[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The defective generation or function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in autoimmune disease contributes to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. We report the identification of FoxA1 as a transcription factor in T cells that, after ectopic expression, confers suppressive properties in a newly identified Treg cell population, herein called FoxA1(+) Treg cells. FoxA1 bound to the Pdl1 promoter, inducing programmed cell death ligand 1 (Pd-l1) expression, which was essential for the FoxA1(+) Treg cells to kill activated T cells. FoxA1(+) Treg cells develop primarily in the central nervous system in response to autoimmune inflammation, have a distinct transcriptional profile and are CD4(+)FoxA1(+)CD47(+)CD69(+)PD-L1(hi)FoxP3(-). Adoptive transfer of stable FoxA1(+) Treg cells inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a FoxA1-and Pd-l1-dependent manner. The development of FoxA1(+) Treg cells is induced by interferon-β (IFN-β) and requires T cell-intrinsic IFN-α/β receptor (Ifnar) signaling, as the frequency of FoxA1(+) Treg cells was reduced in Ifnb(-/-) and Ifnar(-/-) mice. In individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, clinical response to treatment with IFN-β was associated with an increased frequency of suppressive FoxA1(+) Treg cells in the blood. These findings suggest that FoxA1 is a lineage-specification factor that is induced by IFN-β and supports the differentiation and suppressive function of FoxA1(+) Treg cells.
Nature medicine 02/2014; DOI:10.1038/nm.3485 · 28.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) perform per-SNP association tests to identify variants involved in disease or trait susceptibility. However, such an approach is not powerful enough to unravel genes that are not individually contributing to the disease/trait, but that may have a role in interaction with other genes as a group. Pathway analysis is an alternative way to highlight such group of genes. Using SNP association P-values from eight multiple sclerosis (MS) GWAS data sets, we performed a candidate pathway analysis for MS susceptibility by considering genes interacting in the cell adhesion molecule (CAMs) biological pathway using Cytoscape software. This network is a strong candidate, as it is involved in the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by the T cells, an early event in MS pathophysiology, and is used as an efficient therapeutic target. We drew up a list of 76 genes belonging to the CAM network. We highlighted 64 networks enriched with CAM genes with low P-values. Filtering by a percentage of CAM genes up to 50% and rejecting enriched signals mainly driven by transcription factors, we highlighted five networks associated with MS susceptibility. One of them, constituted of ITGAL, ICAM1 and ICAM3 genes, could be of interest to develop novel therapeutic targets.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.70.
Genes and immunity 01/2014; DOI:10.1038/gene.2013.70 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers can be thought of as multifaceted indicators of healthy status or of pathological disorders. The study of multiple sclerosis can benefit from the use of biomarkers because of the disease's inherent heterogeneity. Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis might assist with diagnosis, prediction of disease course, or identification of response outcome to treatments. Despite the need for biomarkers and extensive research to identify them, validation and clinical application of biomarkers is still an unmet need in multiple sclerosis, and large gaps remain between exploratory biomarkers proposed in many studies, validated biomarkers, and biomarkers that are integrated into routine clinical practice.
The Lancet Neurology 01/2014; 13(1):113-126. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70233-3 · 21.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Inducible heat shock protein (HSP)70 (HSP70-1A and HSP70-1B proteins) is a chaperone responsible for assisting proper protein folding. Following stress conditions, HSP70 is highly up-regulated to mediate cytoprotective functions. In addition, HSP70 is able to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses that promote the immune recognition of antigens and to act as a cytokine when it is released. The data in the literature are controversial with regard to expression studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the present study, we aimed to examine if alterations of HSP70-1A/B expression are involved in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We determined both mRNA and protein expression in PBMCs of MS patients and healthy donors (HDs). We found a baseline increased expression of the HSPA1A gene in PBMCs from MS patients compared with HDs. Gene expression findings were associated with an increased protein expression of HSP70-1A/B in T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) and monocytes from MS patients under basal conditions that may reflect the immunological activation occurring in MS patients. We also provided evidence that heat shock (HS) stimulus induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in HDs and MS patients, and that HS-induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in monocytes correlated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline in MS patients. However, after lipopolysaccharide inflammatory stimulus, monocytes from MS patients failed to induce HSP70-1A/B protein expression. Our data hint at altered immune responses in MS and may indicate either a state of chronic stress or increased vulnerability to physiological immune responses in MS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the ability of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated patients to assume treatment-associated risks and the factors involved in such risk acceptance.
From a total of 185 patients, 114 patients on NTZ as of July 2011 carried out a comprehensive survey. We obtained disease severity perception scores, personality traits' scores, and risk-acceptance scores (RAS) so that higher RAS indicated higher risk acceptance. We recorded JC virus status (JCV+/-), prior immunosuppression, NTZ treatment duration, and clinical characteristics. NTZ patients were split into subgroups (A-E), depending on their individual PML risk. Some 22 MS patients on first-line drugs (DMD) acted as controls.
No differences between treatment groups were observed in disease severity perception and personality traits. RAS were higher in NTZ than in DMD patients (p<0.01). Perception of the own disease as a more severe condition tended to predict higher RAS (p=0.07). Higher neuroticism scores predicted higher RAS in the NTZ group as a whole (p=0.04), and in high PML-risk subgroups (A-B) (p=0.02). In low PML-risk subgroups (C-E), higher RAS were associated with a JCV+ status (p=0.01). Neither disability scores nor pre-treatment relapse rate predicted RAS in either group.
Risk acceptance is a multifactorial phenomenon, which might be partly explained by an adaptive process, in light of the higher risk acceptance amongst NTZ-treated patients and, especially, amongst those who are JCV seropositive but still have low PML risk, but which seems also intimately related to personality traits.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82796. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082796 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most significant data presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in France in October 2012, have been summarised in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Experts Meeting, held in Madrid in October 2012. This led to the drafting of this review, which has been published in three parts. This third part of the Post-ECTRIMS review presents the findings from the latest studies conducted with disease-modifying treatments, more specifically with glatiramer acetate, laquinimod, ponesimod, BG-12, teriflunomide, daclizumab, natalizumab and secukinumab (AIN457). Likewise, we also address the reasons that justify the search for innovative treatments for multiple sclerosis, with antigen-specific therapy, cell therapy and therapy aimed at promoting remyelination being highlighted among other future therapeutic strategies. Access to new pharmacological agents and the complexity of the therapy of multiple sclerosis in the future will require new design strategies and directions in clinical trials, including the use of surrogate markers, new statistical applications, superiority, inferiority or equivalence clinical trials and adaptable designs.
Revista de neurologia 10/2013; 57(7):317-329. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most relevant data presented at the 28th edition of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) held in October 2012 in France have been summarised in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting held in Madrid in October 2012. This review is the result of the meeting, which is being published in three parts. This second part of the Post-ECTRIMS review discusses the biology of recovery and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as the different repair and endogenous and exogenous remyelination strategies currently being evaluated based on the fact that resident microglia and oligodendroglial progenitor cells have been implicated in the remyelination process. This review also discusses the current state and future use of biomarkers in MS and proposes as markers of neurodegeneration the following: T2 lesion volume and brain atrophy using MRI and the loss of the ganglion cell layer as assessed by optical coherence tomography. A greater future utility for double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences is proposed to correlate cognitive impairment with MS impairment, given its higher diagnostic yield in locating and defining cortical lesions. The availability of novel biomarkers in the future requires strict validation. In this context, this paper proposes possible areas of action to improve the current situation and also presents the latest research results in identifying potential candidates with useful diagnostic characteristics, prognostic characteristics, treatment responses, and safety procedures.
Revista de neurologia 09/2013; 57(6):269-281. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy.
To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers or different IFN-b biomarkers predict NAb evolution.
We included patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) receiving de novo IFN-b treatment in this prospective European multicenter study. Blood samples were collected at baseline, before and after the first IFN-b administration, and again after 3, 12 and 24 months on that therapy; for determination of NAbs, BAbs, gene expression of MxA and protein concentrations of MMP-9, TIMP-1, sTRAIL, CXCL-10 and CCL-2.
We found that 22 of 164 (13.4%) patients developed NAbs during a median time of 23.8 months on IFN-b treatment. Of these patients, 78.9% were BAb-positive after 3 months. BAb titers ≥ 1:2400 predicted NAb evolution with a sensitivity of 74.7% and a specificity of 98.5%. Cross-sectionally, MxA levels were significantly diminished in the BAb/NAb-positive samples; similarly, CXCL-10 and sTRAIL concentrations in BAb/NAb-positive and BAb-positive/NAb-negative samples, respectively, were also diminished compared to BAb/NAb-negative samples.
BAb titers reliably predict NAbs. CXCL-10 is a promising sensitive biomarker for IFN-b response and its abrogation by anti-IFN-b antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most relevant data presented at the 28th edition of the European Committee
for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in October 2012
in France, have been summarized in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert
Meeting held in Madrid in October 2012. The present review summarizes the views
and results of the meeting and is being published in three parts. This first part
of the Post-ECTRIMS review addresses the incidence and prevalence of multiple
sclerosis (MS), which has increased at the global level, largely due to the
increased incidence in women because the risk of developing the disease is
increased in females, with minimal concurrent effect on the progression of MS.
Sexual dimorphism is evident in MS, and all evidence points to an interaction
between hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. The paediatric population
represents an ideal group to study susceptibility factors to the disease, which
is why collaborative studies designed to increase the patient samples are being
considered, given its low prevalence. In this review, inflammatory and
neurodegenerative phenomena involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and that
have a cause-and-effect or shared relationship with the disease are being
discussed. Current hypotheses suggest a phenomenon of compartmentalization,
presumably inaccessible to current immunomodulatory therapy. Among the possible
mechanisms involved in these processes of inflammation and demyelination, the
role of Th17 cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, early disruption of astrocytic
processes, and chronic hypoxia are discussed.
Revista de neurologia 09/2013; 57(5):217-229. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence exists that apoptotic elimination of autoreactive T lymphocytes is defective in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we measured serum levels of soluble forms of Fas (sFas), Fas ligand (sFasL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) in 38 healthy controls (HC) and 92 untreated MS patients with different clinical forms and activity phases of the disease by immunoassay. Serum levels of sFas, sFasL and sTRAIL did not differ between MS patients and HC. sTRAIL levels were significantly decreased in RRMS during relapses. These findings support a role of TRAIL in the pathogenesis of MS, especially during the acute phases of the disease.
Journal of neuroimmunology 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.07.013 · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested a role of the cation channel TRPM4 in mediating neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to extrapolate central nervous system findings to the blood compartment by determining TRPM4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 healthy controls (HC) and 64 untreated MS patients. TRPM4 mRNA expression levels were comparable between HC and MS patients with primary progressive MS (n=17), secondary progressive MS (n=19), and relapsing-remitting MS during clinical remission (n=21) and relapses (n=7). These findings do not support a role of TRPM4 in the peripheral blood compartment of MS patients.
Journal of neuroimmunology 06/2013; 261(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.05.013 · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent genome-wide association study reported five loci for which there was strong, but sub-genome-wide significant evidence for association with multiple sclerosis risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of these potential risk loci in a large and independent data set of ∼20 000 subjects. We tested five single nucleotide polymorphisms rs228614 (MANBA), rs630923 (CXCR5), rs2744148 (SOX8), rs180515 (RPS6KB1), and rs6062314 (ZBTB46) for association with multiple sclerosis risk in a total of 8499 cases with multiple sclerosis, 8765 unrelated control subjects and 958 trios of European descent. In addition, we assessed the overall evidence for association by combining these newly generated data with the results from the original genome-wide association study by meta-analysis. All five tested single nucleotide polymorphisms showed consistent and statistically significant evidence for association with multiple sclerosis in our validation data sets (rs228614: odds ratio = 0.91, P = 2.4 × 10(-6); rs630923: odds ratio = 0.89, P = 1.2 × 10(-4); rs2744148: odds ratio = 1.14, P = 1.8 × 10(-6); rs180515: odds ratio = 1.12, P = 5.2 × 10(-7); rs6062314: odds ratio = 0.90, P = 4.3 × 10(-3)). Combining our data with results from the previous genome-wide association study by meta-analysis, the evidence for association was strengthened further, surpassing the threshold for genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) in each case. Our study provides compelling evidence that these five loci are genuine multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci. These results may eventually lead to a better understanding of the underlying disease pathophysiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ubiquitin specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that functions as a negative regulator of the type I interferon (IFN) signalling pathway and is specifically induced by type I IFNs. In the present study, previous observations by our group were expanded suggesting an implication of USP18 in multiple sclerosis (MS) based on the finding of a deficient expression of the gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS patients compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Two polymorphisms, rs2542109 (intronic) and rs9618216 (promoter), were genotyped in a cohort of 691 relapse-onset MS patients and 1028 healthy controls and in 225 MS patients treated with IFNβ and classified into responders and non-responders after 2 years of treatment according to clinical criteria. Correlations between genotypes and expression levels for USP18 and its target ISG15 were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Two USP18 haplotypes were significantly associated with MS, TG and CG. Additional experiments revealed that CG carriers were characterized by lower USP18 gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and higher clinical disease activity. Finally, AA homozygosis for the intronic polymorphism rs2542109 was associated with the responder phenotype; however, USP18 expression levels induced by IFNβ did not differ amongst MS patients carrying different rs2542109 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results point to a role of USP18 in MS pathogenesis and the therapeutic response to IFNβ.
European Journal of Neurology 05/2013; 20(10). DOI:10.1111/ene.12193 · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS disease with a substantial genetic component, originally mapped to only the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. In the last 5 years, a total of seven genome-wide association studies and one meta-analysis successfully identified 57 non-HLA susceptibility loci. Here, we merged nominal statistical evidence of association and physical evidence of interaction to conduct a protein-interaction-network-based pathway analysis (PINBPA) on two large genetic MS studies comprising a total of 15,317 cases and 29,529 controls. The distribution of nominally significant loci at the gene level matched the patterns of extended linkage disequilibrium in regions of interest. We found that products of genome-wide significantly associated genes are more likely to interact physically and belong to the same or related pathways. We next searched for subnetworks (modules) of genes (and their encoded proteins) enriched with nominally associated loci within each study and identified those modules in common between the two studies. We demonstrate that these modules are more likely to contain genes with bona fide susceptibility variants and, in addition, identify several high-confidence candidates (including BCL10, CD48, REL, TRAF3, and TEC). PINBPA is a powerful approach to gaining further insights into the biology of associated genes and to prioritizing candidates for subsequent genetic studies of complex traits.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2013; 92(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.04.019 · 10.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.