Sandro Galea

CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (718)1821.5 Total impact

  • Brandon D L Marshall, Sandro Galea
    American journal of epidemiology. 12/2014;
  • Brandon D L Marshall, Sandro Galea
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    ABSTRACT: Calls for the adoption of complex systems approaches, including agent-based modeling, in the field of epidemiology have largely centered on the potential for such methods to examine complex disease etiologies, which are characterized by feedback behavior, interference, threshold dynamics, and multiple interacting causal effects. However, considerable theoretical and practical issues impede the capacity of agent-based methods to examine and evaluate causal effects and thus illuminate new areas for intervention. We build on this work by describing how agent-based models can be used to simulate counterfactual outcomes in the presence of complexity. We show that these models are of particular utility when the hypothesized causal mechanisms exhibit a high degree of interdependence between multiple causal effects and when interference (i.e., one person's exposure affects the outcome of others) is present and of intrinsic scientific interest. Although not without challenges, agent-based modeling (and complex systems methods broadly) represent a promising novel approach to identify and evaluate complex causal effects, and they are thus well suited to complement other modern epidemiologic methods of etiologic inquiry. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    American journal of epidemiology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need for youth and families, who are underrepresented in disaster research. Rapid growth in Internet and Smartphone access, as well as several web based evaluation studies with various adult populations has shown that web-based interventions are likely to be feasible in this context and can improve clinical outcomes. Such interventions also are generally cost-effective, can be targeted or personalized, and can easily be integrated in a stepped care approach to screening and intervention delivery. This is a protocol paper that describes an innovative study design in which we evaluate a self-help web-based resource, Bounce Back Now, with a population-based sample of disaster affected adolescents and families. The paper includes description and justification for sampling selection and procedures, selection of assessment measures and methods, design of the intervention, and statistical evaluation of critical outcomes. Unique features of this study design include the use of address-based sampling to recruit a population-based sample of disaster-affected adolescents and parents, telephone and web-based assessments, and development and evaluation of a highly individualized web intervention for adolescents. Challenges related to large-scale evaluation of technology-delivered interventions with high-risk samples in time-sensitive research are discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Contemporary clinical trials. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Estimate prevalence of lifetime, current year, and current month depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among US military reservists. Structured interviews were performed with a nationally representative military reserve sample (n = 2,003). Sociodemographic characteristics, military experiences, lifetime stressors, and psychiatric conditions were assessed. Depression was measured with the PHQ-9, and PTSD (deployment and non-deployment related) was assessed with the PCL-C. Depression (21.63 % lifetime, 14.31 % current year, and 5.99 % current month) was more common than either deployment-related PTSD (5.49 % lifetime, 4.98 % current year, and 3.62 % current month) or non-deployment-related PTSD (5.40 % lifetime, 3.91 % current year, and 2.32 % current month), and branch-related differences were found. Non-deployment-related trauma was associated with non-deployment-related PTSD and depression in a dose-response fashion; deployment-related trauma was associated with deployment-related PTSD and depression in a dose-response fashion. The study reveals notable differences in PTSD and depression prevalence by service branch that may be attributable to a combination of factors including greater lifetime trauma exposures and differing operational military experiences. Our findings suggest that service branch and organizational differences are related to key protective and/or risk factors, which may prove useful in guiding prevention and treatment efforts among reservists.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 11/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment—emotional, physical, and severe physical maltreatment—and the initiation and persistence of smoking. Data were drawn from the Midlife Developmentin the United States (MIDUS) Survey Waves 1 and 2. Frequency of childhood emotional, physical, and severe physical maltreatment (never, rare, intermittent, frequent) reported at Wave 1 was examined in relation to ever smoking, smoking daily, and persistent daily smoking at Waves 1 and 2. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals), which were then adjusted for potential confounders. Childhood emotional, physical, and severe physical maltreatment were associated with increased odds of ever smoking, smoking daily, and persistent smoking at Waves 1 and 2. The majority of these associations remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. These results suggest a history of trauma may play a prominent role in recalcitrant cigarette smoking and suggest that the success rates of treatments for smoking cessation may be improved by integrating trauma treatment where appropriate.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 11/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic disadvantage is often evaluated at single points in the adult life course in health research. Social mobility models suggest that socioeconomic patterns may also influence disease risk. This study examines cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage (CSD) in relation to CVD mortality.Methods Data were from the Alameda County (CA) Study (n=2530). The CSD indices included father’s education, the respondent’s education, and either average or latent variable trajectory models of adulthood household income (1965-1994). Proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations between CSD and CVD mortality.ResultsThe CSD measures were not associated with CVD mortality in men. Among women, , the magnitude of the association between CSD and CVD mortality was greater for the income trajectory (HR3 vs 0 = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.20-10.18) compared to the average income (HR 3 vs 0 = 3.78, 95% CI =1.67-8.53) CSD measure.Conclusions Measures of CSD that incorporate patterning of resources over the life course were associated with CVD mortality for women but not men. Patterning of available socioeconomic resources may differentially influence chronic disease risk and mortality by gender, and future work should continue to investigate how greater patterns variability in available resources influences health outcomes.
