Chien-Sung Tsai

Tri-Service General Hospital, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (99)191.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular pH (pHi) is a critical factor influencing many important cellular functions. Acid extrusion carriers such as an Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE) Na⁺/HCO₃ ⁻ cotransporter (NBC) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) can be activated when cells are in an acidic condition (pHi < 7.1). Human radial artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMC) is an important conduit in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, such far, the pHi regulators have not been characterized in HRASMCs. We therefore investigated the mechanism of pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis and alkalosis, induced by NH₄Cl-prepulse and Na-acetate-prepulse, respectively, using intracellular 2',7'-bis(2-carboxethyl)-5(6)- carboxy-fluorescein (BCECF)-fluorescence in HRASMCs. Cultured HRASMCs were derived from the segments of human radial artery that were obtained from patients undergoing bypass grafting. The resting pHi is 7.22 ± 0.03 and 7.17 ± 0.02 for HEPES- (nominally HCO₃ ⁻-free) and CO₂/HCO₃⁻- buffered solution, respectively. In HEPES-buffered solution, a pHi recovery from induced intracellular acidosis could be blocked completely by 30 μM HOE 694 (3-methylsulfonyl-4-piperidinobenzoyl, guanidine hydrochloride) a specific NHE inhibitor, or by removing [Na⁺]₀. In 3% CO₂/HCO₃ ⁻-buffered solution, HOE 694 slowed the pHi recovery from the induced intracellular acidosis only, while adding together with DIDS (a specific NBC inhibitor) or removal of [Na⁺]₀ entirely inhibited the acid extrusion. Moreover, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC; a specific blocker of MCT) blocked the lactate-induced pHi changes. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that 3 different pHi regulators responsible for acid extruding, i.e. NHE and NBC, and MCT, are functionally co-existed in cultured HRASMCs.
    The Chinese journal of physiology. 10/2014; 57(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who receive heart transplantation surgery following end-stage cardiac failure benefit from efforts to improve their post-surgical quality of life. Assessing and managing perioperative care play an important role in heart transplantation. Evaluations of donor and recipient should be conducted carefully and recommended candidates should by vetted by a qualified heart transplantation committee. The operative procedure is different from general cardiac surgery, and organ preservation is a key step in linking the donor to the recipient. Postoperative infection control and administration of immunosuppressive agents further affect the outcome of heart transplantation. Based on a review of articles and our clinical care experience, we focus on the assessment and the management of heart transplantation in this article.
    Hu li za zhi The journal of nursing. 08/2014; 61(4):10-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphatemia-induced endothelial dysfunction has been shown to play a pathogenic role in the development of atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) through unclear mechanisms. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is involved in the maintenance of normal cardiovascular function. However, it is unclear whether autophagy participates in the molecular mechanism underlying high phosphate (Pi)-induced endothelial dysfunction. The autophagy activity was determined by the immunofluorescence staining of the expression of endothelial microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of CKD and sham-operated control rats. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and the activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were determined in cultured human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) endothelial cells that were exposed to a high concentration of Pi with or without the Pi influx blocker phosphonoformic acid, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and the autophagy inducer rapamycin. The impacts of autophagy on Pi-induced apoptotic damage were assessed by flow cytometry. The in vivo rat model of CKD revealed that hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased endothelial LC3 staining. The exposure of HMEC-1 cells to high Pi induced both dose-dependent and time-dependent increases in the LC3-II/LC3-I expression ratio accompanied by the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In HMEC-1 cells, high Pi-induced autophagy and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling were reversed by phosphonoformic acid through the blockage of Pi influx. Apoptosis, characterized by the levels of cleaved caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, along with autophagy was induced by high Pi, and the inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine significantly aggravated high Pi-induced apoptosis. The flow cytometry results confirmed that the blockage of autophagy promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells. Hyperphosphatemia induces endothelial autophagy, possibly through the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which may play a protective role against high Pi-induced apoptosis.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 05/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) and the Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transporter (NBC) have been confirmed as two major active acid extruders in many mammalian cells. Whether the NHE and NBC functional co-exist in human internal mammary artery smooth muscle cells (HIMASMCs) remains unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the acid-extruding mechanisms and to explore the effects of urotensin-II (U-II), a powerful vasoconstrictor, on pHi regulators in HIMASMCs. We investigated the changes of pHi by BCECF-fluorescence in HIMASMCs. We found that (a) two Na(+)-dependent acid extruders, i.e. NHE and NBC, functionally co-exist; (b) U-II (3 ∼ 100nM) induced a concentration-dependent intracellular acidosis; and (c) U-II (3 ∼ 100nM) caused a concentration-dependent increase on NHE activity, while decrease on NBC activity. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that two acid-extruders, NHE and NBC, functionally co-exist in HIMASMCs. Moreover, U-II induces a concentration-dependent intracellular acidosis through the balanced effect of its effect on increasing NHE activity and decreasing NBC activity.
