Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (27)113.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption to peripheral organ innervation and regulation. However, relatively little work has investigated these post-SCI systemic changes despite considerable evidence that multiple organ system dysfunction contributes to chronic impairments in health. Since metabolic dysfunction is common after SCI, and the liver is a pivotal site for metabolic homeostasis, we sought to determine if liver pathology occurs as a result of SCI in a rat spinal contusion model. Histologic evidence showed excess lipid accumulation in the liver for at least 21d post-injury after cervical or mid-thoracic SCI. Lipidomic analysis revealed an acute increase in hepatic ceramides as well as chronically elevated lactosylceramide. Post-SCI hepatic changes also included increased pro-inflammatory gene expression, including IL-1α, IL-1β, CCL2, and TNFα mRNA. These were coincident with increased CD68+ macrophages in the liver through 21d post-injury. Serum alanine transaminase, used clinically to detect liver damage, was significantly increased at 21d post-injury, suggesting that early metabolic and inflammatory damage preceded overt liver pathology. Surprisingly, liver inflammation was even detected after lumbar SCI. Collectively, these results suggest that SCI produces chronic liver injury with symptoms strikingly similar to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver disease). These clinically significant hepatic changes after SCI are known to contribute to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome, all of which are more prevalent in individuals with SCI. Targeting acute and prolonged hepatic pathology may improve recovery and reduce long-term complications following SCI.
    Journal of neurotrauma. 07/2014;
  • Mihyun Bae, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Neha Patel, Norman J. Haughey
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    ABSTRACT: Binge drinking is a common form of alcohol abuse that involves repeated rounds of intoxication followed by withdrawal. The episodic effects of binge drinking and withdrawal on brain resident cells are thought to contribute to neural remodeling and neurological damage. However, the molecular mechanisms for these neurodegenerative effects are not understood. Ethanol (EtOH) regulates the metabolism of ceramide, a highly bioactive lipid that is enriched in brain. We used a mouse model of binge drinking to determine the effects of EtOH intoxication and withdrawal on brain ceramide metabolism. Intoxication and acute alcohol withdrawal were each associated with distinct changes in ceramide regulatory genes and metabolic products. EtOH intoxication was accompanied by decreased concentrations of multiple ceramides, coincident with reductions in the expression of enzymes involved in the production of ceramides, and increased expression of ceramide degrading enzymes. EtOH withdrawal was associated with specific increases in ceramide C16:0, C18:0 and C20:0 and increased expression of enzymes involved with ceramide production. These data suggest that EtOH intoxication may evoke a ceramide phenotype that is neuroprotective, while EtOH withdrawal results in a metabolic shift that increases the production of potentially toxic ceramide species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal damage is a prominent cause of disability and yet its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Using a xenogeneic system, here we define the bioenergetic changes induced in rat neurons by exposure to cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with multiple sclerosis compared to control subjects. A first discovery cohort of cerebrospinal fluid from 13 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 control subjects showed that acute exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of neuroprotective genes, while increasing expression of genes involved in lipid signalling and in the response to oxidative stress. Protracted exposure of neurons to stress led to neurotoxicity and bioenergetics failure after cerebrospinal fluid exposure and positively correlated with the levels of neurofilament light chain. These findings were validated using a second independent cohort of cerebrospinal fluid samples (eight patients with multiple sclerosis and eight control subjects), collected at a different centre. The toxic effect of cerebrospinal fluid on neurons was not attributable to differences in IgG content, glucose, lactate or glutamate levels or differences in cytokine levels. A lipidomic profiling approach led to the identification of increased levels of ceramide C16:0 and C24:0 in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Exposure of cultured neurons to micelles composed of these ceramide species was sufficient to recapitulate the bioenergetic dysfunction and oxidative damage induced by exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, our data suggest that C16:0 and C24:0 ceramides are enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and are sufficient to induce neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and axonal damage.
    Brain : a journal of neurology. 06/2014; 137(Pt8):2271-2286.
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with verbal memory decline, although deterioration may be mitigated in individuals undertaking exercise interventions. Ceramide sphingolipids, suggested to play a role in pathological neurodegeneration, have been associated with the development and progression of CAD but their relationship with cognitive response to exercise has not been assessed. In this study, concentrations of very long chain ceramides (C22:0 and C24:0) were assessed as predictors of changes in verbal memory performance over 1 year in subjects with CAD undertaking cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Verbal memory was measured using the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd Ed. (CVLT-II), from which Z-scores were calculated based on age, gender and education matched norms. Baseline plasma C22:0 and C24:0 ceramide concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Repeated measures general linear models were used to determine the association between baseline plasma ceramides and the change in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). In patients with CAD (n = 33, mean age = 62 +/- 9 years, 84.8% male, years of education = 17 +/- 3 years), higher baseline plasma C22:0 (F1, 29 = 5.30, p = 0.03) and C24:0 (F1, 29 = 4.04, p = 0.05) concentrations significantly predicted less improvement in verbal memory performance over 1 year of CR controlling for age and BMI. Plasma ceramide concentrations should be further examined as potential predictors of cognitive response to exercise and worse cognitive outcomes in patients with CAD.Trial registration: NCT01625754.
    BMC Geriatrics 12/2013; 13(1):135. · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Norman J Haughey, Xiaomao Zhu, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru
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    ABSTRACT: The development and application of biomarkers to neurodegenerative diseases has become increasingly important in clinical practice and therapeutic trials. While substantial progress has been made at the basic science level in understanding the pathophysiology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), there are significant limitations in our current ability to predict the onset or trajectory of disease, and to accurately determine the effects of therapeutic interventions. Thus, the development of objective biomarkers is critical to further our understanding and treatment of HAND. In recent years, biomarker discovery efforts have largely been driven forward through the implementation of multiple "omics" approaches that include (but are not restricted to): Lipidomics, proteomics, metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics, and advances in brain imaging approaches such as functional connectomics. In this paper we summarize our progress to date on lipidomic approaches to biomarker discovery, discuss how these data have influenced basic research on the neuropathology of HAND, and implications for the development of therapeutics that target metabolic pathways involved in lipid handling.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 11/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this multicenter cohort study, we sought to identify prognostic and associative metabolic indicators for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A quantitative lipidomic analysis was conducted on 524 longitudinal CSF samples collected from 7 different performance sites across the mainland United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Subjects included HIV-infected individuals with longitudinal clinical and cognitive testing data and cognitively normal HIV-negative healthy controls. At baseline, HIV+ subjects could be differentiated from HIV- controls by reductions in a single ceramide species and increases in multiple forms of cholesterol. Perturbations in cholesterol metabolism and ceramide were influenced by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) use. There were no cross-sectional baseline differences in any lipid metabolite when HIV+ subjects were grouped according to cognitive status. However, a single sphingolipid metabolite and reduced levels of esterified cholesterols were prognostic indicators of incident cognitive decline. Longitudinal patterns of these disturbances in sphingolipid and sterol metabolism suggest that a progressive disorder of lipid metabolism that is similar to disorders of lipid storage may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. These findings suggest that HIV infection and cART are independently associated with a CNS metabolic disturbance, identify surrogate markers that are prognostic for cognitive decline, and implicate a lipid storage-like disorder in the progression of HAND.
    Neurology 09/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite wide spread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in developed countries, approximately half of HIV-infected patients will develop impairments in cognitive function. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction can be precipitated by HIV-infection of macrophages by mechanisms that involve alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses. HIV-infection of macrophages is known to increase the release of soluble neurotoxins. However, the composition of products released from infected macrophages is complex and not fully known. In this study we provide evidence that ATP and other immuno-/neuromodulatory nucleotides are exported from HIV-infected macrophages and modify neuronal structure. Supernatants collected from HIV-infected macrophages (HIV/MDM) contained large amounts of ATP, ADP, AMP and small amounts of adenosine, in addition to glutamate. Dilutions of these supernatants that were sub-threshold for glutamate receptor activation evoked rapid calcium flux in neurons that were completely inhibited by the enzymatic degradation of ATP, or by blockade of calcium permeable purinergic receptors. Applications of these highly diluted HIV/MDM onto neuronal cultures increased the amount of extracellular glutamate by mechanisms dependent on purinergic receptor activation, and downregulated spine density on neurons by mechanisms dependent on purinergic and glutamate receptor activation. We conclude from these data that ATP released from HIV-infected macrophages downregulates dendritic spine density on neurons by a mechanism that involves purinergic receptor mediated modulation of glutamatergic tone. These data suggest that neuronal function may be depressed in HIV infected individuals by mechanisms that involve macrophage release of ATP that triggers secondary effects on glutamate handling.