[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a human pathogen that has evolved in, and is hosted by, mice of several species of the genus Apodemus. We propose a subdivision of the species Dobrava-Belgrade virus into four related genotypes - Dobrava, Kurkino, Saaremaa, and Sochi - that show characteristic differences in their phylogeny, specific host reservoirs, geographical distribution, and pathogenicity for humans.
Archives of Virology 10/2012; · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 05/2012; 74(9):1237-42. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sochi virus, a novel genetic variant of Dobrava-Belgrade virus, was isolated in cell culture from a fulminant lethal case of hantavirus disease presenting with shock and combined kidney and lung failure. Sochi virus is transmitted to humans from host reservoir Apodemus ponticus and must be considered a life-threatening emerging agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The findings suggest that there are natural foci of hantavirus infection in the Tambov Region. There is evidence that Dobrava/Belgrade hantavirus (DOB-Aa) was a leading etiological agent in the outbreak of the disease in the winter of 2006-2007. Epidemiological analysis showed that the outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) afflicted the region during November to April, by reaching its peak in January (52.2%). Among the patients with HFRS, rural dwellers were 91%. People were infected with the virus mainly by taking care of domestic animals (97.2%). The reservoir of the virus and the source of its human infection in the outbreak was a field mouse, its western subspecies Apodemus agrarius agrarius, which was absolutely dominated among all the virus carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puumala virus (PUUV) and other Arvicolinae-borne hantaviruses are difficult to cultivate in cell culture. To isolate these hantaviruses efficiently, hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (NP)-positive but seronegative wild rodents were selected by NP-detection ELISA. Three of 68 Myodes glareolus captured in Samara, Russia, were NP-positive and seronegative. Syrian hamsters were inoculated with lung homogenates from NP-positive rodents for virus propagation. Virus isolation in vitro was carried out by inoculation of lung homogenates of NP-positive hamsters to Vero E6 cell monolayers. Two PUUV strains (Samara49/CG/2005 and Samara94/CG/2005) from M. glareolus were isolated in Vero E6 cells. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the S segment of these isolates to those of PUUV F-s808 from a fatal HFRS patient in Samara region were 96.7-99.3% and 99.3-100.0%, respectively. Morphologic features of Vero E6 cells infected with PUUV strain Samara49/CG/2005 were quite similar to those of Hantaan virus-infected cells. Isolation of Hokkaido virus from Myodes rufocanus captured in Hokkaido, Japan, was also performed. Hokkaido virus NP and RNA were recovered and maintained in hamsters. These results suggest that inoculation of Syrian hamsters with rodent samples is an efficient method for the isolation and maintenance of PUUV and other Arvicolinae-borne hantaviruses.
Journal of virological methods 12/2010; 173(1):17-23. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: European Russia is a highly endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a rodent-borne zoonotic disease, caused by hantaviruses. In total, 145 small mammals of four species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, and A. uralensis) were trapped in the Samara region of European Russia in August 2005 and examined for the presence of hantavirus (HV). Anti-HV antibodies were found in six of 68 (8.8%) M. glareolus and in one of 19 (5.3%) A. flavicollis by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The Puumala virus (PUUV), which is one of the hantavirus species, was detected in the lungs of seven M. glareolus by RT-PCR. The virus S-segment was extremely similar (96.2% to 99.3%) to the sequence found in a fatal case of HFRS in the Samara region. Phylogenetic analyses of S and M segments showed that the Samara PUUVs form a cluster within the Russian Volga lineage and apparently differ from other European PUUVs. Anti-PUUV antibodies were found in blood sera from seven HFRS patients and from one undiagnosed patient from the Samara region, using IFA and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These data suggest that the bank vole M. glareolus is a primary natural reservoir and vector for PUUV, which is the main causative agent of HFRS in humans in the Samara region.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2009; 71(12):1569-78. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred in the winter of 2006-2007 in a region southeast of Moscow in Central European Russia. Of the 422 patients with HFRS investigated in this study, 58 patients were found to be infected by Puumala virus, whereas as many as 364 were infected by Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV). Early serum samples from 10 DOBV-infected patients were used for nucleic acid amplification, which was successful for 5 patients. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the causative hantavirus belongs to the DOBV-Aa genetic lineage, which is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) as the natural reservoir host. Neutralization assays with convalescent-phase sera from these patients confirmed infection by DOBV-Aa; related viruses, such as the Dobrava-Slovenia virus (DOBV-Af) and the Dobrava-Sochi virus (DOBV-Ap), were neutralized at lower efficiencies. The clinical courses of the 205 patients enrolled in the study were found to be mostly mild to moderate; however, an unexpectedly high fraction (27%) of patients exhibited severe illness. One patient died from kidney failure and showed symptoms of generalized subcutaneous hemorrhage. The results provide molecular, serodiagnostic, and clinical evidence that DOBV-Aa is a common pathogen in East Europe that causes large outbreaks of HFRS.
Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2009; 47(12):4029-36. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puumala virus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), is prevalent in Europe and European Russia. No vaccine has been developed for PUUV-associated HFRS, primarily because of the low viral yield in cultured cells. A PUUV strain known as DTK/Ufa-97 was isolated in Russia and adapted for growth in Vero E6 cells maintained in serum-free medium. The DTK/Ufa-97 strain produced a higher viral titer in serum-free medium, suggesting that it may prove useful in the development of an HFRS vaccine. When PUUV-infected Vero E6 cells were grown in serum-free medium, the DTK/Ufa-97 strain yielded more copies of intracellular viral RNA and a higher viral titer in the culture fluid than did the Sotkamo strain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PUUVs can be classified into multiple lineages according to geographical origin, and that the DTK/Ufa-97 strain is a member of the Bashkiria-Saratov lineage. The deduced amino acid sequences of the small, medium, and large segments of the DTK/Ufa-97 strain were 99.2% to 100%, 99.3% to 99.8%, and 99.8% identical, respectively, to those of the Bashkirian PUUV strains and 96.9%, 92.6%, and 97.4% identical, respectively, to those of the Sotkamo strain, indicating that the PUUVs are genetically diverse. However, DTK/Ufa-97 and other strains of PUUV exhibited similar patterns of binding to a panel of monoclonal antibodies against Hantaan virus. In addition, diluted antisera (i.e., ranging from 1:160 to 1:640) specific to three strains of PUUV neutralized both homologous and heterologous viruses. These results suggest that the DTK/Ufa-97 strain is capable of extensive growth and is antigenically similar to genetically distant strains of PUUV.
The Japanese journal of veterinary research 12/2008; 56(3):151-65. · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a European hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); case-fatality rates in Balkan countries are as high as 12%. To determine causative agents, we examined 126 cases of DOBV-associated HFRS in central and southern European Russia. In central Russia (Lipetsk, Voronezh, Orel regions), outbreaks were caused by a DOBV variant (DOBV-Aa) carried by Apodemus agrarius. In southern Russia (Sochi district), where HFRS is endemic, HFRS cases were caused by a new DOBV variant (DOBV-Ap), found in A. ponticus, a novel hantavirus natural host. Both viruses, DOBV-Aa/Lipetsk and DOBV-Ap/Sochi, were isolated through Vero E6 cells, genetically characterized, and used for serotyping of the HFRS patients' serum. The clinical severity of HFRS caused by DOBV-Aa resembles that of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (mild to moderate); clinical severity of disease caused by DOBV-Ap infections is more often moderate to severe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 5149 small mammals belonging to 16 species were collected from the Lipetsk, Voronezh, and Belgorod regions (40 administrative districts) in 2003-2004 and examined by ELISA and IFA to detect hantavirus antigen and antibodies in the lung tissues. Hantavirus circulation was revealed in 13 species, the highest hantavirus activity being detected in field (Apodemus agrarius) and small wood (A. (S) uralensis) mice (Dobrava-Belgrad virus), bank (Clethrionomis glareolus) (Puumala virus) and common (Microtus arvalis) (Tula virus) voles. These species were frequently found to have their untypical hantaviruses, which was most commonly observed in small wood mice. It is suggested that the small wood mouse is likely to take a certain part in maintaining the circulation of Dobrava-Belgrad virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors of the article describe two cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with prevalence of signs of nervous system involvement. The first case was a 40-year-old woman with moderate HFRS, who developed Guillain-Barre syndrome of axonal-demyelinating polyneuropathy. An important observation was the absence of hemorrhagic or renal syndrome; combined therapy including plasmapheresis was successful. The second case demonstrated polymorphism of HFRS clinical manifestations with prevalence of neurological symptoms, which consisted in encephalopathy and no renal failure signs; hemorrhagic syndrome was moderate. In both cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated titer of antibodies to HFRS virus, belonging to the group of hantaviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A natural focus of hantavirus infection was detected and examined during the studies conducted in 2000-2002 around the Sochi (the western spurs of the Great Caucasus Ridge, which descended to the Black Sea (the Krasnodar Territory of Russia). At least 4 rodent species, such as Microtus majori, A. (S.) ponticus, A. agrarius, A. (S.) ciscaucasicus, were shown to participate in the circulation of hantaviruses. A comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of genomic S- and M-segments of hantaviruses has provided evidence that 13 viral RNA isolates from the A. (S.) ciscaucasicus belong to the Dobrava/Belgrade virus clade; however the RNA isolate from the Microtus majori belong to the Tula virus clade.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HVRS) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the Eurasian continent. Viruses triggering HVRS alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus Hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (South-West of the USA, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among the causative agents. Later, the disease was designated as hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome. By now, it has been established that hantaviruses are wide spread with different rodents being their carriers. The discussed viruses cause, in rodents, a chronic asymptomatic infection and are transferred, later, to man by the aerogenic path through excretions of infected animals. Studies of hantaviruses have been restricted for a long time due to their high pathogenicity (protection equipment not below than the P-3 level is needed), because of a lack of a laboratory model of infected animals and because of a low growth in cell cultures. With the rapid development and application of molecular biological techniques of the recent years, substantial progress has been made in studies of hantaviruses. Different aspects of hantavirus ecology, molecular biology, morphology, pathogenesis and diagnostics are discussed in the offered survey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 678 small mammals representing eight species were trapped in western Siberia in 1999-2000 and assayed for the presence of hantaviruses. Eighteen animals, all Clethrionomys species, were antigen positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Small and medium genome segments were recovered by RT-PCR from six samples from Clethrionomys glareolus and three from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these hantaviruses were Puumala virus and were similar to hantavirus strains from Finland. To confirm these data, partial nucleotide sequences of the rodent hosts' cytochrome b genes were obtained, as well as several sequences from genes from rodents trapped at different localities of European Russia and western Siberia. The cytochrome b sequences of Siberian bank voles were similar to sequences of C. glareolus, trapped in Finland. These data suggest that the Puumala hantaviruses, as well as their rodent hosts, share a common evolutionary history. We propose that these rodents and viruses may be descendents of a population of bank voles that expanded northward from southern refugia during one of the interglacial periods.