    Peptides 04/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroevodiamine alkaloid (DeHE), a bioactive component of the Chinese herbal medicine Wu-Chu-Yu (Evodiae frutus), exerted antiarrhythmic effect in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. We further characterize the electromechanical effects of DeHE in human atrial and ventricular tissues obtained from hearts of patients undergoing corrective cardiac surgery or heart transplantation. The transmembrane potentials of human myocardia were recorded with a traditional microelectrode technique while sarcolemmal Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents in single human cardiomyocytes were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The intracellular pH (pHi) and Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) activity were determined using BCECF-fluorescence in human atria. In human atria, DeHE (0.1~0.3μM) depressed upstroke velocity, amplitude of action potential, and contractile force, both in slow and fast response action potential. Moreover, the similar depressant effects of DeHE were found in human ventricular myocardium. Both in isolated human atrial and ventricular myocytes, DeHE (0.1~1μM) reversibly, concentration-dependently decreased the Na(+) and Ca(2+)currents. Moreover, DeHE (0.1 and 0.3μM) suppressed delayed afterdepolarizations and aftercontractions, induced by epinephrine and high [Ca(2+)]o in atria. In human ventricular myocardium, the strophanthidin-induced triggered activities were attenuated by pretreating DeHE (0.3μM). The resting pHi and NHE activity were also significantly increased by DeHE (0.1~ 0.3μM). We concluded for the first time that, in the human hearts, DeHE could antagonize triggered arrhythmias induced by cardiotonic agents through a general reduction of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) inward currents, while increase of resting pHi and NHE activity.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that using a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft yields excellent long-term results in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) gene and its receptor, Axl, are crucial in vascular haemostasis and atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of Gas6 and Axl molecules in the aorta and LIMA in patients undergoing CABG. Plasma and tissue specimens were collected from 19 patients undergoing elective CABG. The expression of the Gas6 and Axl in the injured aorta and LIMA was examined using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. In CABG patients, the mRNA, immunoreactivity and protein expressions of the Gas6 and Axl were considerably higher in the LIMA than those in the aorta. Further analysis revealed that the expression of the Gas6 positively correlated with that of Axl in the LIMA and aorta. The plasma Gas6 level was considerably and positively correlated with the expression of Gas6 protein in the LIMA and aorta. The present study discovered that the higher expression of Gas6/Axl pathway components in the LIMA compared with that in the aorta may partly explain the less frequent atherosclerotic events involving the LIMA compared with other arteries. Moreover, Gas6 may play a critical and protective role in human vascular biology.
    Journal of clinical pathology 02/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although acute pulmonary injury after cardiopulmonary bypass has been detailed in the literature, it was seldom mentioned in the context of following implantation of a ventricular assist device. We report on a 65-year-old male with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy who underwent implantation of Levitronix CentriMag (Levitronix, Waltham, MA) for cardiac support and was listed for heart transplantation. Acute pulmonary injury with profound hypoxaemia was noted 6 h after the implantation. Despite optimal medical treatment and maximal ventilator support, refractory hypoxaemia persisted, and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (oxygenator: Affinity-NT; centrifugal pump: BPX-80 Bio-Pump, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) was applied for ventilation support. The patient was weaned from the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 4 days later and from the ventilator on the next 2 days. He underwent a successful orthotopic heart transplant after a total of 77 days on Levitronix left ventricular device cardiac support.
