Sandro Galea

CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (681)1739.16 Total impact

  • Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea
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    ABSTRACT: The number of students and disciplines requiring basic instruction in epidemiologic methods is growing. As a field, we now have a lexicon of epidemiologic terminology and particular methods that have developed and become canonical through the historical development of the field. Yet, many of our basic concepts remain elusive to some students, particularly those not pursuing a career in epidemiology. Further, disagreement and redundancy across basic terms limit their utility in teaching epidemiology. Many approaches to teaching epidemiology generally start with labeling key concepts and then move on to explain them. We submit that an approach grounded not in labels but in foundational concepts may offer a useful adjunct to introductory epidemiology education. We propose 7 foundational steps in conducting an epidemiologic study and provide examples of how these steps can be operationalized, using simple graphics that articulate how populations are defined, samples are selected, and individuals are followed to count cases. A reorganization of introductory epidemiology around core first principles may be an effective way forward for educating the next generation of public health scientists.
    American journal of epidemiology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. As a case study of the impact of universal versus targeted interventions on population health and health inequalities, we used simulations to examine (1) whether universal or targeted manipulations of collective efficacy better reduced population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization; and (2) whether experiments reduced disparities without addressing fundamental causes. Methods. We applied agent-based simulation techniques to the specific example of an intervention on neighborhood collective efficacy to reduce population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization. The agent population consisted of 4000 individuals aged 18 years and older with sociodemographic characteristics assigned to match distributions of the adult population in New York City according to the 2000 US Census. Results. Universal experiments reduced rates of victimization more than targeted experiments. However, neither experiment reduced inequalities. To reduce inequalities, it was necessary to eliminate racial/ethnic residential segregation. Conclusions. These simulations support the use of universal intervention but suggest that it is not possible to address inequalities in health without first addressing fundamental causes.
    American journal of public health. 09/2014; 104 Suppl 4:S609-19.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while highly prevalent (7.6% over a lifetime), develops only in a subset of trauma-exposed individuals. Genetic risk factors in interaction with trauma exposure have been implicated in PTSD vulnerability.
    JAMA Psychiatry 08/2014; · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is predicted to become the leading cause of disability worldwide by 2030 and moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in depression persist. Herpesviruses, which are more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, subject to stress-induced reactivation and are associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the etiology of depression, may serve as novel risk factors for depression onset.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 08/2014; 50C:139-148. · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill had enormous consequences on the environment. Prevalence of mental and physical health conditions among Gulf residents after the disaster, however, are still being assessed. The Gulf State Population Survey (GSPS) was a representative survey of 38,361 residents in four Gulf States and was conducted from December 2010 to December 2011. Analysis of the GSPS data showed that differences in individual characteristics and direct or indirect exposure to the disaster drove the individual-level variation in health outcomes (mental distress, physical distress, and depression). Direct exposure to the disaster itself was the most important determinant of health after this event. Selected county-level characteristics were not found to be significantly associated with any of our health indicators of interest. This study suggests that in the context of an overwhelming event, persons who are most directly affected through direct exposure should be the primary focus of any public health intervention effort.
    The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 08/2014; · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same region. Furthermore, the association with amygdala reactivity was replicated in a second cohort and was robust to both sampling methods and age.