Infection Genetics and Evolution 12/2003; 3(4):245-57. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epizootological, serological, and molecular virological analysis of an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Egoryevsk district of Moscow region (September 1995-January 1996) has been carried out. Hantavirus (Puumala) antigen and virus-specific antibodies were isolated from bank voles captured in the endemic focus. Anti-Puumala antibodies were detected in the sera of all HFRS patients and in 2% healthy residents of the endemic focus. Analysis of nucleotide sequence (RNA from hantavirus-positive lung of a bank vole) showed that the studied hantavirus is a distinct genotype of Puumala virus. Hence, a new highly active natural focus of HFRS associated with Puumala virus, dangerous for the population, has been revealed in Moscow region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Republic of Bashkortostan, resulting in 10,057 registered cases of the disease (287 cases per 100,000 of the population), was analyzed. HFRS cases among the population were registered in 52 out of 54 regions of Bashkortostan. 31% of the total number of patients were the inhabitants of rural regions (170 cases per 100,000) and 69% were urban dwellers (295 cases per 100,000), mainly in Ufa (512 cases per 100,000). HFRS morbidity among males was fourfold higher than among females. In 70% of cases persons aged 20-49 years were affected. 5% of the total number of patients were children aged up to 14 years. In 34 cases (0.4%) the severe clinical course of the disease had a fatal outcome. Cases of HFRS were registered from April 1997 till March 1998 with the highest morbidity rate observed during the period of August-December. In most cases (46.8%) both urban and rural dwellers contacted infection during a short-term stay in the forest. As the result of the serological examination of the patients, all HFRS cases were etiologically attributed to hantavirus, serotype Puumala. The main natural reservoir of this virus and the source of human infection in Bashkortostan were bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), the domination species among small mammals in this region.
Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunobiologii 01/1999;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new approach has been developed to evaluate the adequacy of HFRS clinical diagnosis, by using regression analysis of large selections. The HFRS morbidity rate and the antibody prevalence rate in man were viewed as a function and an argument of the function, respectively. An empiric model for one of the active HFRS endemic area (Saratov Province), characterizing the correlation between the immunity and morbidity rates has been elaborated. It calculates the theoretical morbidity level that corresponds to determine an immune portion of the population in each administrative area. The theoretical (counted) values were compared to the annually registered morbidity rates; their similarity has been estimated. Estimation of the adequacy of HFRS diagnosis in the examined region could have been admitted as satisfactory. However, various faults in the clinical identification of HFRS cases were found to occur in 14 of 44 districts of this region. Hyperdiagnosis was made in the most active HFRS natural foci (broad-leaved forests), but in the endemic areas being characterizes by moderate or low activity (forest-steppe and steppe districts). The results of the authors' calculations were shown to be generally in agreement with the data from the Regional Epidemiological Service reports which confirmed the adequacy of the proposed material.
Meditsinskaia parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 01/1997;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, BLA IgM-ELISA, based on baculovirus-expressed Puumala (PUU) virus nucleocapsid protein, was developed for rapid diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica. The recombinant antigen (bac-PUU-N) was purified to homogeneity by HPLC and conjugated to biotin. The biotin-streptavidin system, in combination with the mu-capture technique, rendered the BLA IgM-ELISA a sensitivity similar to or higher than that of PUU virus IgM mu-capture ELISA based on native antigen. The assay was shown to be highly specific when evaluated using a panel of 160 patient and control sera.
Journal of Virological Methods 11/1996; 62(1):87-92. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hantavirus strains, MF43 and MF113, isolated from Microtus fortis trapped in the Khabarovsk region of far-eastern Russia, were analysed by direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR generated fragments of the M and S segments, by immunofluorescence and by focus reduction neutralization tests (FRNT). The nucleotide sequences revealed that the two isolates were closely related to each other but distinct from all other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the M and S segments showed that the MF strains form a separate branch in the Hantavirus tree, positioned between the branches of Prospect Hill and Puumala viruses. The strains were shown to be serologically distinct from the other hantavirus serotypes by FRNT using immune rabbit sera. Puumala virus was the closest relative, both genetically and serologically. We propose that this new hantavirus serotype should be named Khabarovsk (KBR).
Journal of General Virology 05/1996; 77 ( Pt 4):687-94. · 3.13 Impact Factor