[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TlpAs are bacterial thioredoxin-like periplasmic disulfide oxidoreductases generally involved in cytochrome c maturation process. They contain a characteristic CXXC active site motif involved in disulfide exchange reaction. In the human pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis species, no TlpA has been characterized so far. In the present study, using an in silico analysis, we identified a putative periplasmic thioredoxin-like protein, called TlpA2. Biochemical and kinetic characterizations of the soluble form of TlpA2, tTlpA2, were performed. A reduction potential of -0.230 V at pH 7 was calculated, suggesting that TlpA2 acts as a reductant in the oxidative environment of the periplasm. Using a second-order reactive probe, high pKapp values were determined for the two cysteines of the SCXXC motif. The tTlpA2 was shown to be efficiently reduced by the N-terminal domain of the DsbD, whereas tTlpA2 reduced a mimetic peptide of cytochrome c' with a catalytic efficiency similar to that observed with other disulfide oxidoreductase like ResA. Moreover, the corresponding gene tlpA2 was shown to be essential for the pathogen viability, and able to partially complement a B. pertussis CcsX mutant. Together, these data support an essential role of TlpA2 in the cytochrome c maturation process in N. meningitidis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three classes of methionine sulfoxide reductases are known: MsrA and MsrB which are implicated stereo-selectively in the repair of protein oxidized on their methionine residues; and fRMsr, discovered more recently, which binds and reduces selectively free L-Met-R-O. It is now well established that the chemical mechanism of the reductase step passes through formation of a sulfenic acid intermediate. The oxidized catalytic cysteine can then be recycled by either Trx when a recycling cysteine is operative or a reductant like glutathione in the absence of recycling cysteine which is the case for 30% of the MsrBs. Recently, it was shown that a subclass of MsrAs with two recycling cysteines displays an oxidase activity. This reverse activity needs the accumulation of the sulfenic acid intermediate. The present review focuses on recent insights into the catalytic mechanism of action of the Msrs based on kinetic studies, theoretical chemistry investigations and new structural data. Major attention is placed on how the sulfenic acid intermediate can be formed and the oxidized catalytic cysteine returns back to its reduced form.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) belongs to the subclass of MsrAs with one catalytic and two recycling Cys corresponding to Cys51, Cys198 and Cys206 in Escherichia coli MsrA, respectively. It was previously shown that in the absence of thioredoxin, the mouse and the Escherichia coli MsrAs, which reduce two mol of methionine-O substrate per mol of enzyme, displays an in vitro S-stereospecific methionine oxidase activity.
In the present study carried out with Escherichia coli MsrA, kinetic evidence are presented which show that formation of the second mol of Ac-L-Met-NHMe is rate-limiting in the absence of thioredoxin. In the presence of thioredoxin, the overall rate-limiting step is associated with the thioredoxin-recycling process. Kinetic arguments are presented which support the accumulation of the Escherichia coli MsrA under Cys51 sulfenic acid state in the presence of Trx. Thus, the methionine oxidase activity could be operative in vivo without the action of a regulatory protein in order to block the action of Trx as previously proposed.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2014; 548. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2014.03.002 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxins (Trx) 1 and 2, and three methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) whose activities are Trx-dependent, are expressed in Escherichia coli. A metB(1)trxA mutant was shown to be unable to grow on methionine sulfoxide (Met-O) suggesting that Trx2 is not essential in the Msr-recycling process. In the present study, we have determined the kinetic parameters of the recycling process of the three Msrs by Trx2 and the in vivo expression of Trx2 in a metB(1)trxA mutant. The data demonstrate that the lack of growth of the metB(1)trxA mutant on Met-O is due to low in vivo expression of Trx2 and not to the lower catalytic efficiency of Msrs for Trx2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ab initio calculations at the B3LYP/6–311++G(2df,2p) and B3LYP/6–31G(d) level have been carried out to investigate the reaction
mechanism of methionine sulfoxide reductases of class A. These enzymes reduce oxidized methionine in vivo and therefore play
an important role in repairing protein damage caused by the oxidative stress. Our calculations have been carried out for a
model reaction in a model active site. Several reaction mechanisms have been explored that can roughly be described as (2H++2e−) or (H++e−). The results suggest that the actual reaction mechanism is of the (2H++2e−) type corresponding to a more or less asynchronous-concerted double-proton transfer reaction leading to the formation of
methionine (dimethylthioether in our model) and a sulfenic acid Cys-SOH. The Michaelis complex would involve one deprotonated
Cys and one protonated Glu residues in the active site, this protonation state being mandatory to stabilize the sulfoxide
substrate. Then, proton transfer from Glu to the substrate takes place, followed by proton transfer from one Tyr residue and
fast reorganization of the system. The overall activation energy barrier is estimated to fall in the range 7–9kcal/mol, much
lower than the predicted barrier in DMSO solution (29.6kcal/mol) reported before.
