M A Coppola

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States

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Publications (7)41.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intranasal infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 causes a dramatic increase in numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells in the blood, analogous in many respects to EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis in humans. In the mouse model, this lymphocytosis has two distinct components: an early, conventional virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response, and a later response characterized by a dramatic increase among CD8(+) T cells that bear Vbeta4(+) TCRs. We previously demonstrated that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells recognize an uncharacterized ligand expressed on latently infected B cells in an MHC-independent manner. The frequency of Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells increases dramatically following the peak of viral latency in the spleen. In the current studies, we show that elevated Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cell levels are sustained long-term in persistently infected mice, apparently a consequence of continued ligand expression. In addition, we show that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells can acquire effector functions, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to secrete IFN-gamma, although they have an atypical activation profile compared with well-characterized CD8(+) T cells specific for conventional viral epitopes. The characteristics of Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells (potential effector function, stimulation by latently infected B cells, and kinetics of expansion) suggested that this dominant T cell response plays a key role in the immune control of latent virus. However, Ab depletion and adoptive transfer studies show that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells are not essential for this function. This murine model of infection may provide insight into the role of unusual populations of activated T cells associated with persistent viral infections.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2004; 172(5):3078-85. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial superantigens have potent in vivo effects. Respiratory viral infections are often associated with secondary bacterial infections, raising the likelihood of exposure to bacterial superantigens after the initiation of the anti-viral immune response. In this study, the general and V beta-specific effects of exposure to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) during influenza virus infection on both the ongoing acute and the subsequent recall CD8(+) T cell responses were analyzed, using the well-characterized murine influenza model system and tetrameric MHC/peptide reagents to directly identify virus-specific T cells. The results show that although superantigen exposure during the primary viral infection caused delayed viral clearance, there was remarkably little effect of SEB on the magnitude or TCR repertoire of the ongoing cytolytic T cell response or on the recall response elicited by secondary viral infection. Thus, despite the well-characterized immunomodulatory effects of SEB, there was surprisingly little interference with concurrent anti-viral immunity.
    Cellular Immunology 09/2000; 204(1):1-10. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Like EBV-infected humans with infectious mononucleosis, mice infected with the rodent gammaherpesvirus MHV-68 develop a profound increase in the number of CD8+ T cells in the circulation. In the mouse model, this lymphocytosis consists of highly activated CD8+ T cells strikingly biased toward V beta 4 TCR expression. Moreover, this expansion of V beta 4+CD8+ T cells does not depend on the MHC haplotype of the infected animal. Using a panel of lacZ-inducible T cell hybridomas, we have detected V beta 4-specific T cell stimulatory activity in the spleens of MHV-68-infected mice. We show that the appearance and quantity of this activity correlate with the establishment and magnitude of latent viral infection. Furthermore, on the basis of Ab blocking studies as well as experiments with MHC class II, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and TAP1 knockout mice, the V beta 4-specific T cell stimulatory activity does not appear to depend on conventional presentation by classical MHC class I or class II molecules. Taken together, the data indicate that during latent infection, MHV-68 may express a T cell ligand that differs fundamentally from both conventional peptide Ags and classical viral superantigens.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/1999; 163(3):1481-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of mice is a potential model with which to address fundamental aspects of the pathobiology and host control of gammaherpesvirus latency. Control of MHV-68 infection, like that of Epstein-Barr virus, is strongly dependent on the cellular immune system. However, the molecular biology of MHV-68 latency is largely undefined. A screen of the MHV-68 genome for potential latency-associated mRNAs revealed that the region encompassing and flanking the genomic terminal repeats is transcriptionally active in the latently infected murine B-cell tumor line S11. Transcription of one MHV-68 gene, that encoding the hypothetical M2 protein, was detected in virtually all latently infected S11 cells and in splenocytes of latently infected mice, but not in lytically infected fibroblasts. Furthermore, an epitope was identified in the predicted M2 protein that is recognized by CD8(+) T cells from infected mice and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte line that recognizes this epitope killed S11 cells, indicating that the M2 protein is expressed during latent infection and is a target for the host cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. This work therefore provides essential information for modeling MHV-68 latency and strategies of immunotherapy against gammaherpesvirus-related diseases in a highly tractable animal model.