    Journal of Artificial Organs 01/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a critical role in innate immunity. In 2004, Aslam R. and Shiraki R. first determined that murine and human platelets express functional TLRs. Additionally, Andonegui G. demonstrated that platelets express TLR4, which contributes to thrombocytopenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of TLR4 expression by platelets have been rarely explored until now. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of TLR4 expression underlying thrombin treatment. The human washed platelets were used in this study. According to flowcytometry and western blot analysis, the surface levels of TLR4 were significantly enhanced in thrombin-activated human platelets and decreased by TMB-8, calpeptin, and U73122, but not Y27632 (a Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK inhibitor) indicating that thrombin-mediated TLR4 expression was modulated by PAR/PLC pathway, calcium and calpain. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay demonstrated that the interaction between TLR4 and myosin-9 (a substrate of calpain) was regulated by calpain; cleavage of myosin-9 enhanced TLR4 expression in thrombin treated platelets. Transmission electron microscope data indicated that human platelets used α-granules to control TLR4 expression; the co-IP experiment suggested that myosin-9 did not coordinate with Rab7b to negatively regulate TLR4 trafficking in thrombin treated platelets. In summary, phospholipase Cγ-calpain-myosin 9-Rab7b axis was responsible for the mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR4 containing α-granules trafficking in thrombin-stimulated platelets, which was involved in coagulation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85833. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of the homeostasis of vascular endothelium is critical for the processes of vascular remodeling and angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Urotensin II (U-II), a potent vasoactive peptide, participates in vascular and myocardial remodeling after injury. We investigated the protective effect of U-II on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential mechanisms involved in this process.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106812. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is life-threatening without immediate management. The initial clinical presentation is non-specific and impending rupture is easily missed, especially without a CT scan. We present a case of a 56-year-old man with low-back pain and left lower-extremity numbness, which was diagnosed as a herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) with left acute sciatica syndrome. He also complained of persistent fever and abdominal discomfort. Routine blood work-up revealed leukocytosis and decreasing haemoglobin levels. CT angiography (CTA) showed impending rupture of the left aorto-iliac aneurysm. We therefore performed endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Blood culture revealed Salmonella enterica, for which he received antibiotics. No acute sciatica syndrome was present immediately after the EVAR. No EVAR-related complications were noted in the one-year CTA follow up.
    Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 01/2014; 25(3):e4-e7.
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    ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102450. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human platelets express Toll-like receptors (TLR) 4. However, the mechanism by which TLR4 directly affects platelet aggregation and blood coagulation remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the platelet TLR4 expression in patients who underwent CABG surgery; we explored the correlation between platelet TLR4 expression and the early outcomes in hospital of patients. Additionally, C57BL/6 and C57BL/6-Tlr (LPS-/-) mice were used to explore the roles of platelet TLR4 in coagulation by platelet aggregometry and rotation thromboelastometry. In conclusion, our results highlight the important roles of TLR4 in blood coagulation and platelet function. Of clinical relevance, we also explored novel roles for platelet TLR4 that are associated with early outcomes in cardiac surgery.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:484510. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Yeu-Chin Chen, Chih-Yuan Lin, Chien-Sung Tsai
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    ABSTRACT: There are few studies on heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) reported from Taiwan and Asian countries. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the frequency of HIT in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries. A cohort of 54 patients was enrolled from January 01, 2010 to October 31, 2011. Patients' clinical information was obtained for 4T score classification. Plasma (2-4 mL) was also collected before surgery and on Days 5 and 10 following heparin administration during the bypass procedure. This was tested for anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and functional assay using flow cytometry (FC). The mean platelet count for this cohort followed the expected pattern in the postoperative setting. Seven of the 54 (13%) patients had positive antibodies assays before bypass surgery. This increased to 32% on Day 5 and was markedly elevated to 63% on Day 10 after surgery. Only one of the 54 patients (1.8%) was found to have both positive antibody assay and platelet activation, but no clinical HIT/thrombosis developed. Our study is the first report on the rates of HIT in the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in Taiwan and demonstrated no clinical HIT occurrence, despite the high frequency of HIT antibody in our cohort.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 12/2013; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pneumatic tourniquet is frequently used in total knee arthroplasty. Tourniquet deflation may result in hypotension and tachycardia caused by the rapid shift of blood volume back to the ischaemic limb and a decrease in cardiac preload. Passive leg raising (PLR) represents a 'self-volume challenge' that can result in an increase in preload. Such a PLR-induced increase in preload was hypothesised to attenuate the decrease in preload resulting from tourniquet deflation. To evaluate the effect of PLR on hypotension and tachycardia following tourniquet deflation. A randomised controlled trial. Single medical centre. Seventy patients who underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomised into two groups: tourniquet deflation with PLR (n = 35) or without PLR (control group, n = 35). Patients in both groups were administered a single dose of plain bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. The pneumatic tourniquet was inflated on the thigh and the surgery was performed. The study composed of four steps: for the PLR group, step 1 - inflation of the tourniquet while the patient was supine; step 2 - the patient's legs were raised to a 45° angle; step 3 - the tourniquet was deflated while the patient's legs were still raised; and step 4 - the legs were returned to the supine position. In the control group, the same perioperative procedure was used, but PLR was not conducted. The patients' blood pressure and heart rate were measured before, during and after tourniquet deflation. After tourniquet deflation, the magnitude of the changes in blood pressure and heart rate was less in the PLR group than that in the control group. In addition, the blood pressure nadir also occurred later in the PLR group than in the controls. Bilateral PLR is a simple, reversible manoeuvre that mimics rapid fluid loading. Bilateral PLR attenuates the severity of, and delays the time to, hypotension and tachycardia following deflation of a lower limb tourniquet.Trial registration This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov clinical trials registry, number NCT01592669.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of coronary artery disease requires invasive procedures that are typically not implemented until clinical warning signs are apparent. The goal of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of coronary artery disease, as measured by the SYNTAX scoring system, with serum levels of fetuin-A and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in the general population. We enrolled 165 patients who had stable angina and positive results on treadmill testing or abnormal results on thallium myocardial perfusion scanning showing perfusion defects or who had acute coronary syndromes. Patients were hospitalized for evaluation with angiography, with or without simultaneous percutaneous coronary intervention. SYNTAX Scores were calculated on the basis of the results of coronary angiography using a computer-based questionnaire of sequential and interactive self-guided questions. Univariate analysis was used to assess the significance of fetuin-A and FGF23, as well as gender, age, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, creatinine, total cholesterol, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in relation to cardiovascular disease severity. Multivariate analysis with stepwise regression was used to assess the utility of fetuin-A and FGF23 as predictors of SYNTAX Score. Multivariate analysis showed log fetuin-A to be a significant predictor of SYNTAX Score (p <0.0001) after controlling for the significant factors gender, cholesterol levels, and log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Log FGF23 values were also shown by multivariate regression to significantly predict SYNTAX Score (p = 0.0137) after controlling for gender, creatinine, cholesterol, and log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, fetuin-A and FGF23 can be considered in combination with noninvasive test results as patient selection criteria for performing angiography.
    The American journal of cardiology 06/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Desflurane, with a low blood-gas partition coefficient, is an ideal anesthetic to achieve rapid offset and recovery from general anesthesia. Investigation of desflurane elimination from blood and respiratory gas should provide useful information with respect to a patient's recovery from anesthesia. Therefore, this study is designed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of desflurane elimination after cardiac surgery. Sixteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were enrolled. At the end of surgery, multiple gas and blood samples were taken in the 20 minutes before and after stopping desflurane administration, with prior maintenance of a fixed 7% inspired desflurane in 6 L/minute oxygen flow for 60 minutes before the cessation. The blood desflurane concentrations, including internal jugular-bulb blood (Jdes), arterial blood (Ades) and pulmonary arterial blood (PAdes) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The inspiratory desflurane concentration (CIdes) and end-tidal desflurane (CEdes) were measured with an infrared analyzer, and cardiac output was measured using an Opti-Q pulmonary artery catheter. Before cessation of desflurane administration, the inspiratory desflurane concentration (CIdes) was relatively higher than end-tidal (CEdes), arterial (Ades), internal jugular-bulb blood (Jdes), and pulmonary (PAdes) concentrations in sequence (CIdes > CEdes > Ades≅ Jdes > PAdes). During the elimination phase, rapid decay occurred in CEdes, followed by Jdes, Ades and PAdes. Twenty minutes after stopping desflurane administration, the desflurane concentrations were: PAdes > Ades≅ Jdes > CEdes. The decay curves of desflurane concentrations demonstrated two distinct elimination components: an initial, fast 5-minute component followed by a slow 15-minute component. Desflurane is eliminated fastest from the lungs, as indicated by CEdes, compared to elimination from circulating blood. The initial, rapid 5-minute desflurane washout reflected the diluting effect of functional residual capacity of the lungs.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 04/2013; 112(4):185-92. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tyrosine kinase receptor Axl is expressed in the vasculature, and growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) is its ligand. Plasma Gas6 levels have been shown to be associated with endothelial dysfunction markers and cardiovascular events. We set out to determine the plasma Gas6 levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and investigate the expression of Gas6 and Axl in the aorta. Immunoassays were used to investigate plasma Gas6 levels in CABG patients (n = 19) and control subjects (n = 20). The expression of Gas6 and Axl in the injured aorta were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Plasma Gas6 levels were significantly lower in CABG patients than in matched control subjects. In CABG patients, plasma Gas6 levels were negatively correlated with fasting glucose, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels. The levels predicted the operative mortality rate and were positively correlated with plasma soluble Axl (sAxl) levels and Gas6 expression in the aorta. Moreover, Gas6 expression was positively correlated with Axl expression in the aorta. We concluded that plasma Gas6 is associated with fasting glucose, endothelial dysfunction markers, sAxl values, and vascular Gas6 expression in CABG patients, and it predicts the operative mortality of these patients. These findings suggest that the Gas6/Axl system is crucial in vascular biology.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79452. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutation) mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84731. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, and medial vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy, proliferation, and calcification play a pivotal role in uremic vasculopathy. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) facilitates the transport of glucose into VSMCs, and GLUT1 overexpression associated with high glucose influx leads to a stimulation of VSMC proliferation. However, the role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy remains unclear. This study aimed to identify changes in the expression of GLUT1 in VSMCs in the setting of experimental uremia and investigate whether Akt/tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling, which plays a crucial role in VSMC proliferation and glucose metabolism, is involved in the regulation of GLUT1 expression. METHODS: In vivo experimental CRF was induced in Wistar rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, and the GLUT1 expression in aortic tissue was determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic retention solute proven with pro-proliferative effect on rat VSMCs, and we further studied the expression of GLUT1 in rat A7r5 rat embryonic aortic cells stimulated by IS in the presence or absence of phloretin, a GLUT1 inhibitor, to explore the pathogenic role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy. The contribution of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/S6K signaling in modifying the GLUT1 expression was also assessed. RESULTS: Eight weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, aortic tissue obtained from CRF rats exhibited increased wall thickness and VSMC hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and degeneration. Compared with the sham-operated control group, the messenger (m)RNA and protein abundance of GLUT1 were both markedly increased in CRF rats. In vitro, IS induced a significant increase in expression of GLUT1 protein as well as pro-proliferative cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA and a modest increase in expression of antiapoptotic p53 mRNA in A7r5 cells, whereas inhibition of GLUT1 mediated glucose influx reduced the pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IS. In addition to increased GLUT1 expression, IS significantly suppressed Akt and TSC2 phosphorylation after 6-hour and 12-hour treatment, but increased S6K phosphorylation after 3-hour treatment. Inactivation of mTOR downstream signaling by rapamycin treatment inhibited S6K phosphorylation and abolished the stimulatory effect of IS on GLUT1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo and in vitro experimental CRF displayed prominent GLUT1 upregulation in VSMCs. The uremic toxin IS stimulated proliferation of VSMCs possibly through induction of GLUT1 expression. The Akt/TSC/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms underlying the upregulation of GLUT1 expression in uremic VSMCs.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 12/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Hsiang-Yu Yang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chien-Sung Tsai
    Archives of cardiovascular diseases 12/2012; 105(12):678-9. · 0.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

396 Citations
191.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Tri-Service General Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2002–2014
    • National Defense Medical Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Tri-Service General Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2011
    • Taipei Medical University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2007
    • National Yang Ming University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2005
    • Cheng Hsin General Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan