Jary Larsen

CSU Mentor, Long Beach, California, United States

Are you Jary Larsen?

Claim your profile

Publications (10)26.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The stability of cognitive control processes over time can be indexed by trial-to-trial variability in reaction time (RT). Greater RT variability has been interpreted as an indicator of executive dysfunction, inhibitory inefficiency, and excessive mental noise. Previous studies have demonstrated that combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show substantial impairments in inhibitory control, but no studies have examined response variability in this population. In the current experiment, RT variability in the Go/NoGo response inhibition task was assessed for 45 veterans with PTSD and 34 control veterans using the intra-individual coefficient of variation (ICV) and ex-Gaussian analysis of RT distributions. Despite having mean RTs that were indistinguishable from controls, the PTSD patients had significantly greater RT variability as measured by ICV. More variable RTs were in turn associated with a greater number of false alarm errors in the patients, suggesting that less consistent performers were less successful at inhibiting inappropriate responses. RT variability was also highly correlated with self-reported symptoms of PTSD, depression, and attentional impulsiveness. Furthermore, response variability predicted diagnosis even when controlling for PTSD symptom severity. In turn, PTSD severity was correlated with self-rated attentional impulsiveness. Deficits in the top-down cognitive control processes that cause greater response variability might contribute to the maintenance of PTSD symptomology. Thus, the distractibility issues that cause more variable reaction times might also result in greater distress related to the trauma.
    Neuropsychologia 10/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves debilitating symptoms that can disrupt cognitive functioning. The emotional Stroop has been commonly used to examine the impact of PTSD on attentional control, but no published study has yet used it with Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, and only one previous study has compared groups on habituation to trauma-related words. METHODS: We administered the emotional Stroop, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) to 30 veterans with PTSD, 30 military controls, and 30 civilian controls. Stroop word types included Combat, Matched-neutral, Neutral, Positive and Negative. RESULTS: Compared to controls, veterans with PTSD were disproportionately slower in responding to Combat words. They were also slower and less accurate overall, did not show interference on Negative or Positive words relative to Neutral, and showed a trend for delayed but successful habituation to Combat words. Higher PCL and BDI scores also correlated with larger interference effects. CONCLUSIONS: Because of its specificity in detecting attentional biases to trauma-related words, the emotional Stroop task may serve as a useful pre- and post task with intervention studies of PTSD patients.
    BMC Psychiatry 03/2013; 13(1):86. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can show impairments in executive control and increases in impulsivity. The current study examined the effects of PTSD on motor response inhibition, a key cognitive control function. A Go/NoGo task was administered to veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD based on semi-structured clinical interview using DSM-IV criteria (n = 40) and age-matched control veterans (n = 33). Participants also completed questionnaires to assess self-reported levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Performance measures from the patients (error rates and reaction times) were compared to those from controls. PTSD patients showed a significant deficit in response inhibition, committing more errors on NoGo trials than controls. Higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with higher error rates. Of the three symptom clusters, re-experiencing was the strongest predictor of performance. Because the co-morbidity of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and PTSD was high in this population, secondary analyses compared veterans with PTSD+mTBI (n = 30) to veterans with PTSD only (n = 10). Although preliminary, results indicated the two patient groups did not differ on any measure (p > .88). Since cognitive impairments could hinder the effectiveness of standard PTSD therapies, incorporating treatments that strengthen executive functions might be considered in the future. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 05/2012; 18(5):917-26. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke-speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked-look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and pars triangularis (BA 45) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (i.e., Broca's area). Two conditions containing word-onset orthographic-phonological overlap (bead-bee, barge-bar) demonstrated that the disrupted regular-verb priming was accompanied by, and covaried with, disrupted ortho-phonological priming, regardless of whether prime stimuli contained the regular inflectional rhyme pattern. Further, the dissociation between impaired regular-verb and preserved irregular-verb priming was shown to be continuous rather than categorical; priming for weak-irregular verbs (spent-spend) was intermediate in size between that of regular verbs and strong verbs. Such continuous dissociations grounded in ortho-phonological relationships between present- and past-tense forms are predicted by single-system, connectionist approaches to inflectional morphology and not predicted by current dual-system, rule-based models. Event-related potential data demonstrated that N400 priming effects were intact for both regular and irregular verbs, suggesting that the absence of significant regular-verb priming in the response time data did not result from a disruption of lexical access, and may have stemmed instead from post-lexical events such as covert articulation, segmentation strategies, and/or cognitive control.
