[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have tested genetic variation at the C1QA, C1QB and C1QC (complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain, complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain and complement component 1, q subcomponent, c chain) loci in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk. Evidence for a significant effect of C1Q locus gene polymorphisms on SLE predisposition remains unclear. We aimed to identify associations between common C1Q polymorphisms and SLE risk and serum C1q, C3 and C4 levels. We performed family-based association tests in 295 nuclear families with one affected proband. Tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 35.4 kb upstream of the C1QA gene to 28 kb downstream of the C1QB gene were selected to represent the entire C1Q gene locus. We performed transmission disequilibrium tests for affectation status and continuous traits, including C1q, C3 and C4 levels using family-based association tests (FBAT). There was no evidence for a significant role of C1Q locus gene polymorphisms in SLE risk predisposition. The strongest association was observed with a variant in the 3'UTR region of the C1QB gene (rs294223, P = 0.06). We found nominally significant associations with a second variant (rs7549888) in the 3'UTR region of the C1QB gene and C1q (P = 0.01), C3 (P = 0.004) and C4 levels (P = 0.01). In a large family-based association study of C1Q gene cluster polymorphisms no evidence for a genetic role of C1Q locus SNP in SLE risk predisposition was obtained in patients of European ancestry. This is in contrast to other cohorts, in which single variants associated with C1Q, C3 and C4 levels and nephritis have been studied and shown associations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the central component of the complement system, C3 has sensory and effector functions bridging innate and adaptive immunity. It is plausible that common genetic variation at C3 determines either serum C3 level or susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but only a single, Japanese, study has currently showed genetic association. In a cohort of 1371 individuals from 393 UK white European SLE families, we quantified serum C3 and genotyped C3 tagSNPs. Using a Bayesian variance components model, we estimated 39.6% serum C3 heritability. Genotype/serum C3 association was determined by mixed linear models. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs344555, located in a haplotype block incorporating the 3' end of C3, was associated with serum C3 (P=0.007), with weaker associations observed for other SNPs in this block. In an extended cohort of 585 SLE families the association between C3 variants and SLE was assessed by transmission disequilibrium test. SNP rs3745568 was associated with SLE (P=0.0046), but not with serum C3. Our disease associated SNP differs from that highlighted in the Japanese study; however, we replicate their finding that genetic variants at the 3' end of C3 are associated with serum C3. Larger studies and further fine mapping will be required to definitively identify functional variants.
Genes and immunity 05/2009; 10(5):525-30. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease. Genome-wide linkage studies implicated a region containing the adhesion molecule P-Selectin. This family-based study revealed two regions of association within P-Selectin. The strongest signal, from a 21.4-kb risk haplotype, stretched from the promoter into the first two consensus repeat (CR) regions (P=8 x 10(-4)), with a second association from a 14.6-kb protective haplotype covering CR 2-9 (P=0.0198). The risk haplotype is tagged by the rare C allele of rs3753306, which disrupts the binding site of the trans-activating transcription factor HNF-1. One other variant (rs3917687) on the risk haplotype was significant after permutation (P(10000)<1 x 10(-5)), replicated in independent pseudo case-control analysis and was significant by meta-analysis (P=4.37 x 10(-6)). A third associated variant on the risk haplotype (rs3917657) replicated in 306 US SLE families and was significant in a joint UK-SLE data set after permutation. The protective haplotype is tagged by rs6133 (a non-synonymous variant in CR8 (P=9.00 x 10(-4)), which also shows association in the pseudo case-control analysis (P=1.09 x 10(-3)) and may contribute to another signal in P-Selectin. We propose that polymorphism in the upstream region may reduce expression of P-Selectin, the mechanism by which this promotes autoimmunity is unknown, although it may reduce the production of regulatory T cells.
Genes and immunity 04/2009; 10(5):404-13. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease trait of unknown aetiology. Genome-wide linkage studies in human SLE identified several linkage regions, including one at 1q23, which contains multiple susceptibility genes, including the members of the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) locus. In mice there is a syntenic linkage region, Sle1. The SLAM genes are functionally related cell-surface receptors, which regulate signal transduction of cells in the immune system. Family-based association study in UK and Canadian SLE families identified variants in the promoter and coding region of SLAMF7 and LY9 contributing to SLE disease susceptibility. The strongest association was from rs509749, in exon 8 of LY9 (P=0.00209). rs509749 encodes a Val/Met nonsynonymous change in amino acid 602 in the cytoplasmic domain of LY9. In the parents and affected individuals from the Canadian SLE families, the risk allele of rs509049 skews the T-cell population by increasing the number of CD8+ memory T cells, while decreasing the proportion of CD4+ naïve T cells and activated T cells. Since rs509749 lies within the consensus binding site for SAP/SH2D1a, which influences downstream signalling events from LY9, the mechanism for increased CD8+ memory T cells may include differential binding SAP/SH2D1a to the cytoplasmic domain of LY9.
Genes and immunity 04/2008; 9(2):93-102. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a family-based association study to investigate the genetic contribution of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2 ) to disease susceptibility in 380 UK systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) families, consisting of parents and affected offspring.
Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom platform on DNA from affected individuals and their parents. Haplotypes were constructed using Haploview from the founders, and family-based association was conducted using GENEHUNTER-TDT and Family-Based Association Test.
There are two associated haplotypes across TYK2, both carrying alleles with distorted inheritance. One SNP shows individual association to SLE. This is the under-transmitted rare A allele of TYK2 SNP 6 (P = 0.004), which tags the under-transmitted haplotype 2 (P = 0.055). A second SNP shows a trend for association. This is the A allele of TYK2 SNP 13, which is unique to the over-transmitted haplotype 1 (P = 0.014). We defined a 2.8 kb core association region in TYK2, between these two variants, which narrows down the 5.7 kb gap in the study by Sigurdsson et al. (Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Goring HH et al. Polymorphisms in the tyrosine kinase 2 and interferon regulatory factor 5 genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Hum Genet 2005;76:528-37).
We have shown association to SLE from individual SNPs and haplotypes in TYK2. The strongest individual association, which is carried on the associated haplotype, is from TYK2 SNP 6. The variant is located close to an intron/exon boundary, suggesting a role for mis-splicing events in molecular pathogenesis. The associated haplotype also carries a missense mutation at TYK2. Therefore it is likely that the allelic contribution of TYK2 to SLE is complex, our data confirm previous findings and provide additional resolution regarding the causal polymorphisms in this gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28, CTLA4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4) and ICOS (inducible T cell co-stimulator) are good candidate genes for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) because of their role in regulating T cell activation. CTLA4 inhibits CD28-mediated T cell activation. CTLA4 is expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ activated T cells, and also B cells, but CD28 and ICOS are largely restricted to T cells. An interval encompassing the CD28-CTLA4-ICOS locus on chromosome 2q33 was linked to lupus in two genome-wide linkage scans. This large family-based association study in 532 UK SLE families represents the first high-density genetic screen of 80 SNPs at this locus. There are seven haplotype blocks across the locus. In CTLA4, the strongest signal comes from two variants, located 2.1 kb downstream from the 3'-UTR. These polymorphisms, rs231726 (SNP 43) and rs231726 (SNP 44), are in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2)=1) and are associated with SLE P=0.0008 (GH) and P=0.01 (family-based association test). There is also a signal in the distal 3' flanking region of CTLA4/ICOS promoter (P=0.003). There was no confirmation of published associations for SLE in the promoter or coding region of CTLA4. These SLE risk alleles are more distal than those identified in Graves' disease and are in LD with Graves' disease protective alleles identified in both of these regions of CTLA4 (Ueda et al. 2003). These factors suggest an SLE-specific pattern of association. The functional consequences of the associated polymorphisms are likely to influence CTLA4 expression, although it is possible that genetically modulated ICOS expression is involved in SLE susceptibility.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2006; 15(21):3195-205. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered function of selectin glycoprotein adhesion molecules may modulate severity and organ-specific manifestations of autoimmune and inflammatory disease via changes in leukocyte trafficking. Serum concentrations of selectin molecules have been suggested as useful biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We identified increased levels of soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin), but not soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) in 278 European-Caucasian lupus patients compared to 230 healthy siblings (P=0.002). sL-selectin levels were markedly elevated in patients with IgG antiphospholipid autoantibodies (P=0.002), suggesting that perhaps sL-selectin defines a subgroup of lupus with vasculopathy. sL-selectin level was also influenced by two L-selectin polymorphisms: 665C>T, F206L in the epidermal growth factor-like domain (P=0.015) and rs12938 in the 3'-untranslated region (P=0.06). Having shown increased sL-selectin levels in lupus patients, we used genetics to investigate whether this was a secondary phenomena or the result of an underlying genetic mechanism. The inheritance of nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning the selectin locus was tested in 523 UK simplex SLE families. No association with SLE, or related phenotypes, was evident with any single SNP, or haplotype in family-based tests of association. Selectin polymorphisms are, therefore, unlikely to be independent factors in SLE susceptibility.
Genes and Immunity 08/2005; 6(5):422-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome wide linkage studies in human SLE have identified seven highly significant loci linked to SLE, and more than 20 other loci showing suggestive linkage to disease. However, pin-pointing the susceptibility alleles in candidate genes within these linkage regions is challenging, due the genetic heterogeneity, racial differences and environmental influences on disease aetiology. Utilization of murine models of spontaneous lupus nephritis provide a complementary approach, which may then identify candidate genes for analysis in human cases. This review highlights the utility of cross-species approach to identify and characterize the effect of given candidate genes in lupus. The examples described in this review demonstrate the importance of bringing together both genetic and functional information in human and mouse studies.