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 05/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a xenograft model wherein, live renal cancer cells were implanted under the kidney capsule in mice, revealed a 30-fold increase in tumor volume over a period of 26 days and this was accompanied with a 32-fold increase in the level of lactosylceramide (LacCer). Mice fed D- threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase and lactosylceramide synthase (LCS: β-1,4-GalT-V), showed marked reduction in tumor volume. This was accompanied by a decrease in the mass of lactosylceramide and an increase in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) level. Mechanistic studies revealed that D-PDMP inhibited cell proliferation and angiogenesis by inhibiting p44MAPK, p-AKT-1 pathway and mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR). By linking glycosphingolipid synthesis with tumor growth, renal cancer progression and regression can be evaluated. Thus inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis can be a bonafide target to prevent the progression of other types of cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63726. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed by brain endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These efflux pumps play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis as they actively hinder the entry of unwanted blood-derived compounds into the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, their high activity at the BBB has been a major hurdle for the treatment of several brain diseases, as they prevent numerous drugs to reach their site of action within the brain. Importantly, recent data indicate that endogenous substrates for ABC transporters may include inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive lipids, suggesting a potential role for ABC transporters in immunological responses, and more specifically in inflammatory brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we will give a comprehensive overview of recent findings that illustrate this novel role for ABC transporters in neuro-inflammatory processes. Moreover, we will provide first insights into underlying mechanisms and focus on the importance for bioactive lipids, in particular platelet-activating factor, herein. A thorough understanding of these events may form the basis for the development for selective treatment modalities to dampen the neuro-inflammatory attack in MS and thereby reducing tissue damage.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2012; 3:74.
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    ABSTRACT: Several proteins that play key roles in cholesterol synthesis, regulation, trafficking and signaling are united by sharing the phylogenetically conserved 'sterol-sensing domain' (SSD). The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma possesses at least one gene coding for a protein containing the canonical SSD. We investigated the role of this protein to provide information on lipid regulatory mechanisms in the parasite. The protein sequence predicts an uncharacterized Niemann-Pick, type C1-related protein (NPC1) with significant identity to human NPC1, and it contains many residues implicated in human NPC disease. We named this NPC1-related protein, TgNCR1. Mammalian NPC1 localizes to endo-lysosomes and promotes the movement of sterols and sphingolipids across the membranes of these organelles. Miscoding patient mutations in NPC1 cause overloading of these lipids in endo-lysosomes. TgNCR1, however, lacks endosomal targeting signals, and localizes to flattened vesicles beneath the plasma membrane of Toxoplasma. When expressed in mammalian NPC1 mutant cells and properly addressed to endo-lysosomes, TgNCR1 restores cholesterol and GM1 clearance from these organelles. To clarify the role of TgNCR1 in the parasite, we genetically disrupted NCR1; mutant parasites were viable. Quantitative lipidomic analyses on the ΔNCR1 strain reveal normal cholesterol levels but an overaccumulation of several species of cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins and ceramides. ΔNCR1 parasites are also characterized by abundant storage lipid bodies and long membranous tubules derived from their parasitophorous vacuoles. Interestingly, these mutants can generate multiple daughters per single mother cell at high frequencies, allowing fast replication in vitro, and they are slightly more virulent in mice than the parental strain. These data suggest that the ΔNCR1 strain has lost the ability to control the intracellular levels of several lipids, which subsequently results in the stimulation of lipid storage, membrane biosynthesis and parasite division. Based on these observations, we ascribe a role for TgNCR1 in lipid homeostasis in Toxoplasma.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002410. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in debilitating neurological syndromes collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although the HIV coat protein gp120 has been identified as a potent neurotoxin that enhances NMDA receptor function, the exact mechanisms for this effect are not known. Here we provide evidence that gp120 activates two separate signaling pathways that converge to enhance NMDA-evoked calcium flux by clustering NMDA receptors in modified membrane microdomains. gp120 enlarged and stabilized the structure of lipid microdomains on dendrites by mechanisms that involved a redox-regulated translocation of a sphingomyelin hydrolase (neutral sphingomyelinase-2) to the plasma membrane. A concurrent pathway was activated that accelerated the forward traffic of NMDA receptors by a PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NR1 C-terminal serine 897 (masks an ER retention signal), followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of serine 896 (important for surface expression). NMDA receptors were preferentially targeted to synapses and clustered in modified membrane microdomains. In these conditions, NMDA receptors were unable to laterally disperse and did not internalize, even in response to strong agonist induction. Focal NMDA-evoked calcium bursts were enhanced by threefold in these regions. Inhibiting membrane modification or NR1 phosphorylation prevented gp120 from accelerating the surface localization of NMDA receptors. Disrupting the structure of membrane microdomains after gp120 treatments restored the ability of NMDA receptors to disperse and internalize. These findings demonstrate that gp120 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in the setting of HIV infection by interfering with NMDA receptor trafficking.