    Nature neuroscience. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: With Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom winding down, large numbers of National Guard members have recently returned from active deployment. No prospective, longitudinal studies have examined predictors of mental health service use in a representative sample of National Guard soldiers. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health service use in a representative sample of National Guard soldiers.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 08/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed White, non-Hispanic U.S. veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60.3% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants living in Detroit, Michigan; 23.6% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (OR range = 0.59 to 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (OR = 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors could potentially explain this association.ResumenEl gen del receptor D3 de dopamina (DRD3) ha sido implicado en la esquizofrenia, el autismo y trastornos por uso de sustancias y está relacionado con la reactividad emocional, funcionamiento ejecutivo y la respuesta al estrés, procesos afectados en el Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT). El objetivo de este estudio de genes candidatos fue evaluar la asociación a TEPT de los polimorfismos de DRD3. La muestra de descubrimiento fueron veteranos estadounidenses expuestos a trauma, blancos, no hispánicos y sus parejas expuestas a trauma (N = 491); 60,3% cumplía criterios para TEPT durante la vida. La muestra de replicación fueron 601 participantes afroamericanos expuestos a trauma que vivían en Detroit, MI; 23,6% cumplían criterios de TEPT durante la vida. El genotipado se basó en chips de cuentas de alta densidad. En la muestra de descubrimiento, cuatro polimorfismos de nucleótido simple (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996 y rs9868039, mostraron evidencia de asociación con TEPT y resistieron la corrección por pruebas múltiples. Los alelos menores fueron asociados con riesgo reducido de TEPT (rango de OR = 0,59 a 0,69). En la muestra de replicación, rs2251177, localizado a 149 pares de bases del SNP más significante en la muestra de descubrimiento, fue nominalmente asociado a TEPT en hombres (OR = 0,32). Aunque el rol preciso del receptor D3 en TEPT no se conoce aún, su rol en el funcionamiento ejecutivo y la reactividad emocional, y en la sensibilidad del sistema dopaminérgico a los estresores ambientales, podrían potencialmente explicar esta asociación.Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS標題:多巴胺D3受體基因和創傷後壓力症撮要:多巴胺D3(DRD3)基因涉及精神分裂症、自閉症和物質濫用病症,並與創傷後壓力症(PTSD) 中情緒反應、執行力和壓力反應等各過程受損有關。本候選基因研究旨在評估與PTSD相關的DRD3多態性。樣本是經歷創傷非西班牙裔白種退役兵及其經歷創傷的親密伴侶(N=491);60.3%符合終身PTSD的診斷。本複製樣本則是601名住在底特律MI 經歷創傷的非裔美國人;其中符合終身PTSD者有23.6%。使用高密度珠型蕊片作基因分析,發見樣本內有四種單一核苷酸多態性(SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996和rs9868039在重覆測試後能承受校正而與PTSD有關連。次要等位基因則與PTSD風險減少有關連(OR區間=0.59至0.69)。在複製樣本中,rs2251177則與發見樣本中最顯着的SNP有149基對距離,與男士中PTSD有着名義上的關連(OR=0.32)。雖然我們對D3受體在PTSD中的實質角色還未釐清,但受體對執行力和情緒反應各方面,加上多巴胺系統對環境壓力的敏感度,都有可能解釋以上關聯。标题:多巴胺D3受体基因和创伤后压力症撮要:多巴胺D3(DRD3)基因涉及精神分裂症、自闭症和物质滥用病症,并与创伤后压力症(PTSD) 中情绪反应、执行力和压力反应等各过程受损有关。本候选基因研究旨在评估与PTSD相关的DRD3多态性。样本是经历创伤非西班牙裔白种退役兵及其经历创伤的亲密伴侣(N=491);60.3%符合终身PTSD的诊断。本复制样本则是601名住在底特律MI 经历创伤的非裔美国人;其中符合终身PTSD者有23.6%。使用高密度珠型蕊片作基因分析,发见样本内有四种单一核苷酸多态性(SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996和rs9868039在重复测试后能承受校正而与PTSD有关连。次要等位基因则与PTSD风险减少有关连(OR区间=0.59至0.69)。在复制样本中,rs2251177则与发见样本中最显着的SNP有149基对距离,与男士中PTSD有着名义上的关连(OR=0.32)。虽然我们对D3受体在PTSD中的实质角色还未厘清,但受体对执行力和情绪反应各方面,加上多巴胺系统对环境压力的敏感度,都有可能解释以上关联。
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 08/2014; 27(4). · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Natural disasters are associated with catastrophic losses. Disaster survivors return to devastated communities and rebuild homes or relocate permanently, although the long-term psychological consequences are not well understood. The authors examined predictors of psychological outcomes in 219 residents of disaster-affected communities in south Louisiana. Method: Current coastal residents with severe property damage from the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and exposure to the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill were compared and contrasted with former coastal residents and an indirectly affected control group. Participants completed measures of storm exposure and stressors, religiosity, perceived social support, and mental health. Results: Non-organizational religiosity was a significant predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Follow-up analyses revealed that more frequent participation in non-organizational religious behaviors was associated with a heightened risk of PTSD. Low income and being a coastal fisher were significant predictors of depression symptoms in bivariate and multivariate models. Perceived social support had a protective effect for all mental health outcomes, which also held for symptoms of depression and GAD in multivariate models. Conclusion: People who experienced recent and severe trauma related to natural and technological disasters are at risk for adverse psychological outcomes in the years after these events. Individuals with low income, low social support, and high levels of non-organizational religiosity are also at greater risk. Implications of these data for current views on the post-disaster psychological reactions and the development of age-sensitive interventions to promote long-term recovery are discussed.
