Yukiko Komori

Okayama University, Okayama-shi, Okayama-ken, Japan

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Publications (8)21.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Vasodilation profiles following a short-term infusion of nitric oxide (NO), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) into an isolated perfused mesenteric artery bed were analyzed in rats to examine their vasodilatory efficacy under physiological conditions. These compounds commonly increase the intracellular NO concentration to exert vasodilatory activity. In an experiment with exogenous NO infusion where 100 ┬Ál of 1 : 300 diluted NO-saturated solution (approx. 53 pmol of NO) was applied, the infusion caused transient vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner, with the peak vasodilation value being 74.7% of the maximum relaxation value. In experiments with ACh, the peak vasodilation value was 81.5% of the maximum at a dose of 60 pmol. The vasodilation profile of ACh was similar to that of NO infusion, but the ACh-induced vasodilation reduced at a slower rate than that induced by NO infusion. The vasodilatory activity of SNP was less potent than that of ACh, and its peak value was 62.8% of the maximum at a dose of 2000 pmol. However, SNP activity was augmented by removing the vascular endothelia of the mesenteric artery bed, and the peak value reached 67.3% of the maximum at a dose of 60 pmol. Pharmacodynamic analysis indicated that NO and ACh are equivalent regarding their vasodilatory efficacy, while the efficacy of SNP was less than 1% of theirs, as the arterial vascular endothelium impeded intracellular SNP-related NO generation, by which 95% of SNP's vasodilatory efficacy was negated. These findings will be helpful to understand factors influencing the therapeutic efficacy of vasodilators.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2011; 34(9):1487-92. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis of a highly protein-bound compound, tolbutamide, was examined in rats to clarify whether the efficacy of the peritoneal dialysis of such compounds increases proportionally as their unbound fractions increase. As expected, it was shown that the tolbutamide concentration of the peritoneal dialysate rose as the unbound fraction of tolbutamide increased. However, the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis of tolbutamide was proportionally elevated only when the unbound fraction was slightly increased by sulfamethoxazole treatment. When the unbound fraction of tolbutamide was increased 7.8 times by sulfadimethoxine treatment, the dialysis efficacy was increased to only 58% of that expected. This discrepancy between the observed and expected values regarding dialysis efficacy was more marked when experiments were performed in rats with experimentally induced acute renal failure. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the intrinsic dialysis clearance of tolbutamide decreased when its unbound fraction was greatly increased. These findings suggest that peritoneal dialysis may be mediated not only by passive diffusion, but also by concentration-dependent processes. The efficacy of the peritoneal dialysis of therapeutic compounds may be overestimated if the estimation is based only on their unbound fraction measured under control conditions.
    Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 01/2009; 30(1):1-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lithium disposition to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was evaluated in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) to examine whether electrolyte homeostasis of the CSF is perturbed by kidney dysfunction. In addition, the effects of renal failure on choroid plexial expressions of the Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC1) and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) were also studied. After lithium was intravenously administered at a dose of 4 mmol/kg, its concentration profile in plasma was evaluated by collecting plasma specimens, while that in CSF was monitored with a microdialysis probe in the lateral ventricles. NKCC1 and NHE1 expressions were measured via the Western immunoblot method using membrane specimens prepared from the choroid plexus in normal and ARF rats. The lithium concentration in CSF of ARF rats was 30% lower than that of normal rats, while their plasma lithium profiles were almost the same, indicating that the lithium disposition to CSF was decreased in ARF rats. It was revealed that the choroid plexial expression of NKCC1 was increased by 40% in ARF rats, but that of NHE1 was unchanged. ARF decreases the lithium disposition to CSF, possibly by promoting lithium efflux from CSF due to increased NKCC1 expression in the choroid plexus.
    Pharmaceutical Research 07/2008; 25(10):2243-9. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of capsaicin on intestinal cefazolin absorption was examined by means of an in situ closed loop method in rats to clarify whether the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) is involved in drug absorption driven by passive diffusion. In control experiments with 1 mg/mL cefazolin, the amount of cefazolin absorbed from the closed loop was 15.3+/-1.5 microg/cm in the rat jejunum. The absorption amount was increased to 22.8+/-0.9 and 23.4+/-2.4 microg/cm when capsaicin was applied with cefazolin at concentrations of 10 and 400 microM, respectively. The enhancing effect of capsaicin on cefazolin absorption was suppressed when ruthenium red, a non-selective inhibitor of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, was intravenously infused into the rat during the experiment. Cefazolin accumulation in the intestinal tissue was not altered in the presence of capsaicin. Collectively, the mechanism accounting for the capsaicin-induced increase in the intestinal cefazolin absorption is probably that capsaicin associating with TRPV1 increases the intrinsic permeability of cefazolin in intestine.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 01/2008; 22(6):445-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify to what extent topically administered drug molecules horizontally permeate into tissues surrounding the administration site, the intramuscular lateral concentration profile of acetaminophen was investigated in vivo using the microdialysis method in rats. When acetaminophen was intramuscularly administered for 6 h in a pinpoint manner at a constant rate of 3 microg/min, it was clearly detected in the muscle surrounding the administration site, being 17.5 microg/ml when measured at a 2 mm distance from the administration site. The concentration in the muscle was decreased as the distance increased, and those measured at 5 mm and 40 mm were 0.35 microg/ml and 0.09 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, it was shown that the concentration in the muscle at 40 mm reflected the compound's concentration in plasma, but not the compound's horizontal permeation from the administration site. With these observations, the intramuscular distribution profile of acetaminophen was numerically characterized according to Fick's law. As a result, it was revealed that horizontal permeation is the primary process accountable for the increased intramuscular concentration only in the area adjacent to the administration site, and the radius of the adjacent area was calculated to be 5.80 mm for acetaminophen.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 11/2007; 343(1-2):190-5. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify whether the therapeutic efficacy of lipid microspheres incorporating prostaglandin E(1) (lipo-PGE(1)) is altered when mixed and coinfused with clinical solutions, the original lipo-PGE(1) solution (20 microg/mL) was mixed with three clinical infusion solutions: 0.9% sodium chloride solution, Hartmann's solution, and fat emulsion for parenteral nutrition. These diluted lipo-PGE(1) (2 microg/mL) solutions were administered to rats, and their hemodynamic and antiplatelet effects were examined. Peripheral blood flow was increased by 76 +/- 4% from the control level when the lipo-PGE(1) solution diluted with the fat emulsion was administered, while it was increased by 43 +/- 6% and 36 +/- 7%, respectively, when the lipo-PGE(1) solutions diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride and Hartmann's solution were administered. As for the antiplatelet effects of the lipo-PGE(1) solutions, the progression of digit gangrene in thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) rats was significantly suppressed by the administration of lipo-PGE(1) solution diluted with the fat emulsion, but it was not suppressed by lipo-PGE(1) solution diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride. These findings indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of lipo-PGE(1) is decreased when it is mixed with an aqueous solution such as 0.9% sodium chloride.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2007; 96(4):935-43. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of capsaicin on intestinal cephalexin absorption were investigated by means of in situ single pass perfusion in rats to clarify whether this pungent compound present in spice is a potential factor altering the intestinal drug absorption processes. Under the control condition, cephalexin was absorbed at a rate of 1.16+/-0.08 and 0.90+/-0.06 nmol/min/cm in the jejunum and ileum, respectively. The intestinal cephalexin absorption rate was decreased when capsaicin was dissolved in the perfusate at a concentration of 400 microM, being 0.54+/-0.07 and 0.46+/-0.10 nmol/min/cm in the jejunum and ileum, respectively. The inhibitive effect of capsaicin on intestinal cephalexin absorption was diminished when ruthenium red, a non-selective inhibitor of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, was intravenously infused into the rat during the experiment. Moreover, when we evaluated the paracellular permeability of cephalexin by utilizing a competitive inhibitor, glycylsarcosine, it was demonstrated that glycylsarcosine-insensitive intestinal cephalexin absorption in the jejunum was increased by 4.5 times in the presence of 400 microM capsaicin. These findings indicate that capsaicin affects both transcellular and paracellular pathways of intestinal cephalexin absorption by interacting with the TRP cation channels in intestinal tissues, in which capsaicin seems to change the transport activity of H+/peptide co-transporter 1 (PEPT1), and to a lesser degree, it seems to alter the paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelia.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 04/2007; 30(3):547-51. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plasma concentration profile of the antidiabetic agent tolbutamide was investigated in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats receiving or not receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) to assess the impact of performing dialysis on tolbutamide pharmacokinetics. It was revealed that the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was decreased by 23.4% by performing PD in ARF rats, while it was not changed by PD in normal rats. The decrease in the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was nearly proportional to the increase in its volume of distribution. To clarify the mechanisms responsible for the decreased tolbutamide concentration caused by PD, the plasma protein binding of tolbutamide was examined in normal and ARF rats. The plasma unbound fraction of tolbutamide was higher in ARF rats than in normal rats, and the dissociation constants were 3.5+/-0.7 and 5.5+/-0.2 microg in normal and ARF rats, respectively. These results indicated that the unbound fraction of tolbutamide was increased in ARF rats because of its protein binding being suppressed. It is therefore likely that since a measurable amount of tolbutamide can distribute in peritoneal dialysate in ARF rats, but not in normal rats, the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was decreased by performing PD only in ARF rats. These findings suggest that diabetes medication with tolbutamide should be carefully performed in patients receiving dialysis treatment.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2006; 21(4):291-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor