[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: QTc interval prolongation is associated with increased mortality rates in patients with advanced heart failure. We investigated the predictive value of prolonged QTc interval in 567 patients with heart failure who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery The patients were in New York Heart Association class III or IV, with left ventricular ejection fractions of 0.40 or less. Before surgery, the QT interval duration was measured in leads II and V4 of the standard electrocardiogram and corrected by use of the Bazett formula. The QTc interval was prolonged (>440 msec) in 243 patients (43%) and normal in 324 (57%). The 2 study groups--prolonged QTc versus normal QTc--did not differ in terms of age (62 +/- 11 years vs 64 +/- 10 years, P=0.65), sex (80% male vs 76% male, P=0.31), ejection fraction (0.29 +/- 0.08 vs 0.29 +/- 0.09, P=0.72), hypertension (82% vs 78%, P=0.34), or diabetes (11% vs 7%, P=0.10). Within 1 month after coronary artery bypass grafting, 22 of 243 patients (9.1%) in the prolonged QTc group died, compared with 5 of 324 in the normal QTc group (1.5%) (P=0.0001). QTc interval prolongation was the only independent predictor of postoperative mortality on multivariate analysis (P=0.002). We conclude that patients with heart failure and preoperative QTc interval prolongation have increased mortality rates after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 02/2006; 33(1):3-8. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statin therapy in nonsurgical patient populations is associated with a significant reduction in adverse cardiovascular events, including death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. Recently, statin therapy was shown to be associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative mortality in patients undergoing major noncardiac vascular surgery. We investigated the influence of preoperative statin therapy on adverse outcomes after primary coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing primary CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (n=1663) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2001 at the Texas Heart Institute was performed. Patients were classified into 2 groups: patients receiving preoperative statin therapy (n=943) and patients not receiving preoperative antihyperlipidemic therapy (n=720). To determine if preoperative statin therapy was independently associated with a reduction in the risk of adverse postoperative outcomes, multivariate stepwise logistic regression was performed controlling for patient demographics, medical history, and preoperative medications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that preoperative statin therapy was independently associated with a significant reduction ( approximately 50%) in the risk of 30-day all-cause mortality (3.75% versus 1.80%; P<0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for early mortality in patients receiving preoperative statin therapy compared with patients not receiving antihyperlipidemic agents was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.99). Statin therapy was not independently associated with a reduced risk of postoperative MI, cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, or renal dysfunction. In an attempt to further control for selection bias related to the choice of therapy, multivariate analysis of a propensity-matched cohort of 1362 patients revealed that preoperative statin therapy was independently associated with a significant reduction in the composite endpoint of 30-day all-cause mortality and stroke (7.1% versus 4.6%; P<0.05).
Preoperative statin therapy may reduce the risk of early mortality after primary CABG surgery with CPB.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of systemic inflammatory response to CPB has significantly advanced in the last 2 decades, these experimentally derived ideas have yet to be fully integrated into clinical practice. Treatment of the systemic inflammatory response to CPB is also confounded by the fact that inhibition of inflammation might disrupt protective physiologic responses or result in immunosuppression. Although it is unlikely that no single therapeutic strategy will ever be sufficient in of itself to totally prevent CPB-associated morbidity, the combination of multiple pharmacologic and mechanical therapeutic strategies, each selectively targeted at different components of the inflammatory response, may eventually result in significantly improved clinical outcomes following cardiac surgery.
Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 10/2003; 21(3):453-64.