[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five adult patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) diagnosed by usual criteria were studied with velocity vector imaging (VVI) on admission and at follow-up, when their LV function had improved, as assessed by 2D TTE wall-motion score (WMS) index. Averaged peak segmental longitudinal strain (S) in systole, and velocity (V) and strain rate (SR) in both systole and diastole were measured from apical 4- (A4C) and 2-chamber views (A2C) in all patients. The data obtained by VVI were analyzed separately for involved and uninvolved segments, which were independently assessed by WMS. In the involved segments, systolic S, V, SR, and diastolic SR improved (P-value < 0.05) on follow-up. Diastolic V showed a trend toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance. In the uninvolved segments, none of the parameters improved significantly either during systole or diastole. In three of these five patients, left atrial (LA) walls were also studied by placing region of interest (ROI) points in the middle of each wall. Peak segmental LA systolic and diastolic V and SR as well as systolic S were obtained for both involved and uninvolved LA walls which were assessed independently using WMS similar to LV. In the involved LA walls, none of the atrial systolic and diastolic parameters changed significantly but all parameters with the exception of systolic V showed a tendency toward improvement during follow-up. Among the uninvolved LA walls, none changed significantly but atrial systolic SR and, diastolic V and SR tended to increase during follow-up. Our retrospective study using VVI demonstrates that TC patients also have LV systolic and diastolic longitudinal dysfunction, not just systolic radial dysfunction as assessed by traditional 2D TTE indices. Longitudinal LA dysfunction may also be present.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced septal ablation (AISA) is an accepted treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with left ventricular (LV) outflow obstruction who are unresponsive to medical therapy. As left atrial (LA) enlargement has been correlated with increased morbidity and mortality in HCM, we assessed LA volumes and ejection fraction (EF) prior to and after AISA using real time three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 12 patients (9 women; mean age 52 +/- 15 years; 11 Caucasian). All patients underwent successful AISA with no complications and their resting left ventricular outflow gradients decreased from 40.5 +/- 22.2 to 9.1 +/- 17.6 mmHg (P < 0.001) while their gradients with provocation decreased from 126.2 +/- 31.7 to 21.8 +/- 28.0 mmHg (P < 0.001). All patients showed improvements in their New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Both the LA end-systolic (45.2 +/- 12.9 to 37.2 +/- 13.7 ml, P < 0.0001) and end-diastolic (79.6 +/- 18.9 to 77.1 +/- 18.6 ml, P = 0.001) volumes decreased after AISA. The LA EF increased from 43.1 +/- 9.0 to 52.5 +/- 8.8% (P = 0.001). The increase in LA EF correlated with the decrease in the resting left ventricular outflow gradient (R =-0.647, P = 0.03). In conclusion, 3D echocardiography can be utilized to follow LA function after AISA for HCM. AISA results in clinical improvement in patients with HCM and in improvement of LA EF that is correlated with the decrease in the left ventricular outflow gradient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are describing two-dimensional and live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic as well as two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic findings in an elderly patient with epithelioid hemangioma involving the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic features of a chordoma metastatic to the heart and correlate its appearance with the surgical pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the usefulness of contrast echocardiography and live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in characterizing the normal structures imaged posterior to the proximal ascending aorta as superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery, or both.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an adult in whom live/real time three-dimensional echocardiography was able to make a definite diagnosis of a quadricuspid aortic valve which was misdiagnosed as bicuspid by live two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine patients with different tricuspid valve (TV) pathologies were studied by both two-dimensional transthoracic (2DTTE) and live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTTE). A major contribution of 3DTTE over 2DTTE was the en face visualization of all three leaflets of the TV in all patients. This allowed accurate assessment of TV orifice area in patients with TV stenosis and carcinoid disease. Loss of TV leaflet tissue, defects in TV leaflets and size of TV systolic non-coaptation could also be delineated and resulted in identifying the mechanism of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with Ebstein's anomaly and rheumatic heart disease. Prolapse of TV leaflets could also be well visualized and enabled us to develop a schema for systematic assessment of individual segment prolapse which could help in surgical planning. The exact sites of chordae rupture in patients with flail TV as well as right ventricular papillary muscle rupture could be well seen by 3DTTE. 3DTTE also permitted sectioning of various TV masses for more specific diagnosis of their nature. In addition, color Doppler 3DTTE provided an estimate of quantitative evaluation of TR severity, since the exact shape and size of the vena contracta could be accurately assessed. In conclusion, our preliminary experience with 3DTTE has demonstrated substantial incremental value over 2DTTE in the assessment of various TV pathologies.