    Neuropsychologia 10/2010; 49(1):1-18. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current work investigated whether differences in phonological overlap between the past- and present-tense forms of regular and irregular verbs can account for the graded neurophysiological effects of verb regularity observed in past-tense priming designs. Event-related potentials were recorded from sixteen healthy participants who performed a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately preceded present-tense targets. To minimize intra-modal phonological priming effects, cross-modal presentation between auditory primes and visual targets was employed, and results were compared to a companion intra-modal auditory study (Justus, Larsen, de Mornay Davies, & Swick, 2008). For both regular and irregular verbs, faster response times and reduced N400 components were observed for present-tense forms when primed by the corresponding past-tense forms. Although behavioral facilitation was observed with a pseudopast phonological control condition, neither this condition nor an orthographic-phonological control produced significant N400 priming effects. Instead, these two types of priming were associated with a post-lexical anterior negativity (PLAN). Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-system theories of inflectional morphology, as well as intra- and cross-modal prelexical priming.
    Journal of Neurolinguistics 11/2009; 22(6):584-604. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological dissociations between regular and irregular English past-tense morphology have been reported using a lexical decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets. We present N400 event-related potential data from healthy participants using the same design. Both regular and irregular past-tense forms primed corresponding present-tense forms, but with a longer duration for irregular verbs. Phonological control conditions suggested that differences in formal overlap between prime and target contribute to, but do not account for, this difference, suggesting a link between irregular morphology and semantics. Further analysis dividing the irregular verbs into two categories (weak irregular and strong) revealed that priming for strong verbs was reliably stronger than that for weak irregular and regular verbs, which were statistically indistinguishable from one another. We argue that, although we observe a regular-irregular dissociation, the nature of this dissociation is more consistent with single- than with dual-system models of inflectional morphology.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 07/2008; 8(2):178-94. · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.
    Brain Research 02/2008; 1188:112-21. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alexia without agraphia, or "pure" alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised. Hence, auditory repetition priming was assessed with lexical decision and word stem completion tasks in pure alexic patients with lesions in left inferior temporal-occipital cortex and the splenium. Perceptually based, modality-specific priming models predict intact auditory priming, since auditory association cortex is spared in the patients. Alternatively, modality-independent models, which suggest that priming reflects the temporary modification of an amodal system, might predict impairments. Baseline performance was matched in the patients and controls, although lexical decision priming measures showed an interaction between group and repetition lag. The patients showed intact immediate priming but significantly less priming than controls at longer delays. Furthermore, word stem completion priming was abolished in the patients. One explanation for the deficit is that left inferior temporal-occipital cortex supports amodal aspects of priming, as suggested by recent neuroimaging results. Another possibility is that long-term auditory priming relies on covert orthographic representations which were unavailable in the patients. The results provide support for interactive models of word identification.
    Brain and Language 07/2004; 89(3):543-53. · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the implicit, or covert, reading ability of a global alexic patient (EA) to help determine the contribution of the right hemisphere to reading. Previous studies of alexic patients with left hemisphere damage have suggested that the ability to derive meaning from printed words that cannot be read out loud may reflect right hemisphere reading mechanisms. Other investigators have argued that residual left hemisphere abilities are sufficient to account for implicit reading and moreover do not require the postulation of a right hemisphere system that has no role in normal reading processes. However, few studies have assessed covert reading in patients with lesions as extensive as the one in EA, which affected left medial, inferior temporal-occipital cortex, hippocampus, splenium, and dorsal white matter. EA was presented with lexical decision, semantic categorization, phonemic categorization, and letter matching tasks. Although EA was unable to access phonology and could not overtly name words or letters, she was nevertheless capable of making lexical and semantic decisions at above chance levels, with an advantage for concrete versus abstract words. Her oral and written spelling were relatively intact, suggesting that orthographic knowledge is retained, although inaccessible through the visual modality. Based on her ability to access lexical and semantic information without contacting phonological representations, we propose that EA's implicit reading emerges from, and is supported, by the right hemisphere. Finally, we conclude that her spelling and writing abilities are supported by left hemisphere mechanisms.
    Neuropsychologia 02/2004; 42(11):1459-76. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Nina F. Dronkers, Jary Larsen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditional neurolinguistic models have presumed that certain functions are localized in specific areas of the brain. The classic description of the brain areas involved in language has generally included structures in the left cerebral hemisphere known as Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the bundle of fibers connecting the two structures, the arcuate fasciculus. Damage in each of these areas has been touted as being responsible for specific language deficits, or aphasias. The descriptions put forth in this traditional model have served a practical clinical purpose and have given the scientific community a common vocabulary for well over a century. However, new advances in the study of language and language pathology, as well as advances in neuroimaging technology, have rendered the classical model somewhat inadequate in its explanation of language processing. This chapter analyzes the classical theory of the aphasias and language localization. We discuss the individual aphasias and whether these syndromes can realistically be localized to a single region of the brain. In addition, we review findings from recent localization studies that explore more specific components of language and their relation to discrete brain regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)