice at 10 μM and 0.1 μM, respectively. However, no labelling of the neurofibrillary tangle-rich areas was observed either at high concentration or in the brain of fronto-temporal dementia patients. The specificity of this mapping was attested in mice by using Thioflavin S and IMPY as positive controls of amyloid deposits. After intravenous injection of COB231 in old 3xTgAD mice, fluorescent amyloid plaques was detected in the cortex and hippocampus, demonstrating COB231 blood-brain barrier permeability. We also controlled the cellular localisation of COB231 on primary neuronal cultures and showed that COB231 accumulates into the cytoplasm and not into the nucleus. Finally, using a viability assay, we only detected a slight cytotoxic effect of COB231 (<10%) for the highest concentration (100 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2014; 132(5). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12951 · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The αvβ3 integrin plays an important role in tumour-induced angiogenesis, tumour proliferation, survival and metastasis. The tetrameric RGD-based peptide, regioselectively addressable functionalized template-(cyclo-[RGDfK])4 (RAFT-RGD), specifically targets the αvβ3 integrin in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of RAFT-RGD radiolabelled with β(-) emitters in a nude mouse model of αvβ3 integrin-expressing tumours.
Biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed after injection of (90)Y-RAFT-RGD or (177)Lu-RAFT-RGD in nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with αvβ3 integrin-expressing U-87 MG cells. Experimental targeted radionuclide therapy with (90)Y-RAFT-RGD or (177)Lu-RAFT-RGD and (90)Y-RAFT-RAD or (177)Lu-RAFT-RAD (nonspecific controls) was evaluated by intravenous injection of the radionuclides into mice bearing αvβ3 integrin-expressing U-87 MG tumours of different sizes (small or large) or bearing TS/A-pc tumours that do not express αvβ3. Tumour volume doubling time was used to evaluate the efficacy of each treatment.
Injection of 37 MBq of (90)Y-RAFT-RGD into mice with large αvβ3-positive tumours or 37 MBq of (177)Lu-RAFT-RGD into mice with small αvβ3-positive tumours caused significant growth delays compared to mice treated with 37 MBq of (90)Y-RAFT-RAD or 37 MBq of (177)Lu-RAFT-RAD or untreated mice. In contrast, injection of 30 MBq of (90)Y-RAFT-RGD had no effect on the growth of αvβ3-negative tumours.
(90)Y-RAFT-RGD and (177)Lu-RAFT-RGD are potent agents targeting αvβ3-expressing tumours for internal targeted radiotherapy.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 08/2014; 42(2). DOI:10.1007/s00259-014-2891-7 · 5.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
(99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5, a single-domain antibody fragment directed against mouse or human vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), recently has been proposed as a new imaging agent for the detection of inflamed atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 specifically bound to VCAM-1-positive lesions, thereby allowing their identification on SPECT images. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 imaging sensitivity using a reference statin therapy.
Thirty apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a western-type diet. First, the relationship between the level of VCAM-1 expression and (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 uptake was evaluated in 18 mice using immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. Second, longitudinal SPECT/CT imaging was performed on control (n = 9) or atorvastatin-treated mice (0.01% w/w, n = 9).
(99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 uptake in atherosclerotic lesions correlated with the level of VCAM-1 expression (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin exerted significant antiatherogenic effects, and (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 lesion uptake was significantly reduced in 35-wk-old atorvastatin-treated mice, as indicated by ex vivo γ-well counting and autoradiography (P < 0.05). SPECT imaging quantification based on contrast-enhanced CT was reproducible (interexperimenter intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97; intraexperimenter intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.90), and yielded results that were highly correlated with tracer biodistribution (r = 0.83; P < 0.0001). Therefore, reduced (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 uptake in atorvastatin-treated mice was successfully monitored noninvasively by SPECT/CT imaging (0.87 ± 0.06 vs. 1.11 ± 0.09 percentage injected dose per cubic centimeter in control group, P < 0.05).
(99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 imaging allowed the specific, sensitive, and reproducible quantification of VCAM-1 expression in mouse atherosclerotic lesions. (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 therefore exhibits suitable characteristics for the evaluation of novel antiatherogenic agents.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.114.143792 · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been suggested for the clinical and experimental imaging of inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions. Significant FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been observed both in humans and mice. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of periaortic BAT on apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE−/−) mouse atherosclerotic lesion imaging with FDG.
ApoE−/− mice (36±2 weeks-old) were injected with FDG (12±2 MBq). Control animals (Group A, n = 7) were injected conscious and kept awake at room temperature (24°C) throughout the accumulation period. In order to minimize tracer activity in periaortic BAT, Group B (n = 7) and C (n = 6) animals were injected under anaesthesia at 37°C and Group C animals were additionally pre-treated with propranolol. PET/CT acquisitions were performed prior to animal euthanasia and ex vivo analysis of FDG biodistribution.
