Melanie Timm

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (3)25.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite previous studies demonstrating a cardioprotective role of estradiol via its estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we aimed to define ERalpha-involved mechanisms against cardiac injury. Seven days after myocardial infarction in male rats, cardiac ERalpha was upregulated in post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cells accumulating in periinfarct myocardium as shown by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Further, we isolated post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cell population by modified magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), and confirmed predominant ERalpha expression in this post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cell population by real-time PCR. These post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cells, characterized by upregulated transcription factors implicated in cardiogenic differentiation (GATA-4, Notch-2) and genes required for self-renewal (Tbx3, Akt), maintained a stable phenotype in vitro for more than 3 months. ERalpha stimulation supported proliferation but prevented differentiation of undifferentiated myoblast cells. When adult myocytes isolated from infarcted rat hearts were co-cultured with post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cells, ERalpha stimulation inhibited apoptosis and enhanced survival of these myocytes. These findings suggest that cardiac ERalpha supports survival of cardiomyocytes through post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cells, which may contribute to cardioprotection against cardiac injury.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2009; 47(1):66-75. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.03.014 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study is the first to examine the effect of direct angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation on postinfarct cardiac function with the use of the novel nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist compound 21 (C21). Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Treatment with C21 (0.01, 0.03, 0.3 mg/kg per day IP) was started 24 hours after MI and was continued until euthanasia (7 days after MI). Infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and hemodynamic measurements were performed via transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and intracardiac Millar catheter. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for inflammation and apoptosis markers with immunoblotting and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. C21 significantly improved systolic and diastolic ventricular function. Scar size was smallest in the C21-treated rats. In regard to underlying mechanisms, C21 diminished MI-induced Fas-ligand and caspase-3 expression in the peri-infarct zone, indicating an antiapoptotic effect. Phosphorylation of the p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, both involved in the regulation of cell survival, was strongly reduced after MI but almost completely rescued by C21 treatment. Furthermore, C21 decreased MI-induced serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and myeloperoxidase as well as cardiac interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-2 expression, suggesting an antiinflammatory effect. Direct AT(2) receptor stimulation may be a novel therapeutic approach to improve post-MI systolic and diastolic function by antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory mechanisms.
    Circulation 12/2008; 118(24):2523-32. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.784868 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of clinical and experimental evidence suggest an important role of the renin-angiotensin system in ischemic brain injury although the cellular regulation of the angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors and their potential relevance in this condition have not yet been clearly defined. We first assessed the regulation of brain AT1 and AT2 receptors in response to transient unilateral medial cerebral artery occlusion in rats by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling. AT2 receptors in the peri-infarct zone were significantly upregulated 2 days after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Increased AT2 receptors, which were abundantly distributed in a large number of brain regions adjacent to the infarct area including cerebral frontal cortex, piriform cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, were exclusively expressed in neurons. By contrast, AT1 receptors, which remained unaltered, were mainly expressed in astrocytes. In neurons of ischemic striatum, increased AT2 receptors were associated with intense neurite outgrowth. Blockade of central AT2 receptors with PD123177 abolished the neuroprotective effects of central AT1 receptor blockade with irbesartan on infarct size and neurological outcome. In primary cortical neurons, stimulation of AT2 receptors supported neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. Our data indicate that cerebral AT2 receptors exert neuroprotective actions in response to ischemia-induced neuronal injury, possibly by supporting neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth in peri-ischemic brain areas.
    The FASEB Journal 05/2005; 19(6):617-9. DOI:10.1096/fj.04-2960fje · 5.48 Impact Factor