Klaus Krampfl

Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (111)237.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The recognition of functional muscular disorders, (e.g. channelopathies like Myotonia) is rising in veterinary neurology. Morphologic (e.g. histology) and even genetic based studies in these diseases are not able to elucidate the functional pathomechanism. As there is a deficit of knowledge and skills considering this special task, the aim of the current pilot study was to develop a canine muscle cell culture system derived from muscle biopsies of healthy client-owned dogs, which allows sampling of the biopsies under working conditions in the daily veterinary practise. RESULTS: Muscular biopsies from 16 dogs of different age and breed were taken during standard surgical procedures and were stored for one to three days at 4[degree sign]C in a transport medium in order to simulate shipping conditions. Afterwards biopsies were professionally processed, including harvesting of satellite cells, inducing their proliferation, differentiating them into myotubes and recultivating myotubes after long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. Myogenic origin of cultured cells was determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistology and by their typical morphology after inducing differentiation. Subsequent to the differentiation into myotubes feasibility of patch-clamp recordings of voltage gated ion channels was successfully. CONCLUSION: We have developed a canine muscle cell culture system, which allows sampling of biopsies from young and old dogs of different breeds under practical conditions. Patch clamp measurements can be carried out with the cultured myotubes demonstrating potential of these cells as source for functional research.
    BMC Veterinary Research 11/2012; 8(1):227. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapidly progressive paralysis of striated muscles due to the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. The disease leads to death within 2-5 years, mainly due to respiratory failure. The pathogenesis of ALS is still unexplained for the most part. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of different cardiovascular, metabolic, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in a large ALS cohort and to evaluate their influence on the disease course. METHODS: A cohort of 514 patients with ALS of our ALS outpatient clinic was investigated retrospectively with reference to known prognostic factors and comorbidities. The prevalence of concomitant diseases was compared with the data from the German general population. Uni- and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors was significantly lower in patients with ALS compared to the German general population, whilst the prevalence of dementia, parkinsonism, and depressive symptoms was significantly higher in the ALS cohort. None of the investigated comorbidities had an influence on the disease course or on the survival of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with cardiovascular diseases or risk factors seem to be at lower risk of ALS. Although these diseases are apparently somehow protective regarding ALS susceptibility, their presence did not modify disease progression and survival in patients with ALS. Our study further confirms the well-known continuum between ALS and dementia. It also suggests a link with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.
    European Journal of Neurology 10/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysarthria has a drastic impact on the quality of life of ALS patients. Most patients suffering from dysarthria are offered speech therapy. Communication devices are prescribed less frequently. In the present study we investigated the impact of these therapeutic arrangements on quality of life in ALS patients. Thirty-eight ALS patients with dysarthria or anarthria, who underwent speech therapy and/or used communication devices answered three standardized questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory - II (BDI), SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) and ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R)) and were further interviewed about their experience with and benefit of speech therapy and communication devices. Most of the patients described a high impact of the communication device on their quality of life while the influence of speech therapy was rated less. By multiple regression analysis we confirmed an independent positive effect of communication device use on depression and psychological distress. In conclusion, communication systems improve or at least stabilize quality of life and mood in dysarthric ALS patients, and should be provided early in the disease course.
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 08/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential linkage between upper (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not yet been fully elucidated. There is ongoing discussion as to whether ALS is primarily a disease of UMNs or LMNs. We performed a retrospective analysis of 189 ALS patients from our ALS outpatient database to investigate the different spreading patterns of UMN and LMN affection in disease progression in relation to the onset region. The body region with the highest UMN involvement at onset in general also had the highest frequency of LMN signs and vice versa. This is in line with the hypothesis of a focal onset of disease, which then spreads to adjacent areas. However, there was a great variation between ALS phenotypes. These observations support the hypothesis of focal damage of a localized group of motor neurons, which then spreads to adjacent motor neurons.
    Muscle & Nerve 05/2011; 43(5):636-42. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively screened a large cohort of 554 ALS patients with regard to documented nerve compression syndromes and identified 23 patients, mostly with carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients could be subdivided into three groups. Group A comprised 13 patients in whom nerve compression was apparently confused with early ALS signs. Group B consisted of six patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome who had experienced improvement after surgery years before they eventually developed ALS. Group C consisted of four patients who, after diagnosis of ALS, additionally developed a nerve compression syndrome. Altogether, the frequency of true nerve compression syndromes in our ALS cohort (1.8%) was no higher than in the general population (0.3-10.8%). In group A, the initial confusion with a nerve compression syndrome led to a slight though not significant delay (15.2 vs. 12.9 months; p = 0.32) of the diagnosis of ALS. Survival was no different between group A and the cohort. It can also be concluded that the misdiagnoses could have been avoided by thorough electrophysiological examination using a standardized protocol.