    Aging and Mental Health 07/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (n = 360) and men (n = 670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n = 22) and 5% of men (n = 33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence.
    Violence Against Women 07/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders are a serious public health concern among soldiers. Although deployment-related exposures have been linked with alcohol use disorders in soldiers, less is understood about the link between modifiable, civilian stressors and post-deployment alcohol use disorders.
    American journal of preventive medicine. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are known to be highly comorbid. However, previous findings regarding the nature of this comorbidity have been inconclusive. This study prospectively examined whether PTSD and depression are distinct constructs in an epidemiologic sample, as well as assessed the directionality of the PTSD-depression association across time.Methods Nine hundred and forty-two Detroit residents (males: n = 387; females: n = 555) were interviewed by phone at three time points, 1 year apart. At each time point, they were assessed for PTSD (using the PCL-C), depression (PHQ-9), trauma exposure, and stressful life events.ResultsFirst, a confirmatory factor analysis showed PTSD and depression to be two distinct factors at all three waves of assessments (W1, W2, and W3). Second, chi-square analysis detected significant differences between observed and expected rates of comorbidity at each time point, with significantly more no-disorder and comorbid cases, and significantly fewer PTSD only and depression only cases, than would be expected by chance alone. Finally, a cross-lagged analysis revealed a bidirectional association between PTSD and depression symptoms across time for the entire sample, as well as for women separately, wherein PTSD symptoms at an early wave predicted later depression symptoms, and vice versa. For men, however, only the paths from PTSD symptoms to subsequent depression symptoms were significant.Conclusions Across time, PTSD and depression are distinct, but correlated, constructs among a highly-exposed epidemiologic sample. Women and men differ in both the risk of these conditions, and the nature of the long-term associations between them.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of disaster survivors suffering from psychological symptoms do not receive mental health services. Research on barriers to service use among disaster survivors is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies of representative samples and investigations of predictors of barriers. The purpose of this study was to address these limitations through analysis of a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658).
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 06/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has documented bidirectional relationships between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS), such that individuals who are exposed to more traumatic events are at increased risk of developing PTS, and more severe PTS is associated with more subsequent trauma exposure. However, the empirical literature is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies that include continuous measures of PTS, differentiate between assaultive (e.g., sexual assault, being held up or mugged) and nonassaultive (e.g., serious illness, natural disaster) trauma, and focus on urban contexts. The purpose of this study was to fill these gaps through testing 3-wave cross-lagged panel models of exposure to assaultive and nonassaultive traumatic events and PTS among a large sample of urban-dwelling adults (N = 1,360; 84.4% non-Hispanic Black). In the model including assaultive trauma, more Wave 2 assaultive events were associated with significantly higher Wave 3 PTS. In contrast, in the model including nonassaultive trauma, higher Wave 1 and Wave 2 PTS were associated with more nonassaultive events at Waves 2 and 3, respectively. Taken together, the findings suggest a cycle of adversity wherein urban residents who have experienced assaultive trauma are at risk of more severe PTS, which in turn increases risk for exposure to nonassaultive trauma. This cycle could be tested directly in future studies through models including both types of events. Additional research on the mechanisms that underlie the pathways between PTS and traumatic events could also have implications for policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of abnormal psychology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control.
    Health affairs (Project Hope). 06/2014; 33(6):1058-66.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Unexpected death of a loved one is common and associated with subsequent elevations in symptoms of multiple forms of psychopathology. Determining whether this experience predicts novel onset of psychiatric disorders and whether these associations vary across the life course has important clinical implications. The authors examined associations of a loved one's unexpected death with first onset of common anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in a population-based sample. METHOD The relation between unexpected death of a loved one and first onset of lifetime DSM-IV disorders was estimated by using a structured interview of adults in the U.S. general population (analytic sample size=27,534). Models controlled for prior occurrence of any disorder, other traumatic experiences, and demographic variables. RESULTS Unexpected death of a loved one was the most common traumatic experience and most likely to be rated as the respondent's worst, regardless of other traumatic experiences. Increased incidence after unexpected death was observed at nearly every point across the life course for major depressive episode, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Increased incidence was clustered in later adult age groups for manic episode, phobias, alcohol use disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder. CONCLUSIONS The bereavement period is associated with elevated risk for the onset of multiple psychiatric disorders, consistently across the life course and coincident with the experience of the loved one's death. Novel associations between unexpected death and onset of several disorders, including mania, confirm multiple case reports and results of small studies and suggest an important emerging area for clinical research and practice.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of adults experience traumatic events each year, yet little is known about the effects of different types of traumatic events on depression severity over time. We prospectively assessed the effects of traumatic event exposure during a 1-year period on changes in depression severity during that period among a representative sample of adults living in Detroit, Michigan in the United States. We used data from 1,054 participants in the first two waves of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (2008-2010). Depression severity was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the effect of traumatic event exposure on depression severity at Wave 2, adjusting for Wave 1 PHQ-9 score and potential confounders. The mean depression severity score at Wave 2 among those exposed to at least one traumatic event during follow-up was 1.71 times higher than among those with no traumatic event exposure [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.29]. Also positively associated with depression severity at Wave 2 (vs. no traumatic events) were assaultive violence (mean ratio 2.49, 95 % CI 1.41-4.38), injuries and other directly experienced shocking events (mean ratio 2.59, 95 % CI 1.62-3.82), and three or more traumatic events (mean ratio 2.58, 95 % CI 1.62-4.09). Violence, injuries, and other directly experienced traumatic events increase depression severity and may be useful targets for interventions to alleviate the burden of depression in urban areas.
    Social Psychiatry 05/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic differences exist between trauma-exposed individuals with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether these epigenetic differences pre-exist, or arise following, trauma and PTSD onset.
    Psychological medicine. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anger is a common problem among veterans and has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to improve understanding of how anger and PTSD co-occur by examining gender differences and differences by whether the triggering traumatic event is deployment-related vs. civilian-related in current service members. A representative cohort of Reserve and National Guard service personnel (n = 1293) were interviewed to assess for deployment- or civilian-related traumas, PTSD, and anger. The prevalence of self-reported anger problems was estimated among male (n = 1036) and female (n = 257) service members. Log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate the associations of problems with anger with PTSD and PTSD symptom severity for men and women. Self-reported anger problems were common among male (53.0%) and female (51.3%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) showed associations between anger and PTSD connected to both civilian- and deployment-related traumas (PR were 1.77 (95% CI 1.52-2.05) and 1.85 (95% CI 1.62-2.12), respectively). PTSD symptom severity was also associated with anger. This study was cross-sectional and so a causal relationship between PTSD and anger cannot be established. Problems with anger are common among male and female current Guard and Reserve members. These findings suggest that anger treatment should be made available to current service members and that clinicians should assess anger problems irrespective of gender. Future research should examine the effectiveness of anger treatment protocols by gender.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    Depression and Anxiety 03/2014; In Press. · 4.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,739.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Teachers College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
    • University of Vermont
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Brown University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Providence, RI, United States
    • Wayne State University
      • Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics
      Detroit, MI, United States
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Berkeley Adult School
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    • Rush Medical College
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • White River Junction VA Medical Center
      White River Junction, Vermont, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Health Systems Science
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Community Health
      Richmond, VA, United States
    • University of South Florida
      • Department of Anthropology
      Tampa, FL, United States
    • University College London
      • Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Ifakara Health Institute
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • City University of New York - Hunter College
      • CUNY School of Public Health at Hunter College
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • • Department of Health, Behavior and Society
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • San Francisco State University
      • Department of Health Education
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Idaho State University
      • Department of Psychology
      Idaho Falls, ID, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Health Management & Policy
      • • Department of Health Behavior and Health Education
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Public Health
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
    • New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
      New York, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Psychiatry (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • City University of New York - John Jay College of Criminal Justice
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of Malaga
      • Facultad de Psicología
      Málaga, Andalusia, Spain
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • British Colombia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Anthropology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2012
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Society, Human Development, and Health
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • New York University
      • • Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development
      • • Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Hospital Universitario La Paz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      • School of Medicine
      Jackson, MS, United States
    • University of Haifa
      • School of Political Sciences
      Haifa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2001–2010
    • New York Academy of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Kent State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Applied Psychology Center
      Kent, OH, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • School of Social Work
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Cornell University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Manhattan, New York, United States