[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults.
We performed genomic profiling of 1725 patients with precursor B-cell ALL and detailed genomic analysis of 154 patients with Ph-like ALL. We examined the functional effects of fusion proteins and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mouse pre-B cells and xenografts of human Ph-like ALL.
Ph-like ALL increased in frequency from 10% among children with standard-risk ALL to 27% among young adults with ALL and was associated with a poor outcome. Kinase-activating alterations were identified in 91% of patients with Ph-like ALL; rearrangements involving ABL1, ABL2, CRLF2, CSF1R, EPOR, JAK2, NTRK3, PDGFRB, PTK2B, TSLP, or TYK2 and sequence mutations involving FLT3, IL7R, or SH2B3 were most common. Expression of ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, JAK2, and PDGFRB fusions resulted in cytokine-independent proliferation and activation of phosphorylated STAT5. Cell lines and human leukemic cells expressing ABL1, ABL2, CSF1R, and PDGFRB fusions were sensitive in vitro to dasatinib, EPOR and JAK2 rearrangements were sensitive to ruxolitinib, and the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was sensitive to crizotinib.
Ph-like ALL was found to be characterized by a range of genomic alterations that activate a limited number of signaling pathways, all of which may be amenable to inhibition with approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Trials identifying Ph-like ALL are needed to assess whether adding tyrosine kinase inhibitors to current therapy will improve the survival of patients with this type of leukemia. (Funded by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 09/2014; 371(11):1005-1015. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1403088. · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With improved contemporary therapy, we re-assess long-term outcome in patients completing treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia to determine when cure can be declared with a high degree of confidence. In 6 successive clinical trials between 1984 and 2007, 1291(84.5%) patients completed all therapy in continuous complete remission. The post-therapy cumulative risk of relapse or development of a second neoplasm and the event-free survival rate and overall survival were analyzed according to the presenting features and the three treatment periods defined by relative outcome. Over the three treatment periods, there has been progressive increase in the rate of event-free survival (65.2% vs 74.8% vs 85.1% [P<0.001]) and overall survival (76.5% vs 81.1% vs 91.7% [P<0.001]) at 10 years. The most important predictor of outcome after completion of therapy was the type of treatment. In the most recent treatment period, which omitted the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation, the post-treatment cumulative risk of relapse was 6.4%, death in remission 1.5%, and development of a second neoplasm 2.3% at 10 years, with all relapses except one occurring within 4 years off therapy. None of the 106 patients with the t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1, t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AFF1 had relapsed after 2 years from completion of therapy. These findings demonstrate that with contemporary effective therapy that excludes cranial irradiation, approximately 6% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia may relapse after completion of treatment, and those who remain in remission at 4 years post-treatment may be considered cured (i.e., less than 1% chance of relapse).Leukemia accepted article preview online, 30 April 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.142.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 04/2014; 28(12). DOI:10.1038/leu.2014.142 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asparaginase is an essential component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. However, asparaginase-induced hypersensitivity reactions can compromise its efficacy either by directly influencing the pharmacokinetics of asparaginase or by leading to a discontinuation of asparaginase treatment. Here, we report successful challenges using native Escherichia coli asparaginase after previous hypersensitivity reactions to both PEGylated E. coli asparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase.
The two patients included in this case report were diagnosed with B-precursor ALL at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and were treated with a common regimen. Both patients developed hypersensitivity reactions to PEGylated E. coli asparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase early in treatment, and they were challenged with native E. coli asparaginase. Serum samples were collected for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters of each patient during native E. coli asparaginase therapy.
Challenges with native E. coli asparaginase were successful, and asparaginase serum concentrations above therapeutic levels were attained in both patients.
These two cases suggest that some patients can be given native E. coli asparaginase after hypersensitivity reactions to PEGylated asparaginase and achieve therapeutic concentrations of the drug in serum.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2014; 73(6). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2464-2 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable prognostic factors have not been established for advanced-stage pediatric lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL). We analyzed treatment outcomes and potential risk factors in children and adolescents with advanced-stage LL treated over a 40-year period.
From 1962 through 2002, 146 patients (99 boys and 47 girls) with stage III (n = 111) or stage IV (n = 35) LL were treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital. The five treatment eras were 1962-1975 (no protocol), 1975-1979 (NHL-75), 1979-1984 (Total 10 High), 1985-1992 (Pediatric Oncology Group protocol), and 1992-2002 (NHL13). Age at diagnosis was <10 years in 65 patients and ≥10 years in 81.