KeywordsMethionine sulfoxide reductase–Oxidative stress–Enzymatic catalysis–Sulfoxide–Ab initio calculations
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new family of methionine-sulfoxide reductase (Msr) was recently described. The enzyme, named fRMsr, selectively reduces the R isomer at the sulfoxide function of free methionine sulfoxide (Met-R-O). The fRMsrs belong to the GAF fold family. They represent the first GAF domain to show enzymatic activity. Two other Msr families, MsrA and MsrB, were already known. MsrA and MsrB reduce free Met-S-O and Met-R-O, respectively, but exhibit higher catalytic efficiency toward Met-O within a peptide or a protein context. The fold of the three families differs. In the present work, the crystal structure of the fRMsr from Neisseria meningitidis has been determined in complex with S-Met-R-O. Based on biochemical and kinetic data as well as genomic analyses, Cys(118) is demonstrated to be the catalytic Cys on which a sulfenic acid is formed. All of the structural factors involved in the stereoselectivity of the l-Met-R-O binding were identified and account for why Met-S-O, DMSO, and a Met-O within a peptide are not substrates. Taking into account the structural, enzymatic, and biochemical information, a scenario of the catalysis for the reductase step is proposed. Based on the thiol content before and after Met-O reduction and the stoichiometry of Met formed per subunit of wild type and Cys-to-Ala mutants, a scenario of the recycling process of the N. meningitidis fRMsr is proposed. All of the biochemical, enzymatic, and structural properties of the N. meningitidis fRMsr are compared with those of MsrA and MsrB and are discussed in terms of the evolution of function of the GAF domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of methionine sulfoxide back to methionine. In vivo, Msrs are essential in the protection of cells against oxidative damage to proteins and in the virulence of some bacteria. Two structurally unrelated classes of Msrs, named MsrA and MsrB, exist. MsrB are stereospecific to R epimer on the sulfur of sulfoxide. All MsrB share a common reductase step with the formation of a sulfenic acid intermediate. For the subclass of MsrB whose recycling process passes through the formation of an intradisulfide bond, the recycling reducer is thioredoxin. In the present study, X-ray structures of Neisseria meningitidis MsrB have been determined. The structures have a fold based on two beta-sheets, similar to the fold already described for other MsrB, with the recycling Cys63 located in a position favorable for disulfide bond formation with the catalytic Cys117. X-ray structures of Xanthomonas campestris MsrB have also been determined. In the C117S MsrB structure with a bound substrate, the recycling Cys31 is far from Ser117, with Trp65 being essential in the reductase step located in between. This positioning prevents the formation of the Cys31-Cys117 disulfide bond. In the oxidized structure, a drastic conformational reorganization of the two beta-sheets due to withdrawal of the Trp65 region from the active site, which remains compatible with an efficient thioredoxin-recycling process, is observed. The results highlight the remarkable structural malleability of the MsrB fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DsbD transmembrane protein dispatches electrons to periplasmic Trx/DsbE-like partners via specific interactions with its N-terminal domain, nDsbD. In the present study, PilB N-terminal domain (NterPilB) is shown to efficiently accept electrons coming from nDsbD from Neisseria meningitidis. Using an NMR-driven docking approach, we have modeled the structure of a mixed disulfide complex between NterPilB and nDsbD. We show the needed opening of nDsbD cap-loop whereas NterPilB FLHE loop does not seem essential in the formation and stabilization of the complex. Relaxation analysis performed on backbone amide groups highlights a kind of dynamics transfer from nDsbD cap-loop on NterPilB alpha1 helix, suggesting that a mobility contribution is required not only for the formation of the mixed disulfide complex, but also for its disruption. Taking into account previous X-ray data on covalent complexes involving nDsbD, a cartoon of interactions between Trx-like partners and nDsbD is proposed that illustrates the adaptability of nDsbD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DsbD protein is essential for electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. Its N-terminal domain dispatches electrons coming from cytoplasmic thioredoxin (Trx), via its central transmembrane and C-terminal domains, to its periplasmic partners: DsbC, DsbE/CcmG, and DsbG. Previous structural studies described the latter proteins as Trx-like folds possessing a characteristic C-X-X-C motif able to generate a disulfide bond upon oxidation. The Escherichia coli nDsbD displays an immunoglobulin-like fold in which two cysteine residues (Cys103 and Cys109) allow a disulfide bond exchange with its biological