Autoradiographic imaging indicated higher FDG uptake in atherosclerotic lesions than in the normal aortic wall (all groups, P<0.05) and the blood (all groups, P<0.01) which correlated with macrophage infiltration (R = 0.47; P<0.001). However, periaortic BAT uptake was either significantly higher (Group A, P<0.05) or similar (Group B and C, P = NS) to that observed in atherosclerotic lesions and was shown to correlate with in vivo quantified aortic FDG activity.
Periaortic BAT FDG uptake was identified as a confounding factor while using FDG for the non-invasive imaging of mouse atherosclerotic lesions.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e99441. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099441 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The great clinical potential of myocardial β-AR imaging has been shown by recent studies evaluating the β-AR-specific, non-selective agent [(11)C]-CGP12177 in the setting of idiopathic-dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocardial infarction. However, the short half-life of (11)C hampers the potential of [(11)C]-CGP12177 for routine clinical use. AMI9 is an analog of the β-adrenoceptor ligand practolol that can readily be labeled using radioactive isotopes of iodine. The present study was aimed at characterizing the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo β-AR binding properties of [(125)I]-AMI9.
Methods and results:
Newborn rat cardiomyocytes were used for saturation and kinetic binding assays as well as for displacement and competition experiments. Isolated perfused rat hearts were used to evaluate the pharmacological activity of AMI9. The in vivo kinetics of [(125)I]-AMI9 were studied using biodistribution experiments in mice. [1(25)I]-AMI9 displayed high specific affinity for β-AR with no β-AR subtype selectivity (K D, 5.6 ± 0.3 nM; B max, 231 ± 7 fmol·(mg protein)(-1)). AMI9 potently inhibited the inotropic effects of isoproterenol. The early in vivo cardiac and lung activities of [(125)I]-AMI9 compared favorably with those of the clinically validated tracer CGP12177.
Iodine-labeled AMI9 is a promising agent for the molecular imaging of myocardial β-AR density.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Maurocalcine (L-MCa) is the first reported animal cell-penetrating toxin. Characterizing its cell penetration properties is crucial considering its potential as a vector for the intracellular delivery of drugs. Radiolabeling is a sensitive and quantitative method to follow the cell accumulation of a molecule of interest. An L-MCa analog containing an additional N-terminal tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized, shown to fold and oxidize properly, and successfully radioiodinated to I-125-Tyr-L-MCa. Using various microscopy techniques, the average volume of the rat line F98 glioma cells was evaluated at 8.9 to 18.9 x 10(-7) mu l. I-125-Tyr-L-MCa accumulates within cells with a dose-dependency similar to the one previously published using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-L-MCa. According to subcellular fractionation of F98 cells, plasma membranes keep less than 3% of the peptide, regardless of the extracellular concentration, while the nucleus accumulates over 75% and the cytosol around 20% of the radioactive material. Taking into account both nuclear and cytosolic fractions, cells accumulate intracellular concentrations of the peptide that are equal to the extracellular concentrations. Estimation of I-125-Tyr-L-MCa cell entry kinetics indicate a first rapid phase with a 5 min time constant for the plasma membrane followed by slower processes for the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Once inside cells, the labeled material no longer escapes from the intracellular environment since 90% of the radioactivity remains 24 h after washout. Dead cells were found to have a lower uptake than live ones. The quantitative information gained herein will be useful for better framing the use of L-MCa in biotechnological applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse models of atherosclerosis are extensively being used to study the mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque development and the results are frequently extrapolated to humans. However, major differences have been described between murine and human atherosclerotic lesions and the determination of similarities and differences between these species has been largely addressed recently. This study takes over and extends previous studies performed by our group and related to the biomechanical characterization of both mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. Its main objective was to determine the distribution and amplitude of mechanical stresses including peak cap stress (PCS) in aortic vessels from atherosclerotic apoE(-/-) mice, in order to evaluate whether such biomechanical data would be in accordance with the previously suggested lack of plaque rupture in this model. Successful finite element analysis was performed from the zero-stress configuration of aortic arch sections and mainly indicated (1) the modest role of atherosclerotic lesions in the observed increase in residual parietal stresses in apoE(-/-) mouse vessels and (2) the low amplitude of murine PCS as compared to humans. Overall, the results from the present study support the hypothesis that murine biomechanical properties and artery size confer less propensity to rupture for mouse lesions in comparison with those of humans.