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2011; 31(47):17074-90. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma sphingolipids have been shown to predict cognitive impairment and hippocampal volume loss, but there is little research in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we sought to determine whether plasma ceramides, dihydroceramides (DHCer), sphingomyelins (SM), or dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) levels and ratios of SM/ceramide or DHSM/DHCer were predictive of progression in AD. Probable AD patients (n = 120) were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Plasma sphingolipids were assessed using ESI/MS/MS. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relation between baseline plasma sphingolipid levels and cross-sectional and longitudinal performance on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-Sum). Participants were followed a mean of 4.2 visits and 2.3 years. There were no cross-sectional associations. In longitudinal analyses, high levels of DHCer and ceramide were associated with greater progression, but findings did not reach significance (p > 0.05). In contrast, higher plasma levels of SM, DHSM, SM/ceramide, and DHSM/DHCer ratios were associated with less progression on the MMSE and ADAS-Cog; the ratios were the strongest predictors of clinical progression. Compared to the lowest tertiles, the highest tertiles of DHSM/DHCer and SM/ceramide ratios declined 1.35 points (p = 0.001) and 1.19 (p = 0.004) points less per year on the MMSE and increased 3.18 (p = 0.001) and 2.42 (p = 0.016) points less per year on the ADAS-Cog. These results suggest that increased SM/ceramide and DHSM/DHCer ratios dose-dependently predict slower progression among AD patients and may be sensitive blood-based biomarkers for clinical progression.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2011; 27(2):259-69. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Neha Patel, Ostefame Ewaleifoh, Norman J Haughey
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    ABSTRACT: Drug abuse in HIV-infected individuals accelerates the onset and progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Opiates are a class of commonly abused drugs that have interactive effects with neurotoxic HIV proteins that facilitate glial dysfunction, neuronal damage and death. While the combined effects of neurotoxic HIV proteins and morphine have been extensively studied in the setting of chronic and acute morphine use, very little in known about the effects of HIV proteins during drug withdrawal. Since opiate withdrawal can induce considerable neuronal stress, we determined the effects of opiates (morphine) on brain redox balance, sphingolipid metabolism and synaptic integrity during both chronic and withdrawal conditions in non-transgenic mice (nTg), and in mice transgenic for the HIV-coat protein gp120 (gp120tg). In nTg mice, we found that chronic morphine increased brain oxidative capacity and induced synaptic damage that was largely reversed during drug withdrawal. Gp120tg mice showed a similar response to chronic morphine, but the diminished oxidative capacity and synaptic damage failed to normalize during drug withdrawal. In nTg mice, brain sphingolipid content was not affected by morphine during chronic or withdrawal conditions. In gp120tg mice there was a baseline perturbation in sphingolipid metabolism that manifest as decreased sphingomyelin with accumulations of the bioactive lipid ceramide. Sphingolipid metabolism was highly reactive to morphine in gp120tg mice. Chronic morphine increased sphingomyelin content with a consequent reduction in ceramide. During drug withdrawal, these effects reversed, and sphingomyelin levels were reduced with consequent increases of ceramide. We interpret these findings to suggest that neuronal repair during morphine withdrawal is inhibited in the setting of gp120 by mechanisms that involve sustained oxidative insult and accumulations of the highly reactive intermediate ceramide.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 07/2011; 6(4):640-9. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    Norman J Haughey, Luis B Tovar-y-Romo, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru
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    ABSTRACT: Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involves a number of important interactions with lipid components in host membranes that regulate binding, fusion, internalization, and viral assembly. Available data suggests that HIV actively modifies the sphingolipid content of cellular membranes to create focal environments that are favorable for infection. In this review, we summarize the roles that membrane lipids play in HIV infection and discuss the current status of therapeutics that attempt to modify biological membranes to inhibit HIV.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 03/2011; 6(2):284-95. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapies to control replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dysfunctions of cognition that are collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50% of those infected by the virus. Currently there is not a biomarker that can identify HIV-infected people who are at risk for the development of HAND. Previous studies have identified particular sphingolipid species that are dysregulated in HAND, but the neurocognitive correlates of these biochemical findings are not currently understood. To address this question, we compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and sterol species with performance on standard neurological tests designed to assess the function of multiple cognitive and motor domains in HIV-infected subjects. We found that sphingomyelin:ceramide ratios for acyl chain lengths of C16:0, C18:0, C22:0, and C24:0 were associated with worse performance on several indices of memory. The most striking finding was for the acyl chain of C18:0 that consistently associated with performance on multiple tests of memory. These findings suggest that the sphingomyelin:ceramide ratio for C18:0 may be a reasonable surrogate marker for memory dysfunction in HIV-infected subjects.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 11/2010; 16(6):445-56. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sphingolipid ceramide is a bioactive signaling lipid that is thought to play important roles in modulating synaptic activity, in part by regulating the function of excitatory postsynaptic receptors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ceramide exerts its effects on synaptic activity remain largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that a rapid generation of ceramide by neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2; also known as "sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-3") played a key role in modulating excitatory postsynaptic currents by controlling the insertion and clustering of NMDA receptors (Wheeler et al. [2009] J. Neurochem. 109:1237-1249). We now demonstrate that nSMase2 plays a role in memory. Inhibition of nSMase2 impaired spatial and episodic-like memory in mice. At the molecular level, inhibition of nSMase2 decreased ceramide, increased PSD-95, increased the number of AMPA receptors, and altered the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Our study identifies nSMase2 as an important component for efficient memory formation and underscores the importance of ceramide in regulating synaptic events related to learning and memory.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2010; 88(13):2940-51. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A blood-based biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) would be superior to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging measures in terms of cost, invasiveness, and feasibility for repeated measures. We previously reported that blood ceramides varied in relation to timing of memory impairment in a population-based study. The present objective was to examine whether plasma ceramides varied by AD severity in a well-characterized clinic sample and were associated with cognitive decline and hippocampal volume loss over 1 year. Participants included 25 normal controls (NC), 17 amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 21 early probable AD. A thorough neuropsychological battery and neuroimaging with hippocampal volume determination were conducted at baseline and 1 year later. Plasma ceramides were assayed at baseline using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Although all saturated ceramides were lower in MCI compared with AD at baseline, ceramides C22:0 and C24:0 were significantly lower in the MCI group compared with both NC and AD groups (P < .01). Ceramide levels did not differ (P > .05) in AD versus NC. There were no cross-sectional associations between ceramides C22:0 and C24:0 and either cognitive performance or hippocampal volume among any group. However, among the MCI group, higher baseline ceramide C22:0 and C24:0 levels were predictive of cognitive decline and hippocampal volume loss 1 year later. Results suggest that very long-chain plasma ceramides C22:0 and C24:0 are altered in MCI and predict memory loss and right hippocampal volume loss among subjects with MCI. These plasma ceramides may be early indicators of AD progression.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 09/2010; 6(5):378-85. · 14.48 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2009; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining the appropriate complement and content of lipids in cellular membranes is critical for normal neural function. Accumulating evidence suggests that even subtle perturbations in the lipid content of neurons and myelin can disrupt their function and may contribute to myelin and axonal degradation. In this study, we determined the composition and quantified the content of lipids and sterols in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) from control and multiple sclerosis brain tissues by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that in active-multiple sclerosis, there is a shift in the lipid composition of NAWM and NAGM to a higher phospholipid and lower sphingolipid content. We found that this disturbance in lipid composition was reduced in NAGM but not in NAWM of inactive-multiple sclerosis. The pattern of disturbance in lipid composition suggests a metabolic defect that causes sphingolipids to be shuttled to phospholipid production. Modelling the biophysical consequence of this change in lipid composition of NAWM indicated an increase in the repulsive force between opposing bilayers that could explain decompaction and disruption of myelin structure.
    Brain 10/2008; 131(Pt 11):3092-102. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statistical experimental designs were applied for the optimization of medium constituents for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 in solid state fermentation (SSF) using pineapple waste as the sole substrate. Using Plackett-Burman design, yeast extract, moisture content of the substrate, KH(2)PO(4) and Na(2)HPO(4) were identified as significant variables which highly influenced citric acid production and these variables were subsequently optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found to be yeast extract 0.34 (%w/w), moisture content of the substrate 70.71 (%), KH(2)PO(4) 0.64 (%w/w) and Na(2)HPO(4) 0.69 (%w/w). Citric acid production at these optimum conditions was 202.35 g/kg ds (g citric acid produced/kg of dried pineapple waste as substrate).
    Bioresource Technology 08/2008; 99(10):4445-50. · 5.04 Impact Factor