partners.We have determined the structure in solution and the backbone dynamics of the C103S mutant of the N-terminal domain of DsbD from Neisseria meningitidis. Our results highlight significant structural changes concerning the beta-sheets and the local topology of the active site compared with the oxidized form of the E. coli nDsbD. The structure reveals a "cap loop" covering the active site, similar to the oxidized E. coli nDsbD X-ray structure. However, regions featuring enhanced mobility were observed both near to and distant from the active site, revealing a capacity of structural adjustments in the active site and in putative interaction areas with nDsbD biological partners. Results are discussed in terms of functional consequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secreted form of the PilB protein was proposed to be involved in pathogen survival fighting against the defensive host's oxidative burst. PilB protein is composed of three domains. The central and the C-terminal domains display methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B activities, respectively. The N-terminal domain, which possesses a CXXC motif, was recently shown to regenerate in vitro the reduced forms of the methionine sulfoxide reductase domains of PilB from their oxidized forms, as does the thioredoxin 1 from E. coli, via a disulfide bond exchange. The thioredoxin-like N-terminal domain belongs to the cytochrome maturation protein structural family, but it possesses a unique additional segment (99)FLHE (102) localized in a loop. This segment covers one edge of the active site in the crystal structure of the reduced form of the N-terminal domain of PilB. We have determined the solution structure and the dynamics of the N-terminal domain from Neisseria meningitidis, in its reduced and oxidized forms. The FLHE loop adopts, in both redox states, a well-defined conformation. Subtle conformational and dynamic changes upon oxidation are highlighted around the active site, as well as in the FLHE loop. The functional consequences of the cytochrome maturation protein topology and those of the presence of FLHE loop are discussed in relation to the enzymatic properties of the N-terminal domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the nearly complete 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of the C103S mutant of the N-terminal domain of DsbD from Neisseria meningitides. Secondary structure determination using CSI method leads to the prediction of nine beta-sheet parts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of Met residues in proteins leads to the formation of methionine sulfoxides (MetSO). Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) are ubiquitous enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of the sulfoxide function of the oxidized methionine residues. In vivo, the role of Msrs is described as essential in protecting cells against oxidative damages and to play a role in infection of cells by pathogenic bacteria. There exist two structurally-unrelated classes of Msrs, called MsrA and MsrB, with opposite stereoselectivity towards the S and R isomers of the sulfoxide function, respectively. Both Msrs present a similar three-step catalytic mechanism. The first step, called the reductase step, leads to the formation of a sulfenic acid on the catalytic Cys with the concomitant release of Met. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to characterize structural and molecular factors involved in the catalysis, in particular of the reductase step, and in structural specificities.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2008; 474(2):266-73. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2008.02.007 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the thioacylenzyme intermediate of the phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been solved at 1.8A resolution. Formation of the intermediate was obtained by diffusion of the natural substrate within the crystal of the holoenzyme in the absence of inorganic phosphate. To define the soaking conditions suitable for the isolation and accumulation of the intermediate, a microspectrophotometric characterization of the reaction of GAPDH in single crystals was carried out, following NADH formation at 340 nm. When compared with the structure of the Michaelis complex (Didierjean, C., Corbier, C., Fatih, M., Favier, F., Boschi-Muller, S., Branlant, G., and Aubry, A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 12968-12976) the 206-210 loop is shifted and now forms part of the so-called "new P(i)" site. The locations of both the O1 atom and the C3-phosphate group of the substrate are also changed. Altogether, the results provide evidence for the flipping of the C3-phosphate group occurring concomitantly or after the redox step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are thioredoxin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyse the reduction of the sulfoxide function of the oxidized methionine residues. These enzymes have been shown to regulate the life span of a wide range of microbial and animal species and to play the role of physiological virulence determinant of some bacterial pathogens. Two structurally unrelated classes of Msrs exist, MsrA and MsrB, with opposite stereoselectivity towards the R and S isomers of the sulfoxide function, respectively. Both Msrs share a similar three-step chemical mechanism including (1) the formation of a sulfenic acid intermediate on the catalytic Cys with the concomitant release of the product-methionine, (2) the formation of an intramonomeric disulfide bridge between the catalytic and the regenerating Cys and (3) the reduction of the disulfide bridge by thioredoxin or its homologues. In this study, four structures of the MsrA domain of the PilB protein from Neisseria meningitidis, representative of four catalytic intermediates of the MsrA catalytic cycle, were determined by X-ray crystallography: the free reduced form, the Michaelis-like complex, the sulfenic acid intermediate and the disulfide oxidized forms. They reveal a conserved overall structure up to the formation of the sulfenic acid intermediate, while a large conformational switch is observed in the oxidized form. The results are discussed in relation to those proposed from enzymatic, NMR and theoretical chemistry studies. In particular, the substrate specificity and binding, the catalytic scenario of the reductase step and the relevance and role of the large conformational change observed in the oxidized form are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are antioxidant repair enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin-dependent reduction of methionine sulfoxide back to methionine. The Msr family is composed of two structurally unrelated classes of enzymes named MsrA and MsrB, which display opposite stereoselectivities toward the S and R isomers of the sulfoxide function, respectively. Both classes of Msr share a similar three-step chemical mechanism involving first a reductase step that leads to the formation of a sulfenic acid intermediate. In this study, the invariant amino acids of Neisseria meningitidis MsrB involved in the reductase step catalysis and in substrate binding have been characterized by the structure-function relationship approach. Altogether the results show the following: 1) formation of the MsrB-substrate complex leads to an activation of the catalytic Cys-117 characterized by a decreased pKapp of approximately 2.7 pH units; 2) the catalytic active MsrB form is the Cys-117-/His-103+ species with a pKapp of 6.6 and 8.3, respectively; 3) His-103 and to a lesser extent His-100, Asn-119, and Thr-26 (via a water molecule) participate in the stabilization of the polarized form of the sulfoxide function and of the transition state; and 4) Trp-65 is essential for the catalytic efficiency of the reductase step by optimizing the position of the substrate in the active site. A scenario for the reductase step is proposed and discussed in comparison with that of MsrA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin-dependent reduction of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) back to methionine. In vivo, Msrs are essential in protecting cells against oxidative damages on proteins and in the virulence of some bacteria. There exists two structurally unrelated classes of Msrs. MsrAs are stereo-specific toward the S epimer on the sulfur of the sulfoxide, whereas MsrBs are specific toward the R isomer. Both classes of Msrs display a similar catalytic mechanism of sulfoxide reduction by thiols via the sulfenic acid chemistry and a better affinity for protein-bound MetSO than for free MetSO. Recently, the role of the amino acids implicated in the catalysis of the reductase step of Neisseria meningitidis MsrA was determined. In the present study, the invariant amino acids potentially involved in substrate binding, i.e. Phe-52, Trp-53, Asp-129, His-186, Tyr-189, and Tyr-197, were substituted. The catalytic parameters under steady-state conditions and of the reductase step of the mutated MsrAs were determined and compared with those of the wild type. Altogether, the results support the presence of at least two binding subsites. The first one, whose contribution is major in the efficiency of the reductase step and in which the epsilon-methyl group of MetSO binds, is the hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe-52 and Trp-53, the position of the indole ring being stabilized by interactions with His-186 and Tyr-189. The second subsite composed of Asp-129 and Tyr-197 contributes to the binding of the main chain of the substrate but to a lesser extent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the nearly complete 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the oxidized form (Cys(67)-Cys(70)) of the N-terminal domain of PilB from Neisseria meningitidis. Secondary structure determination using CSI method and TALOS leads mainly to the prediction of 7 alpha-helical and 5 beta-sheet parts.