Journal of Biomechanics 01/2014; 47(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.020 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen (R) or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H2O2 was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-LMCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) plays a major role in the chronic inflammatory processes involved in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque development. We previously showed that the (99m)Tc-labeled major histocompatibility complex 1-derived peptide B2702p bound specifically to VCAM-1 and allowed the ex vivo imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. However, B2702p target-to-background ratio was suboptimal for the in vivo imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. To improve the target-to-background ratio, 20 derivatives of B2702p (B2702p1-B2702p20) were synthesized using the alanine scan methodology. We hypothesized that (99m)Tc-radiolabeled B2702p derivatives might allow the molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in an experimental model of atherosclerosis.
A mouse model of focal atherosclerotic plaque development induced by left carotid artery ligation in apolipoprotein E double-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice was used (n = 82). (99m)Tc-B2702p and (99m)Tc-B2702p1-(99m)Tc-B2702p20 were injected intravenously in anesthetized animals 3 wk after the ligation. Whole-body planar imaging was performed for 3 h. SPECT imaging of 6 additional ligated ApoE(-/-) mice was also performed with (99m)Tc-B2702p1. The animals were then euthanized, and the biodistribution of (99m)Tc-labeled peptides was evaluated by γ-well counting of excised organs. Expression of VCAM-1 in the ligated and contralateral carotid arteries was evaluated by immunohistology.
Robust VCAM-1 immunostaining was observed in the left carotid atherosclerotic lesions as a consequence of artery ligation, whereas no VCAM-1 expression was detected in the contralateral carotid artery. Among all evaluated peptides, (99m)Tc-B2702p1 exhibited the most favorable properties. By γ-well counting, there was a significant 2.0-fold increase in the (99m)Tc-B2702p1 left-to-right carotid artery activity ratio (2.6 ± 0.6) and a 3.4-fold increase in the left carotid-to-blood activity ratio (1.4 ± 0.4) in comparison to (99m)Tc-B2702p (1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.1, respectively, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Similarly, planar image quantification indicated a higher left-to-right carotid activity ratio in (99m)Tc-B2702p1- than in (99m)Tc-B2702p-injected mice (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.0, respectively, P < 0.05). Finally, a significantly higher (99m)Tc-B2702p1 activity in the left than in the right carotid artery was observed by SPECT imaging (2.2 ± 0.4 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 cpm/mm(2)/injected dose, respectively, P < 0.05).
(99m)Tc-B2702p1 is a potentially useful radiotracer for the in vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2013; 54(8). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.112.115675 · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia (DL) might contribute to the induction of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, few relevant animal models are currently available for studying the time-course of DCM and evaluating experimental therapeutics. The present study proposes a rodent model of dietary-induced IR combined or not with DL in order to investigate the impact of chronic IR and DL on in vivo myocardial function. Male rats were fed a western-type diet (65% fat; 15% fructose; WD). DL was induced by combining the western diet with i.p. injections of a nonionic surface-active agent (P-407; 0.2 mg/kg, 3 times/wk; P-407). A chow diet was used as control. At 11 and 14 weeks, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Fasting blood glucose increased in WD group while plasma lipids markedly accumulated in P-407 treated rats. Echocardiographic data showed no significant difference in cardiac geometry under basal conditions. Diastolic dysfunction was evidenced at 14 weeks by a significant decrease in E/A ratio in the P-407 group. Moreover, fractional shortening was significantly depressed under dobutamine stress in WD group at 14 weeks whereas systolic dysfunction appeared as early as 11 weeks and worsened at 14 weeks in P-407 animals. Finally, myocardial TNF-alpha tissue content increased in P-407 group. In conclusion, DL exacerbated cardiac lipotoxicity and functional complications associated with IR. This experimental model of combined IR and DL closely mimics the main clinical manifestations of DCM and might therefore constitute a useful tool for the evaluation of pharmacological treatments.
Current pharmaceutical design 04/2013; 19(39). DOI:10.2174/138161281939131127122054 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The industrial development of active immunotherapy based on live-attenuated bacterial vectors has matured. We developed a microsyringe for antigen delivery based on the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. aeruginosa. We applied the "killed but metabolically active" (KBMA) attenuation strategy to make this bacterial vector suitable for human use. We demonstrate that attenuated P. aeruginosa has the potential to deliver antigens to human antigen-presenting cells in vitro via T3SS with considerable attenuated cytotoxicity as compared with the wild-type vector. In a mouse model of cancer, we demonstrate that this KBMA strain, which cannot replicate in its host, efficiently disseminates into lymphoid organs and delivers its heterologous antigen. The attenuated strain effectively induces a cellular immune response to the cancerous cells while lowering the systemic inflammatory response. Hence, a KBMA P. aeruginosa microsyringe is an efficient and safe tool for in vivo antigen delivery.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.41.