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 04/2011; 12(5):349-51. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating motoneuron disorder for which no effective treatment exists. There is some evidence for neuroprotective effects of valproic acid (VPA). The beneficial effects, however, are limited due to the adverse effects of VPA. To overcome this problem, a number of VPA derivates with fewer side effects have been synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the viability of highly purified embryonic motoneurons cultured on glial feeder layers, composed of either astrocytes or Schwann cells, or in monoculture, in presence of VPA and its three derivates 3-propyl-heptanoic acid (3-PHA), PE-4-yn enantiomers (R- and S-PE-4-yn). An excitotoxic stimulus, kainate (KA), was added at day in vitro 9 (DIV9) and the neuroprotective effect of either simultaneous incubation (DIV9) or pre-incubation (DIV1) of VPA and its derivates was tested. The survival of motoneurons under simultaneous application of KA and VPA derivates was not remarkably increased. Pre-incubation with VPA and even more with the derivates before the addition of KA, however, significantly reduced their vulnerability against the KA-induced neurotoxic effect. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective capacities of VPA and its three derivates tested here drastically increase when they are added several days before KA. Most prominent neuroprotective effects were seen for the PE-4-yn enantiomers. Patch-clamp experiments revealed an antiexcitotoxic effect of the S-PE-4-yn enantiomer that reduces the frequency of postsynaptic currents and enhances the inhibitory postsynaptic transmission dependent on the co-culture condition.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 08/2010; 30(6):891-900. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Cell and Tissue Research 06/2010; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycine receptors are expressed throughout the central nervous system working for inhibitory neurotransmission. Since fluctuations of the blood pH value occur under certain physiological and pathological conditions, we investigated the influence of the extracellular pH on glycine homomeric and heteromeric receptor functions using patch clamp in combination with the fast agonist application technique. Our results demonstrated that both alpha1 homomeric and alpha 1 beta heteromeric glycine receptors were remarkably inhibited under acidic extracellular pH. Under alkaline extracellular pH 8.5, there was also a negative functional effect. Desensitization was accelerated depending on pH and a rebound current was observed at an extremely acidic pH value. In double-pulse experiments on alpha1 homomeric receptors, a more rapid recovery of the glycinergic current was shown at pH 4.5 compared to current induced at a physiological pH of 7.2. Our study provided a potential cause for the impaired function of the glycine receptor channels during pH fluctuations occurring in the central nervous system, especially under pathological conditions such as epileptic seizure or ischaemia.
    European journal of pharmacology 03/2010; 636(1-3):59-64. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) possess high potential for use in regenerative medicine. To overcome their limited mitotic competence, various immortalization strategies have been applied that allow their prolonged maintenance and expansion in vitro. Such immortalized cells can be used for the design and discovery of new cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. We immortalized rat ventral mesencephalic NPCs by using SV40 large T antigen (SV40Tag). All cell clones displayed a two- to three-fold higher proliferation rate compared with the primary cells. In order to induce dopaminergic differentiation of generated cell clones, both glial-derived neurotrophic factor and di-butyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate were applied. Treated cells were then characterized regarding the expression of dopaminergic lineage markers, differentiation of various cell populations, calcium imaging in the presence of kainate, and immunohistochemistry after intrastriatal transplantation. Treated cells displayed morphological maturation, and calcium imaging revealed neuronal properties in the presence of kainate. These cells also expressed low mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), although no TH-immunopositive neurons were found. Intrastriatal transplantation into the neurotoxin-lesioned rats did not induce further differentiation. As an alternative approach, we silenced SV40Tag with short interfering RNA, but this was not sufficient to trigger differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. Nevertheless, neuronal and glial cells were detected as shown by beta-tubulin type III and glial fibrillary acidic protein staining, respectively. SV40Tag cells are suitable for carrying out controlled genetic modifications as shown by overexpression of enhanced green fluorescence protein after efficient non-viral transfection.
    Cell and Tissue Research 02/2010; 340(1):29-43. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle cell culture is an important tool to discover the pathogenesis of rare canine neuromuscular diseases. The aim of the current study was to improve an existing clinical protocol to extract and cultivate canine myoblasts by using different enzymes for tissue digestion. The contamination of the mixed culture with fibrocytes should be minimized, a higher number of myoblasts with a shorter lag period should be gained and the influence of transport length on the myoblast numbers should be assessed. Twenty-one muscle biopsies (n = 21) from healthy dogs were taken, mechanically trimmed, enzymatically dissociated with either Protease or Trypsin and cultured under identical conditions for 168 hours. To distinguish and quantify myoblasts and fibrocytes an immunocytochemical staining of the muscle cell specific intermediate filament desmin was performed. To analyse the influence of a transport on the samples eight biopsies were cultured with either Trypsin or Protease at the Using Protease a significant higher production and a morphological better proliferation of myoblasts (P = 0.0102) was achieved. The average percentage of myoblasts was 78.96% using Protease and 54.68% using Trypsin. The duration of the transport (1-3 days) did not result in any significant changes in total myoblast cell counts (P = 0.798). This reveals the possibility to send muscle biopsies from distant clinics to a specialised laboratory. In conclusion, the use of Protease is an improvement for cultivating canine myoblasts and provides better conditions for further investigations elucidating pathogenesis of rare neuromuscular diseases.
    Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 01/2010; 123(5-6):243-50. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors is a promising pharmacological strategy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the study is to elucidate if there are direct interactions of riluzole and phenobarbital with AMPA-type receptor channels and to determinethe molecular pharmacological mechanisms. The patch-clamp technique was used combining an ultrafast solution exchange system to investigate the interaction of riluzole and phenobarbital with recombinant AMPA-type glutamate receptor channels (homomeric GluR2flipGQ or nondesensitizing GluR2L504Y). A dose-dependent decrease in the relative peak current amplitude (rAmp) and the relative area-under-the-current curve (rAUC) were found after preincubation with 0.1 mmol/l or higher concentrations of riluzole. Furthermore, in coapplication experiments with GluR2L504Y, the application of 1 or 3 mmol/l riluzole showed a decrease in the current decay time constant, and a reopening current was observed at 3 mmol/l riluzole. Phenobarbital blocks AMPA receptor channels dose-dependently in the coapplication experiments, and reopening currents after removing glutamate and blocker were observed. A slight block effect after preincubation should indicate an additional competitive block effect. Riluzole and phenobarbital modulate AMPA-type receptor channels separately, which could be both characterized as a combination of open-channel block and competitive-block mechanism.
    Pharmacology 01/2010; 85(1):54-62. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postmitotic neurons were generated from the human NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line in a novel cell aggregate differentiation procedure. The NT2 model neurons express punctate immunoreactivity for synapsin and for cell markers related to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Using the outside-out patch-clamp configuration, we characterized the kinetics of currents elicited by a rapid application of the amino acid neurotransmitters. Moreover, we detected spontaneous postsynaptic currents in glia free cell cultures that may result from the firing activity of glutamatergic and GABAergic NT2 neurons. These cultured spontaneously active networks may be a useful tool to analyze factors that modulate the formation and efficacy of synapses between human neurons.
    Neuroscience Letters 11/2009; 468(3):207-10. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABA(A)) receptor channels mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system while the expression of ionotropic glycine receptors is mainly restricted to the spinal cord and brain stem. Neuroactive steroids are well known as positive allosteric modulators of GABA(A) receptor function. Furthermore, there have been hints for an interaction of neuroactive steroids with ionotropic glycine receptors. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of androsterone and progesterone on alpha(1) and alpha(1)beta glycine receptor and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) GABA(A) receptor channels and to examine the molecular interactions between ligands and receptors. Electrophysiological recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells using the patch clamp technique in combination with an ultrafast perfusion system. A direct activation of inhibitory ionotropic receptors was observed for androsterone at GABA(A) receptor channels. A coactivation of currents elicited by nonsaturating agonist concentrations was observed with androsterone and progesterone at glycine and GABA(A) receptor channels. We could show that association of beta subunits with alpha subunits affects the sensitivity of glycine receptors to androsterone. In contrast to previous reports in which recombinant glycine receptors were inhibited by progesterone, a potentiating effect was revealed by our experiments. At concentrations of 0.1 mM and higher, there were also hints to a channel block-like mechanism. In conclusion, different molecular mechanisms of interaction between neuroactive steroids and GABA as well as glycine receptors could be identified and quantitatively described. Our data clarify the role of steroid compounds in the modulation of inhibitory receptor channel function.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 09/2009; 380(4):277-91. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The defining feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons but extramotor involvement, evidenced for example by executive dysfunction, has also been demonstrated. Here we employed a novel functional imaging approach, the analysis of resting state activity, followed by the definition of functionally connected brain networks by independent component analysis (ICA) to assess differences between ALS patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20). ICA analysis revealed 5 typical brain networks among which the so-called default mode network and the sensori-motor network showed distinct differences between patients and controls. The default mode network showed less activation in patients in several regions including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and the left and right inferior parietal cortex, regions that have been linked previously to executive functions. The sensori-motor network showed group differences in the premotor cortex. We propose that resting state analysis affords a new and simple means to assess disease-related neurofunctional alterations in widespread brain networks. A decisive advantage is that no task is demanded from the subjects and, thus, the problem of differential task difficulty and effort between groups is circumvented.