Outcomes improved markedly over successive treatment eras. NHL13 produced the highest 5-year event-free survival (EFS) estimate (82.9% ± 6.1% [SE]) compared with only 20.0% ± 8.0% during the earliest era. Treatment era (P < 0.0001) and age at diagnosis (<10 years versus ≥10 years, P = 0.0153) were independent prognostic factors, whereas disease stage, lactate dehydrogenase level, and presence of a pleural effusion were not.
Treatment era and age were the most important prognostic factors for children with advanced-stage LL. We suggest that a better assessment of early treatment response may help to identify patients with drug-resistant disease who require more intensive therapy.
Annals of Oncology 06/2013; 24(9). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt221 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the use of risk-directed therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), outcome has improved dramatically in the past 40 years. However, a substantial portion of patients, many of whom have no known risk factors, experience relapse. Taking a genome-wide approach, in the present study, we evaluated the relationships between genotypes at 444 044 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of relapse in 2535 children with newly diagnosed ALL after adjusting for genetic ancestry and treatment regimen. We identified 134 SNPs that were reproducibly associated with ALL relapse. Of 134 relapse SNPs, 133 remained prognostic after adjusting for all known relapse risk factors, including minimal residual disease, and 111 were significant even among patients who were negative for minimal residual disease after remission induction therapy. The C allele at rs7142143 in the PYGL gene was associated with 3.6-fold higher risk of relapse than the T allele (P = 6.7 × 10 -9). Fourteen of the 134 relapse SNPs, including variants in PDE4B and ABCB1, were also associated with antileukemic drug pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics. In the present study, we systematically identified host genetic variations related to treatment outcome of childhood ALL, most of which were prognostic independent of known risk factors for relapse, and some of which also influenced outcome by affecting host disposition of antileukemic drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has included the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in up to 20% of children with high-risk disease despite known cognitive risks of this treatment modality. Methods
Patients enrolled on the St Jude ALL Total Therapy Study XV, which omitted prophylactic cranial irradiation in all patients, were assessed 120 weeks after completion of consolidation therapy (n = 243) using a comprehensive cognitive battery. χ2 analysis was used to compare the percentage of below-average performers among the entire ALL patient group to the expected rate based on the normative sample. Univariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of intensity of chemotherapy (treatment arm), age at diagnosis, and sex on the probability of below-average performance. All statistical tests were two-sided. ResultsOverall, the ALL group had a statistically significantly higher risk for below-average performance on a measure of sustained attention (67.31% more than 1 SD below the normative mean for omission errors, P <. 001) but not on measures of intellectual functioning, academic skills, or memory. Patients given higher intensity chemotherapy were at greater risk for below-average performance compared with those given lower intensity therapy on measures of processing speed (27.14% vs 6.25%, P =. 009) and academic abilities (Math Reasoning: 18.60% vs 3.90%, P =. 008; Word Reading: 20.00% vs 2.60%, P =. 007; Spelling: 27.91% vs 3.90%, P =. 001) and had higher parent-reported hyperactivity (23.00% vs 9.84%, P =. 018) and learning problems (35.00% vs 16.39%, P =. 005). Neither age at diagnosis nor sex was associated with risk for below-average cognitive performance. Conclusions
Omitting cranial irradiation may help preserve global cognitive abilities, but treatment with chemotherapy alone is not without risks. Caregiver education and development of interventions should address both early attention deficits and cognitive late effects.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 08/2012; 104(18):1386-95. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djs344 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.223 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the long-term outcome of 1011 patients treated in five successive clinical trials (Total Therapy Studies 11, 12, 13A, 13B, and 14) between 1984 and 1999. The event-free survival improved significantly (P=0.003) from the first two trials conducted in the 1980s to the three more recent trials conducted in the 1990s. Approximately 75% of patients treated in the 1980s and 80% in the 1990s were cured. Early intensive triple intrathecal therapy, together with more effective systemic therapy, including consolidation and reinduction treatment (Studies 13A and 13B) as well as dexamethasone (Study 13B), resulted in a very low rate of isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse rate (<2%), despite the reduced use of cranial irradiation. Factors consistently associated with treatment outcome were age, leukocyte count, immunophenotype, DNA index, and minimal residual disease level after remission induction treatment. Owing to concerns about therapy-related secondary myeloid leukemia and brain tumors, in our current trials we reserve the use of etoposide for patients with refractory or relapsed leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and cranial irradiation for those with CNS relapse. The next main challenge is to further increase cure rates while improving quality of life for all patients.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2009; 24(2):371-82. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.252 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)working group was formed during the 27th annual meeting of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology in 1995. Since then, 10 workshops have been held to address many issues that help advance treatment outcome of childhood ALL but require international collaboration (Table 1). The group was fondly named after 'Ponte di Legno,' a place in Lombardy, Italy, because the first major workshop was held there. In celebration of the 10th anniversary of the first major meeting, the group returned to Ponte di Legno on 6 and 7 May 2009 for its 11th meeting (Figure 1). During the meeting, Professor Giuseppe Masera was honored for his vision and contributions to further develop the International-BFM study group and to co-found the Ponte di Legno working group. The meeting began with greetings by Professor Andrea Biondi. This report summarizes the data presented and the discussion in the meeting.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2009; 23(12):2318-24. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.211 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asparaginase (ASP) is used routinely in frontline clinical trials for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The goals of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ASP and to mathematically model the dynamics between ASP and asparagine (ASN) in relapsed ALL. Forty children were randomized to receive either native or polyethylene glycolated (PEG) Escherichia coli ASP during reinduction therapy. Serial plasma ASP and ASN, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ASN, and serum anti-ASP antibody samples were collected. The ASP clearance was higher (P = 0.001) for native vs. PEG ASP. Patients with antibodies to PEG ASP had faster PEG ASP clearance (P = 0.004) than did antibody-negative patients. Patients who were positive for antibodies had higher CSF ASN concentrations than did those who were negative (P = 0.04). The modeling suggests that by modifying dosages, comparable ASN depletion is achievable with both preparations. At relapse, there were significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences attributable to ASP preparation and antibody status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the prototype for a drug-responsive malignancy. Although cure rates exceed 80%, considerable unexplained interindividual variability exists in treatment response. OBJECTIVES: To assess the contribution of inherited genetic variation to therapy response and to identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk of minimal residual disease (MRD) after remission induction chemotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Genome-wide interrogation of 476,796 germline SNPs to identify genotypes that were associated with MRD in 2 independent cohorts of children with newly diagnosed ALL: 318 patients in St Jude Total Therapy protocols XIIIB and XV and 169 patients in Children's Oncology Group trial P9906. Patients were enrolled between 1994 and 2006 and last follow-up was in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimal residual disease at the end of induction therapy, measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: There were 102 SNPs associated with MRD in both cohorts (median odds ratio, 2.18; P < or = .0125), including 5 SNPs in the interleukin 15 (IL15) gene. Of these 102 SNPs, 21 were also associated with hematologic relapse (P < .05). Of 102 SNPs, 21 were also associated with antileukemic drug disposition, generally linking MRD eradication with greater drug exposure. In total, 63 of 102 SNPs were associated with early response, relapse, or drug disposition. CONCLUSION: Host genetic variations are associated with treatment response for childhood ALL, with polymorphisms related to leukemia cell biology and host drug disposition associated with lower risk of residual disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Working Group, the so-called 'Ponte di Legno Workshop' has led to substantial progress in international collaboration in leukemia research. On April 27-28, 2005, the 8th Meeting was held in Vienna, Austria, to continue the discussions about special common treatment elements in randomized clinical trials, ethical and clinical aspects of therapy. Furthermore, collaborative projects of clinical relevance with special emphasis on rare genetic subtypes of Childhood ALL were established. The following report summarizes the achievements and aspects of possible future cooperation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study characterized the additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACA) associated with 11q23 rearrangements in 450 infants and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and examined the impact of these ACA on survival. Overall, 213 (47%) cases had ACA but the incidence varied according to patient age and 11q23 subgroup. Infants and patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) had the lowest incidence of ACA (50/182 (27%) and 57/216 (26%) respectively), whereas patients with del(11)(q23) had the highest incidence (66/93 (71%)). Del(11)(q23) abnormalities were heterogeneous and occasionally secondary to t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). Thus, patients with del(11)(q23) comprised a separate biological entity, which was clearly distinct from those with an 11q23 translocation. The most frequent specific ACA were trisomy X (n = 38), abnormal 12p (n = 32), abnormal 9p (n = 28) and del(6q) (n = 19). The presence of ACA did not change the 5 year event-free survival estimates among children (56% (95% Cl 46-65%) vs 62% (54-69%)) or infants (22% (15-29%) vs 18% (9-29%)), nor when the different 11q23 subgroups were analyzed separately. This study has conclusively demonstrated that there is no prognostic effect of secondary chromosomal changes in association with 11q23 abnormalities in childhood ALL. However, characterization of these ACA is important to determine their potential role in initiation of MLL driven leukemogenesis.