[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fangchinoline is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae S. Moore. Fangchinoline and its structure analogue, tetrandrine, exhibited direct binding affinity with recombinant human proteasome β1 subunit and also inhibited its activity in vitro. In cultured prostate PC-3 cells and LnCap cells, fangchinoline could dose-dependently inhibit cell proliferation and caspase-like activity of cellular proteasome which was mediated by proteasome β1 subunit. The inhibitive effect of fangchinoline on caspase-like activity of proteasome was also observed in purified human erythrocyte 20S proteasome. In PC-3 cells, fangchinoline induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Treatment of PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice with fangchinoline inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis and also caused decrease in proteasome activities in tumor xenografts. Dose-dependent and time-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and important proteasome substrates such as p27, Bax and IκB-α were observed in fangchinoline-treated cells. Over-expression of proteasome β1 subunit by plasmid transfection increased sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxicity of fangchinoline while knockdown of proteasome β1 subunit ameliorated cytotoxicity of fangchinoline in PC-3 cells. Results of the present study suggested that proteasome inhibition was involved in the anti-cancer effects of fangchinoline. Fangchinoline and its structure analogues might be new natural proteasome inhibitors targeting β1 subunit.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0141681. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141681 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious medicinal mushroom. It exhibits promising therapeutic effects on cancer, intoxication, hypertension, hepatitis, and inflammation. Its major bioactive constituents are ergostane and lanostane triterpenoids. In this study, we used intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer model to reveal the intestinal absorption property of 14 representative triterpenoids from A. cinnamomea. The bidirectional transport through the monolayer at different time points was monitored by a fully validated LC/MS/MS method. In the case of pure compounds, ergostanes 5 (25R-antcin H), 6 (25S-antcin H) and 10 (25R-antcin B) could readily pass through the Caco-2 cell layer, whereas lanostanes 13 (dehydroeburicoic acid) and 14 (eburicoic acid) could hardly pass through. When the cells were treated with A. cinnamomea extract, antcins A, B, C, H and K (1-6 and 9-11) were absorbed via passive transcellular diffusion, and showed high P AB and P BA values (> 2.5 × 10(-5) cm/s). Meanwhile, the lanostanes dehydrosulphurenic acid (8), 15α-acetyldehydrosulphurenic acid (12), 13 and 14 exhibited poor permeability. Transport features of these compounds were consistent with their pharmacokinetic behaviors in rats. This study could also be helpful in predicting the intestinal absorption of A. cinnamomea in human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exploration of new natural compounds is of vital significance for drug discovery and development. The conventional approaches by systematic phytochemical isolation are low-efficiency and consume masses of organic solvent. This study presents an integrated strategy that combines offline comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography, hybrid linear ion-trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and NMR analysis (2D LC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/NMR), aimed to establish a green protocol for the efficient discovery of new natural molecules. A comprehensive chemical analysis of the total ginsenosides of stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLP), a cardiovascular disease medicine, was performed following this strategy. An offline 2D LC system was constructed with an orthogonality of 0.79 and a practical peak capacity of 11,000. The much greener UHPLC separation and LTQ-Orbitrap-MS detection by data-dependent high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD)/dynamic exclusion were employed for separation and characterization of ginsenosides from thirteen fractionated SLP samples. Consequently, a total of 646 ginsenosides were characterized, and 427 have not been isolated from the genus of Panax L. The ginsenosides identified from SLP exhibited distinct sapogenin diversity and molecular isomerism. NMR analysis was finally employed to verify and offer complementary structural information to MS-oriented characterization. The established 2D LC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/NMR approach outperforms the conventional approaches in respect of significantly improved efficiency, much less use of drug materials and organic solvent. The integrated strategy enables a deep investigation on the therapeutic basis of an herbal medicine, and facilitates new compounds discovery in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13361-015-1240-9 · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kansui radix (KR) is a poisonous Chinese herbal medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the acute toxicity obstructs its clinical applications. To explore its acute toxicity mechanism to enhance clinical safety, a metabolomics study based on UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS(E) was performed. Wistar rats were exposed for 4h to the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts prepared from KR at a high dose (25g/kg). The contents of six different sections of rat intestine, including the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected as samples for the first time, as well as the rat plasma. The interesting results showed that only those rats exposed to the ethyl acetate extract showed a watery diarrhea, similar to the observed acute human toxicity. The identified biomarkers found in the plasma, such as phenol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate were significantly perturbed in the rats. These biomarkers are known as colon-derived uremic compounds, which were first reported with respect to KR. The three essential amino acids which produced these biomarkers were only found in the contents of colon and rectum. A hypothesis was proposed that only the colon-derived uremic compounds induced by KR might be responsible for the acute toxicity. Three traditional process methods to reduce the toxicity of KR were compared based on these biomarkers, and different levels of toxicity modulation were observed. These results may be helpful to further understand the mechanism of acute toxicity, and the relevance of the traditional process methods to ameliorate the adverse effects of KR.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.09.022 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5) was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalB-Rg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0135435. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135435 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). It has attracted widespread attention for its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The separation of curcumin and its two close analogues, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, has been challenging by conventional techniques. In this paper, an environmentally friendly method based on supercritical fluid chromatography was established for rapid and facile separation of the three curcuminoids directly from the methanol extract of turmeric. The method was firstly developed and optimized by ultra performance convergence chromatography, and was then scaled up to preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Eluted with supercritical fluid CO2 containing 8-15% methanol (containing 10 mM oxalic acid) at a flow rate of 80 mL/min, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin could be well separated on a Viridis BEH OBD column (Waters, 250 mm × 19 mm, 5 μm) within 6.5 min. As a result, 20.8 mg of curcumin (97.9% purity), 7.0 mg of demethoxycurcumin (91.1%), and 4.6 mg of bisdemethoxycurcumin (94.8%) were obtained after a single step of supercritical fluid chromatography separation with a mean recovery of 76.6%. Showing obvious advantages in low solvent consumption, large sample loading, and easy solvent removal, supercritical fluid chromatography was proved to be a superior technique for the efficient separation of natural products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the 34S isotopic ion is drastically affected by 13C2 and 18O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions (12Cx1Hy16Oz32S13C218O, 12Cx+21Hy16Oz+134S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMSn). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint is commonly used for quality consistency evaluation of herbal medicines. Recently, an improved chromatographic technique resulted in ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), which could provide higher resolution in less time under higher pressure using finer particles (less than 2μm) of stationary phase. A simple and sensitive method was developed and validated for fingerprint analysis of Penthorum chinense Pursh (PC), with the simultaneous determination of seven components using UPLC coupled with a diode-array detector (DAD). It took less than 20 min for analysis of one sample. Both similarity analysis and principle components analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the quality consistency of 17 sample batches. The analysis was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 (2.1 x 150 mm, 1.7 μm) column, which was maintained at 45°C and the eluents were monitored with DAD at 270 nm. A gradient elution with acetonitrile and water containing 0.075% phosphoric acid was used. The solvent flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. Standard calibration curves showed good linear behavior (R2 > 0.9994) in the range of 0.20-337.05 μg/mL. Acceptable repeatability (RSD < 0.61%), reproducibility (RSD < 2.72%), stability (RSD < 1.59%) and recovery in the range of 94.7%-102.9% were obtained (precision and accuracy). The validated method was successfully applied to evaluate the quality of 21 samples of PC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coumarins are an important group of bioactive constituents in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), a worldwide popular herbal medicine. This study aims to elucidate the metabolism of two major licorice coumarins, glycyrin and glycyrol in rats. After oral administration of 40 mg/kg glycyrin, neither the parent compound nor its metabolites could be detected in rats plasma or urine samples, indicating that glycyrin had poor oral bioavailability. Two hydroxylated metabolites, 4″-hydroxyl glycyrin and 5″-hydroxyl glycyrin, were detected in rat liver microsome incubation system. Among them, the major metabolite 4″-hydroxyl glycyrin, which is a new compound, was obtained by microbial transformation of Syncephalastrum racemosum AS 3.264. Its structure was fully identified by 1D and 2D NMR. Meanwhile, glycyrol, together with three metabolites, were detected in rats urine and fecal samples after oral administration (40 mg/kg). Their structures were tentatively characterized by LC/MS. Glycyrol mainly undertakes hydroxylation metabolism, accompanied by hydration and dehydrogenation as minor reactions. This is the first systematic study on metabolism of glycyrin and glycyrol. The results could be valuable to evaluate druggability of these bioactive natural products.
Journal of Chromatography B 03/2015; 983. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.12.028 · 2.73 Impact Factor