    Experimental Neurology 06/2009; 217(1):147-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) investigating movements of the hands have in general found increased activation compared to healthy controls, which has been interpreted in terms of cortical adaptation as a result of corticospinal tract damage. Here, we investigated brain activations to vertical tongue movements using functional MRI at 3 tesla. Whereas healthy controls, patients with Kennedy syndrome, and ALS patients without bulbar involvement showed robust and indistinguishable activations in pre- and postcentral areas and the thalamus, ALS patients with bulbar involvement showed a significant decrease of cortical activity and missing thalamic activity. This decrease stands in marked contrast to the increase of activity observed in ALS patients when performing limb movements. We discuss these divergent findings with regard to the different physiological properties of tongue and limb movements. These findings may also help to explain the faster time-course of the disease in patients with bulbar involvement.
    Journal of Neurology 05/2009; 256(8):1263-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lozenges for the treatment of sore throat provide relief of discomfort in cases of oral inflammation. This effect has not been fully explained so far. Here, we have examined the proposition that key components of pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of sore throat which are routinely regarded antiseptics might have sodium channel-blocking, i.e. local anaesthetic-like effects. We investigated the effects of hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol on voltage-operated neuronal (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Hexylresorcinol, amylmetacresol and dichloro-benzylalcohol reversibly blocked depolarisation-induced whole-cell sodium inward currents. The half-maximum blocking concentrations (EC(50)) at -150 mV were 23.1, 53.6 and 661.6 microM, respectively. Block induced by hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol was increased at depolarised potentials and use-dependent during trains of depolarisations applied at high frequency (100 Hz) indicating that both drugs bind more tightly to inactivated conformations of the channel. Estimates for the inactivated state affinity were 1.88 and 35 microM for hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol, respectively. Hexylresorcinol and amylmetacresol are 10-20 fold more potent than the local anaesthetic lidocaine in blocking sodium inward current. Both drugs show an increased effect at depolarised membrane potentials or in conditions of high-frequency discharges.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2009; 380(2):161-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic dysregulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis (excitotoxicity) is thought to contribute to the development of motor neuron diseases. Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and acts mainly by inhibition of sodium channels and by enhancing the level of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Neuroprotective capacities of VPA are supposed to arise also from the inhibition of histone deacetylases. We investigated the viability of highly purified rat embryonic motor neurons cultured on glial feeder layers, composed of either astrocytes or Schwann cells, or in the absence of glia, monoculture in presence of VPA and/or kainate (KA) using immunocytochemistry and calcium imaging. A significant effect of the culture and co-culture conditions on the viability of motor neurons in our in vitro model of excitotoxicity was detected. The neuroprotective effect of VPA on primary embryonic motor neuron cultures was not proven. A functional interaction between VPA and KA occurred during the first 10 days in culture.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 04/2009; 29(6-7):1037-43. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) has become the first-line treatment for this condition. In this work, we present data of 207 CD patients treated with BoNT-A for 6.7 +/- 3.5 years. One hundred and sixty-three patients were treated with Dysport (mean dose, 389 +/- 144 U) and 44 with Botox (mean dose, 145 +/- 44 U). The mean clinical benefit, based on a 0-3 scale (0=no effect, 1=slight, 2=moderate and 3=marked improvement) was similar for Dysport (2.5 +/- 0.3) and Botox (2.2 +/- 0.4). Adverse events were mild and similar for both products. Fewer than 2% of the patients developed neutralizing antibodies. These data confirm the efficacy and safety of BoNT-A treatment in CD over an extended period of up to 14 years.
    Neurological Research 04/2009; 31(5):463-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. HU210 is a non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoid. As we hypothesized that non-CB receptor mechanisms of HU210 might contribute to its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects we investigated the interaction of HU210 with strychnine-sensitive alpha(1 )glycine receptors by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. HU210 showed a positive allosteric modulating effect in a low micromolar concentration range (EC(50): 5.1 +/- 2.6 micromol/l). Direct activation of glycine receptors was observed at higher concentrations above 100 micromol/l (EC(50): 188.7 +/- 46.2 micromol/l). These in vitro results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may be a target for HU210 mediating some of its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties.
    Pharmacology 04/2009; 83(5):270-4. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Cannabidiol is a nonpsychotropic plant constituent of Cannabis sativa. As we hypothesized that non-CB receptor mechanisms of cannabidiol might contribute to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we investigated the interaction of cannabidiol with strychnine-sensitive alpha(1 )and alpha(1)beta glycine receptors by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cannabidiol showed a positive allosteric modulating effect in a low micromolar concentration range (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 12.3 +/- 3.8 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 18.1 +/- 6.2 micromol/l). Direct activation of glycine receptors was observed at higher concentrations above 100 micromol/l (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 132.4 +/- 12.3 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 144.3 +/- 22.7 micromol/l). These in vitro results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may be a target for cannabidiol mediating some of its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.
    Pharmacology 03/2009; 83(4):217-22. · 1.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

995 Citations
237.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2012
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Institute of Neuroanatomy
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2001
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Neurology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998–2001
    • University of Technology Munich
      • Clinic of Anaesthesiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany