L Patrice McDaniel

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (11)42.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Furan is a multispecies liver carcinogen whose cancer mode of action (MOA) is unclear. A major metabolite of furan is a direct acting mutagen; however, it is not known if genotoxicity is a key step in the tumors that result from exposure to furan. In order to address this question, transgenic Big Blue rats were treated by gavage five times a week for 8 weeks with two concentrations of furan used in cancer bioassays (2 and 8mg/kg), and with two higher concentrations (16 and 30mg/kg). Peripheral blood samples taken 24h after the 5th dose (1 week of dosing) were used to assay for micronucleus (MN) frequency in normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) and reticulocytes (RETs), and Pig-a gene mutation in total red blood cells (RBCs). 24h after the last dose of the 8-week treatment schedule, the rats were euthanized, and their tissues were used to perform NCE and RET MN assays, the Pig-a RBC assay, Pig-a and Hprt lymphocyte gene mutation assays, the liver cII transgene mutation assay, and the liver Comet assay. The responses in the MN assays conducted at both sampling times, and all the gene mutation assays, were uniformly negative; however, the Comet assay was positive for the induction of liver DNA damage. As the positive responses in the Comet assay were seen only with doses in excess of the cancer bioassay doses, and at least one of these doses (30mg/kg) produced toxicity in the liver, the overall findings from the study are consistent with furan having a predominantly nongenotoxic MOA for cancer.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/2011; 742(1-2):72-8. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2008; 232(3):498. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic in rodents and humans and carcinogenic in rodents. The observation of cancer in endocrine-responsive tissues in Fischer 344 rats has prompted hypotheses of hormonal dysregulation, as opposed to DNA damage, as the mechanism for tumor induction by AA. The current investigation examines possible evidence for disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis from 14 days of repeated exposure of male Fischer 344 rats to doses of AA that range from one that is carcinogenic after lifetime exposure (2.5 mg/kg/d), an intermediate dose (10 mg/kg/d), and a high dose (50 mg/kg/d) that is neurotoxic for this exposure time. The endpoints selected include: serum levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones; target tissue expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis, release, and receptors; neurotransmitters in the CNS that affect hormone homeostasis; and histopathological evaluation of target tissues. These studies showed virtually no evidence for systematic alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and do not support hormone dysregulation as a plausible mechanism for AA-induced thyroid cancer in the Fischer 344 rat. Specifically, there were no significant changes in: 1) mRNA levels in hypothalamus or pituitary for TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta, as well 10 other hormones or releasing factors; 2) mRNA levels in thyroid for thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodide symporter, or type I deiodinases; 3) serum TSH or T3 levels (T4 was decreased at high dose only); 4) dopaminergic tone in the hypothalamus and pituitary or importantly 5) increased cell proliferation (Mki67 mRNA and Ki-67 protein levels were not increased) in thyroid or pituitary. These negative findings are consistent with a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity based on metabolism to glycidamide and DNA adduct formation. Clarification of this mechanistic dichotomy may be useful in human cancer risk assessments for AA.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 08/2008; 230(2):208-15. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely studied industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in mice and rats. AA is also formed during cooking in many commonly consumed starchy foods. Our previous toxicokinetic investigations of AA and its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide (GA), in rodents showed that AA is highly bioavailable from oral routes of administration, is widely distributed to tissues, and that the dietary route, in particular, favors metabolism to GA. Formation and accumulation of mutagenic GA-DNA adducts in many tissues support the hypothesis that AA is carcinogenic in rodent bioassays through metabolism to GA. The current investigation describes the quantification of 24 h urinary metabolites, including free AA and GA and their mercapturic acid conjugates (AAMA and GAMA, respectively), using LC/MS/MS in F344 rats and B6C3F(1) mice following a dose of 0.1 mg/kg bw given by intravenous, gavage, and dietary routes of administration. Similar groups of rodents were used previously for serum/tissue toxicokinetic and adduct determinations (DNA and hemoglobin). The goal was to investigate relationships between urinary and circulating biomarkers of exposure, toxicokinetic parameters for AA and GA, and tissue GA-DNA adducts in rodents from single doses of AA. Significant linear correlations were observed between urinary levels of AA with AAMA and GA with GAMA in the current data sets for rats and mice. Concentrations of AA and AAMA correlated significantly with average AUC values determined previously for AA in groups of rats and mice similarly dosed with AA. Urinary GA and GAMA concentrations showed significant correlations with average AUC values for GA and liver GA-DNA adducts determined previously in rats and mice similarly dosed with AA. Despite statistical significance, considerable inter-animal variability was observed in all urinary measurements, which limited the degree of correlation with either average toxicokinetic or biomarker data collected from different groups of animals. These results suggest that urinary measurements of AA and its metabolites may be useful for prediction of internal exposures to AA and GA.
    Toxicology Letters 03/2007; 169(1):34-42. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely studied industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells and carcinogenic in rodents. AA is also formed in many commonly consumed starchy foods during cooking. Our previous toxicokinetic investigations of AA and its important genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide (GA), in rodents showed that AA is highly bioavailable from oral routes of administration, is widely distributed to tissues and that the dietary route, in particular, favors metabolism to GA. Measurements of DNA adducts in many tissues supported the hypothesis that AA is carcinogenic in rodent bioassays through metabolism to GA. The current investigation describes the development and validation of methodology for measuring hemoglobin (Hb) adducts with AA and GA in the same rodents previously used for toxicokinetic and DNA adduct measurements. The goal was to investigate possible relationships between these circulating biomarkers of exposure and serum toxicokinetic parameters for AA and GA and tissue GA-DNA adducts in rodents from both single and repeated dosing with AA. Significant correlations were observed between GA-Hb and liver GA-DNA adducts for either single or multiple dosing regimens with AA. Using available GA-Hb adduct data, empirical and allometric relationships permitted estimation of liver DNA adducts in humans in the range of 0.06-0.3 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. This approach may prove useful in extrapolating human cancer risks from findings in rodent bioassays.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2006; 217(1):63-75. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is an animal carcinogen, neurotoxin, and reproductive toxin. AA is formed in baked and fried carbohydrate-rich foods. Metabolism of AA occurs via epoxidation to glycidamide (GA) or direct conjugation with glutathione. Using CYP2E1-null mice, recent studies in this laboratory demonstrated that induction of somatic and germ cell mutagenicity in AA-treated mice is dependent on CYP2E1. We hypothesized that AA metabolism to GA is a prerequisite for the induction of AA-induced mutagenicity. Current studies were undertaken to assess the role of CYP2E1 in the epoxidation of AA to GA and the formation of DNA and hemoglobin (HGB) adducts. AA was administered to CYP2E1-null or wild-type mice at 50 mg/kg ip. Mice were euthanized 6 h later and blood and tissues were collected. Using LC-ES/MS/MS, AA, GA, and DNA- and HGB-adducts were measured. While the plasma levels of AA and GA were 115 +/- 14.0 and 1.7 +/- 0.31 microM in CYP2E1-null mice, they were 0.84 +/- 0.80 and 33.0 +/- 6.3 microM in the plasma of AA-treated wild-type mice. Administration of AA to wild-type mice caused a large increase in N7-GA-Gua and N3-GA-Ade adducts in the liver, lung, and testes. While traces of N7-GA-Gua adducts were measured in the tissues of AA-treated CYP2E1-null mice, these levels were 52- to 66-fold lower than in wild-type mice. Significant elevation of both AA- and GA-HGB adducts was detected in AA-treated wild-type mice. In AA-treated CYP2E1-null mice, levels of AA-HGB adducts were roughly twice as high as those in wild-type mice. In conclusion, current work demonstrated that CYP2E1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the epoxidation of AA to GA, which leads to the formation of GA-DNA and HGB adducts.
    Toxicological Sciences 01/2006; 88(2):311-8. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely studied industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in rodents. The recent discovery of AA at ppm levels in a wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms, particularly toxicokinetics and bioavailability. This study compares the toxicokinetics of AA and its epoxide metabolite, glycidamide (GA), in serum and tissues of male and female F344 rats following acute exposure by intravenous, gavage, and dietary routes at 0.1 mg/kg AA or intravenous and gavage routes with an equimolar amount of GA. AA was rapidly absorbed after oral dosing, was widely distributed to tissues, was efficiently converted to GA, and produced increased levels of GA-DNA adducts in liver. GA was also rapidly absorbed, widely distributed to tissues, and produced increased liver DNA adduct levels. AA bioavailability after aqueous gavage was 60--98% and from the diet was 32--44%; however, first-pass metabolism or other kinetic change resulted in much higher internal exposures to GA (2- to 7-fold) when compared to the intravenous route. A similar effect on metabolism to GA following oral administration was previously observed under an identical exposure paradigm in mice. Furthermore, DNA adduct formation in rat liver showed the same proportionality with the respective GA AUC value as did mice in the previous study. These findings suggest that as the AA content in food is reduced, species-differences in GA formation and subsequent DNA adduct formation may be minimized. These findings provide additional information needed to assess genotoxic risks from the low levels of AA that are pervasive in the food supply.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2005; 208(3):199-209. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely studied industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in rodents. The recent discovery of AA at ppm levels in a wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms, particularly toxicokinetics and bioavailability. This study compares the toxicokinetics of AA and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) in serum and tissues of male and female B6C3F1 mice following acute dosing by intravenous, gavage, and dietary routes at 0.1 mg/kg AA or intravenous and gavage dosing with an equimolar amount of GA. AA was rapidly absorbed from oral dosing, was widely distributed to tissues, was efficiently converted to GA, and increased levels of GA-DNA adducts were observed in liver after complete elimination from serum. GA dosing also resulted in rapid absorption, wide distribution to tissues, and produced liver DNA adduct levels that were approximately 40% higher than those from an equimolar dose of AA. While oral administration was found to attenuate AA bioavailability to 23% from the diet and to 32-52% from aqueous gavage, a first-pass effect or other kinetic change resulted in higher relative internal exposure to GA when compared to the intravenous route. A similar effect on relative GA exposure was also evident as the administered dose was reduced, which suggests that as dosing rate decreases, the conversion of AA to GA is more efficient. These findings are critical to the assessment of genotoxicity of AA at low doses in the food supply, which appears to depend on total exposure to GA.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2005; 202(3):258-67. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in chronic rodent bioassays. Recent findings of AA in many common starchy foods have sparked renewed interest in determining toxic mechanisms and in understanding the cancer, neurotoxicity, and reproductive risks from typical human exposures. Dosing mice and rats with AA (50 mg/kg) led to presence of glycidamide (GA) in serum and tissues. Furthermore, GA-derived DNA adducts of adenine and guanine were formed in all tissues examined, including both target tissues identified in rodent carcinogenicity bioassays and in non-target tissues. Dosing rats and mice with an equimolar amount of GA typically produced higher levels of DNA adducts than observed with AA. Kinetics of DNA adduct formation and accumulation were measured following oral administration of a single dose of AA (50 mg/kg) or from repeat dosing (1 mg/kg/day), respectively. The formation of these DNA adducts is consistent with previously reported mutagenicity of AA and GA in vitro, which involved reaction of GA with adenine and guanine bases. These results provide strong support for a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity in rodents. The kinetic/biomarker approaches described here may represent a meaningful way to extrapolate cancer risks to actual human exposures from food, which are much lower.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2005; 580(1-2):131-41. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic contaminant that is formed during the cooking of starchy foods. Assessment of human risks from toxicants is routinely performed using laboratory rodents, and such testing requires careful control of unintended exposures, particularly through the diet. This study describes an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry that was used to measure endogenous AA in rodent diets and to survey a number of commercial products for contamination. Method sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of endogenous levels of AA in raw diets below 20 ppb. Autoclaving a standard rodent diet (NIH-31) increased the AA content 14-fold, from 17 to 240 ppb. A nutritionally equivalent diet that was sterilized by irradiation was found to contain approximately 10 ppb of AA (NIH-31IR). A toxicokinetic study of AA and its epoxide metabolite, glycidamide, was performed by switching mice from NIH-31IR to the autoclaved diet for a 30 min feeding period (average AA dose administered was 4.5 microg/kg of body weight). The concentrations of AA and glycidamide were measured in serum collected at various times. The elimination half-lives and the areas under the respective concentration-time curves were similar for AA and glycidamide. Mice maintained on autoclaved NIH-31 diet, but otherwise untreated, showed elevated steady state levels of a glycidamide-derived DNA adduct in liver relative to mice maintained on the irradiated diet. This study demonstrates that a heat sterilization procedure used in laboratory animal husbandry (i.e., autoclaving) can lead to the formation of significant levels of AA in basal diets used for toxicity testing. AA in rodent diets is bioavailable, is distributed to tissues, and is metabolically activated to a genotoxic metabolite, which produces quantifiable cumulative DNA damage. Although the contribution of endogenous AA to the incidence of tumors in multiple organs of rodents otherwise untreated in chronic carcinogenicity bioassays (i.e., control groups) is not known, the reduction of endogenous AA through the use of a suitable irradiated diet was deemed to be critical for ongoing studies of AA carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2004; 52(13):4344-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is a well-studied industrial toxicant; however, recent findings of AA at ppm levels in cooked starchy foods have refocused attention on the potential for neurotoxicity, germ cell mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity from AA. Oxidative metabolism of AA to glycidamide (GA) in experimental animals has previously been linked with many toxic effects of AA exposure. We report a new sensitive and selective analytical method, based on LC with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, for the quantification of AA and GA in serum and its application to a preliminary toxicokinetic evaluation of AA and GA in adult B6C3F(1) mice following oral administration of AA.
    Cancer Letters 05/2004; 207(1):9-17. · 4.26 Impact Factor