    Annals of Epidemiology. 11/2014;
  • Sasha Rudenstine, Sandro Galea
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a model of population behavior in the aftermath of disasters. We conducted a qualitative analysis of an empirical dataset of 339 disasters throughout the world spanning from 1950 to 2005. We developed a model of population behavior that is based on 2 fundamental assumptions: (i) behavior is predictable and (ii) population behavior will progress sequentially through 5 stages from the moment the hazard begins until is complete. Understanding the progression of population behavior during a disaster can improve the efficiency and appropriateness of institutional efforts aimed at population preservation after large-scale traumatic events. Additionally, the opportunity for population-level intervention in the aftermath of such events will improve population health. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-8).
    Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 11/2014; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in cigarette and marijuana use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Social science & medicine (1982). 11/2014; 124C:132-141.
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across multiple domains of postdisaster functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Social science & medicine (1982). 11/2014; 124C:162-170.
  • Sandro Galea
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    ABSTRACT: Social and economic factors play an ineluctable role in shaping the health of populations. In many ways all efforts to promote mental health are limited, absent an effort to also improve the context that shapes mental illness. This presentation will offer a framework that explains the central role of social and economic factors in the the production of behavioral health. The presentation will also explore how social and economic factors present a real mathematical limit to the improvement in behavioral health that is achievable through interventions focused only on individual-based approaches.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. Methods A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. Results The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. Conclusions A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 11/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined whether residence in neighborhoods with high levels of incarceration is associated with psychiatric morbidity among nonincarcerated community members. Methods. We linked zip code-linked information on neighborhood prison admissions rates to individual-level data on mental health from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (2008-2012), a prospective probability sample of predominantly Black individuals. Results. Controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level risk factors, individuals living in neighborhoods with high prison admission rates were more likely to meet criteria for a current (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 5.5) and lifetime (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.6) major depressive disorder across the 3 waves of follow-up as well as current (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.2) and lifetime (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2, 4.5) generalized anxiety disorder than were individuals living in neighborhoods with low prison admission rates. These relationships between neighborhood-level incarceration and mental health were comparable for individuals with and without a personal history of incarceration. Conclusions. Incarceration may exert collateral damage on the mental health of individuals living in high-incarceration neighborhoods, suggesting that the public mental health impact of mass incarceration extends beyond those who are incarcerated. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302184).
    American journal of public health. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. 11/2014; 24(6):600-4.
  • The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 10/2014; · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.
    The Journal of psychology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous studies have reported that risky driving is associated with deployment and combat exposure in military populations, but there is limited research on risky driving among soldiers in the National Guard and Reserves, a group increasingly deployed to active international conflicts. The goal of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of risky driving and its demographic, mental health, and deployment-related correlates among members of the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). Methods: The study group comprised 2,616 eligible OHARNG soldiers enlisted as of June 2008, or who enlisted between June 2008 and February 2009. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of risky driving behavior assessed using six questions: "How often do you use seat belts when you drive or ride in a car?"; "In the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink?"; "In the past year, have you ever become impatient with a slow driver in the fast lane and passed them on the right?"; "In the past year have you crossed an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already changed from yellow to red?"; "In the past year have you disregarded speed limits late at night or early in the morning?"; and "In the past year have you underestimated the speed of an oncoming vehicle when attempting to pass a vehicle in your own lane?" We fit multiple logistic regression models and derived the adjusted prevalence of risky driving behavior for soldiers with mental health conditions, deployment experience, exposure to combat or trauma, and psychosocial stressors or supports. Results: The prevalence of risky driving was higher in soldiers with a history of mental health conditions, deployment to a conflict area, deployment-related traumatic events, and combat or post-combat stressors. In contrast, the prevalence of risky driving was lower for soldiers who reported high levels of psychosocial support. Conclusions: Efforts to mitigate risky driving in military populations may be more effective if they incorporate both targeted messages to remediate dangerous learned driving behaviors and psychosocial interventions to build resilience and address underlying stressors and mental health symptoms.
    Traffic Injury Prevention 09/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mexicans in the US have lower rates of several important population health metrics than non-Hispanic Whites, including infant mortality. This mortality advantage is particular pronounced among infants born to foreign-born Mexican mothers. However the literature to date has been relegated to point-in-time studies that preclude a dynamic understanding of ethnic and nativity differences in infant mortality among Mexicans and non-Hispanic Whites. Methods We assessed secular trends in the relation between Mexican ethnicity, maternal nativity, and infant mortality between 1989-2006 using a linked birth-death dataset from one US state. Results Congruent to previous research, we found a significant mortality advantage among infants of Mexican relative to non-Hispanic White mothers between 1989-1991 after adjustment for baseline demographic differences (RR=0.78, 95%CI 0.62-0.98). However, because of an upward trend in infant mortality among infants of Mexican mothers the risk of infant mortality was not significantly different from non-Hispanic White mothers in later time periods. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the ‘Mexican paradox’ with respect to infant mortality is resolving. Changing sociocultural norms among Mexican mothers and changes in immigrant selection and immigration processes may explain these observations, suggesting directions for future research.
    Annals of Epidemiology. 09/2014;
  • Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea
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    ABSTRACT: The number of students and disciplines requiring basic instruction in epidemiologic methods is growing. As a field, we now have a lexicon of epidemiologic terminology and particular methods that have developed and become canonical through the historical development of the field. Yet, many of our basic concepts remain elusive to some students, particularly those not pursuing a career in epidemiology. Further, disagreement and redundancy across basic terms limit their utility in teaching epidemiology. Many approaches to teaching epidemiology generally start with labeling key concepts and then move on to explain them. We submit that an approach grounded not in labels but in foundational concepts may offer a useful adjunct to introductory epidemiology education. We propose 7 foundational steps in conducting an epidemiologic study and provide examples of how these steps can be operationalized, using simple graphics that articulate how populations are defined, samples are selected, and individuals are followed to count cases. A reorganization of introductory epidemiology around core first principles may be an effective way forward for educating the next generation of public health scientists.
    American journal of epidemiology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. As a case study of the impact of universal versus targeted interventions on population health and health inequalities, we used simulations to examine (1) whether universal or targeted manipulations of collective efficacy better reduced population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization; and (2) whether experiments reduced disparities without addressing fundamental causes. Methods. We applied agent-based simulation techniques to the specific example of an intervention on neighborhood collective efficacy to reduce population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization. The agent population consisted of 4000 individuals aged 18 years and older with sociodemographic characteristics assigned to match distributions of the adult population in New York City according to the 2000 US Census. Results. Universal experiments reduced rates of victimization more than targeted experiments. However, neither experiment reduced inequalities. To reduce inequalities, it was necessary to eliminate racial/ethnic residential segregation. Conclusions. These simulations support the use of universal intervention but suggest that it is not possible to address inequalities in health without first addressing fundamental causes.
    American journal of public health. 09/2014; 104 Suppl 4:S609-19.
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a limited amount of data examining the relation between the onset of alcohol abuse/dependence and the experiences of soldiers prior to (pre), during (peri) and after (post) military deployment. Some deployment characteristics, e.g., military unit cohesion, are potentially modifiable in the context of reducing alcohol abuse/dependence peri-/post deployment. We investigated the associations between potentially modifiable deployment characteristics and peri-/post (incident) alcohol abuse/dependence among deployed Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG) soldiers. Methods Using a sample of OHARNG (June, 2008 to February, 2009), eligible participants were ever been deployed and did not report alcohol abuse/dependence prior to deployment (final sample size = 963). Interviews assessed soldiers’ alcohol abuse/dependence, depression, PTSD, deployment related factors (e.g., exposure to warzone stressors) and three deployment characteristics (pre-deployment preparedness, unit support during deployment, and post-deployment social support). Associations between the three deployment characteristics and incident alcohol abuse/dependence (defined as abuse or dependence at any point during or after deployment) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Only pre-deployment preparedness was associated with incident alcohol abuse/dependence (a non-linear inverted-u shaped relation) when controlling for demographics, deployment related factors (e.g., exposure to warzone stressors), and the presence of psychopathology that exhibited peri-/post-deployment. We present these results graphically, plotting incident alcohol abuse/dependence over the levels of pre-deployment preparedness. Conclusions The association between pre-deployment preparedness and alcohol abuse/dependence may be characterized as an inverted-U shaped function. Suggestions for how and whether to modify pre-deployment preparedness in an effort to reduce peri-/post-deployment alcohol abuse or dependence should await further research.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,821.50 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Teachers College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Brown University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Providence, RI, United States
    • Wayne State University
      • Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics
      Detroit, MI, United States
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Berkeley Adult School
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    • Rush Medical College
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Psychology
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
    • New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
      New York, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Psychiatry (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • City University of New York - John Jay College of Criminal Justice
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of Malaga
      • Facultad de Psicología
      Málaga, Andalusia, Spain
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • British Colombia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Anthropology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009–2013
    • White River Junction VA Medical Center
      White River Junction, Vermont, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Health Systems Science
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Community Health
      Richmond, VA, United States
    • University of South Florida
      • Department of Anthropology
      Tampa, FL, United States
    • University College London
      • Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Ifakara Health Institute
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • City University of New York - Hunter College
      • CUNY School of Public Health at Hunter College
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • • Department of Health, Behavior and Society
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • San Francisco State University
      • Department of Health Education
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Idaho State University
      • Department of Psychology
      Idaho Falls, ID, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Health Management & Policy
      • • Department of Health Behavior and Health Education
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Public Health
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Society, Human Development, and Health
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • New York University
      • • Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development
      • • Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Hospital Universitario La Paz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      • School of Medicine
      Jackson, MS, United States
    • University of Haifa
      • School of Political Sciences
      Haifa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2001–2010
    • New York Academy of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Kent State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Applied Psychology Center
      Kent, OH, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • School of Social Work
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Cornell University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Manhattan, New York, United States