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1999; 96(13):7508-13. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of mice is a potential model with which to address fundamental aspects of the pathobiology and host control of gammaherpesvirus latency. Control of MHV-68 infection, like that of Epstein–Barr virus, is strongly dependent on the cellular immune system. However, the molecular biology of MHV-68 latency is largely undefined. A screen of the MHV-68 genome for potential latency-associated mRNAs revealed that the region encompassing and flanking the genomic terminal repeats is transcriptionally active in the latently infected murine B-cell tumor line S11. Transcription of one MHV-68 gene, that encoding the hypothetical M2 protein, was detected in virtually all latently infected S11 cells and in splenocytes of latently infected mice, but not in lytically infected fibroblasts. Furthermore, an epitope was identified in the predicted M2 protein that is recognized by CD8+ T cells from infected mice and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte line that recognizes this epitope killed S11 cells, indicating that the M2 protein is expressed during latent infection and is a target for the host cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. This work therefore provides essential information for modeling MHV-68 latency and strategies of immunotherapy against gammaherpesvirus-related diseases in a highly tractable animal model.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1999; 96(13):7508-7513. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    M A Coppola, M A Blackman
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    ABSTRACT: Superantigens stimulate naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in a TCR V beta-specific manner. However, it has been reported that memory T cells are unresponsive to superantigen stimulation. In this study, we show that staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) can activate influenza virus-specific CD8+ memory cytotoxic T cells. In vivo SEB challenge of mice that had recovered from influenza virus infection (memory mice) resulted in the generation of vigorous influenza-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and in vitro SEA or SEB stimulation of splenic T cells from memory mice, but not naive mice, also induced influenza-specific CTL. Analysis of the mechanism of activation suggested that although there may be a component of cytokine-mediated bystander activation, the CTL activity is largely generated in response to direct TCR engagement by superantigen. Moreover, influenza-specific CTL could be generated from purified CD8+ CD62L loCD44hi (memory phenotype) T cells cultured in the presence of T cell-depleted splenic antigen-presenting cells and SE. Purified CD8+ memory T cells also secreted lymphokines and synthesized DNA in response to superantigen. These results definitively demonstrate that CD8+ memory T cells respond to SE stimulation by proliferating and developing appropriate effector function. Furthermore, the data raise the possibility that otherwise inconsequential exposure to bacterial superantigens may perturb the CD8+ T cell memory pool.
    International Immunology 10/1997; 9(9):1393-403. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • G A Cole, T L Hogg, M A Coppola, D L Woodland
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the primary effector CTL response to viral infection and the subsequent pool of memory CTL precursors (CTLp) is poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed the induction of both effector CTL and memory CTLp to dominant and subdominant epitopes following Sendai virus infection of C57BL/6 mice. A single peptide derived from the Sendai virus nucleoprotein (NP(324-332)) binds to both H-2 Kb and Db MHC class I molecules, generating both immunodominant (NP(324-332)/Kb) and subdominant (NP(324-332)/Db) epitopes. Following intranasal Sendai virus infection, NP(324-332)/Kb-specific CTL dominated the primary effector CTL response in the lung and were present at high frequency in the memory CTLp pool. In contrast, NP(324-332)/Db-specific CTL were not a detectable component of the effector response to primary Sendai virus infection. However, memory CTLp specific for this subdominant epitope were induced at frequencies approaching those of CTLp specific for the immunodominant epitope. These data indicate that memory CTLp specific for subdominant epitopes can be primed by Sendai virus infection in the absence of a detectable effector response. To determine whether CTLp memory to subdominant epitopes is functional in the context of Sendai virus infection, memory CTLp specific for a subdominant epitope were selectively primed by vaccination. These cells dominated the subsequent effector CTL response to Sendai virus infection, demonstrating that memory CTLp primed against subdominant epitopes can participate in an immune response and effectively compete with T cells specific for immunodominant epitopes. These data have implications for the development of vaccines designed to emphasize cellular immunity.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/1997; 158(9):4301-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor