[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: microRNA-155 (miR155) plays a critical role in immunity and macrophage inflammation. We aim to investigate the role of miR155 in atherogenesis.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that miR155 was expressed in mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. miR155 expression in macrophages was correlated positively with proinflammatory cytokine expression. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR155 in macrophages enhanced their inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide through targeting SOCS-1 and impaired cholesterol efflux from acetylated low-density lipoprotein-loaded macrophages, whereas deficiency of miR155 blunted macrophage inflammatory responses and enhanced cholesterol efflux possibly via enhancing lipid loading-induced macrophage autophagy. We next examined the atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) and miR155(-/-)/apoE(-/-) (double knockout) mice fed a Western diet. Compared with apoE(-/-) mice, the double knockout mice developed less atherosclerosis lesion in aortic root, with reduced neutral lipid content and macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed that there were increased number of regulatory T cells and reduced numbers of Th17 cells and CD11b+/Ly6C(high) cells in the spleen of double knockout mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the double knockout mice had significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide stimulation. To determine whether miR155 in leukocytes contributes to atherosclerosis, we performed bone marrow transplantation study. Deficiency of miR155 in bone marrow-derived cells suppressed atherogenesis in apoE(-/-) mice, demonstrating that hematopoietic cell-derived miR155 plays a critical role.
miR155 deficiency attenuates atherogenesis in apoE(-/-) mice by reducing inflammatory responses of macrophages, enhancing macrophage cholesterol efflux and resulting in an antiatherogenic leukocyte profile. Targeting miR155 may be a promising strategy to halt atherogenesis.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune gastritis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the stomach associated with pernicious anemia. The previous work from us and other groups identified MCPIP1 as an essential factor controlling inflammation and immune homeostasis. MCPIP1(-/-) developed severe anemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain unclear. In the present study, we found that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice resulted in severe anemia related to autoimmune mechanisms. Although MCPIP1 deficiency did not affect erythropoiesis per se, the erythropoiesis in MCPIP1(-/-) bone marrow erythroblasts was significantly attenuated due to iron and vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency, which was mainly resulted from autoimmunity-associated gastritis and parietal cell loss. Consistently, exogenous supplement of iron and VB12 greatly improved the anemia phenotype of MCPIP1(-/-) mice. Finally, we have evidence suggesting that autoimmune hemolysis may also contribute to anemia phenotype of MCPIP1(-/-) mice. Taken together, our study suggests that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice leads to the development of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. Thus, MCPIP1(-/-) mice may be a good mouse model for investigating the pathogenesis of pernicious anemia and testing the efficacy of some potential drugs for treatment of this disease.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82542. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-κB plays an important role in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. However, uncontrolled NF-κB activation upon DNA damage may lead to deleterious consequences. Although the mechanisms mediating genotoxic NF-κB activation have been elucidated, how this signalling is terminated remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the CCCH-type zinc finger-containing protein MCPIP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1-induced protein-1; also known as ZC3H12A) is induced upon genotoxic treatment in an NF-κB-dependent manner. MCPIP1 upregulation reduces NEMO linear ubiquitylation, resulting in decreased activation of IKK and NF-κB. NEMO ubiquitylation is decreased through the deubiquitinase USP10, which interacts with NEMO via MCPIP1 upon genotoxic stress. USP10 association with NEMO leads to removal of NEMO-attached linear polyubiquitin chains and subsequent inhibition of the genotoxic NF-κB signalling cascade. Consistently, USP10 is required for MCPIP1-mediated inhibition of genotoxic NF-κB activation and promotion of apoptosis. Thus, by mediating USP10-dependent deubiquitination of NEMO, MCPIP1 induction serves as a negative feedback mechanism for attenuating genotoxic NF-κB activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MCPIP1 is a newly identified protein that profoundly impacts immunity and inflammation. We aim to test if MCPIP1 deficiency in hematopoietic cells results in systemic inflammation and accelerates atherogenesis in mice.
After lethally irradiated, LDLR(-/-) mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells from either wild-type or MCPIP1(-/-) mice. These chimeric mice were fed a western-type diet for 7 weeks. We found that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice displayed a phenotype similar to that of whole body MCPIP1(-/-) mice, with severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation. However, MCPIP1(-/-) bone marrow recipients developed >10-fold less atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta than WT bone marrow recipients, and essentially no lesions in en face aorta. The diminishment in atherosclerosis in bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice may be partially attributed to the slight decrease in their plasma lipids. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes showed that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice contained reduced numbers of T cells and B cells, but increased numbers of regulatory T cells, Th17 cells, CD11b+/Gr1+ cells and CD11b+/Ly6C(low) cells. This overall anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile may also contribute to the reduced atherogenesis. We also examined the cholesterol efflux capability of MCPIP1 deficient macrophages, and found that MCPIP1deficiency increased cholesterol efflux to apoAI and HDL, due to increased protein levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1.
Hematopoietic deficiency of MCPIP1 resulted in severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation but paradoxically diminished atherogenesis in mice. The reduced atheroegensis may be explained by the decreased plasma cholesterol levels, the anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile, as well as enhanced cholesterol efflux capability. This study suggests that, while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, the mechanisms underlying atherogenesis-associated inflammation in arterial wall versus the inflammation in solid organs may be substantially different.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80089. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 primarily infects activated CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Quiescent CD4+ T cells, however, possess cellular factors that limit HIV-1 infection at different postentry steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we show that the previously reported immune regulator monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) restricts HIV-1 production in CD4+ T cells. While the ectopic expression of MCPIP1 in cell lines abolished the production of HIV-1, silencing of MCPIP1 enhanced HIV-1 production. Subsequent analysis indicated that MCPIP1 imposes its restriction by decreasing the steady levels of viral mRNA species through its RNase domain. Remarkably, common T-cell stimuli induced the rapid degradation of MCPIP1 in both T-cell lines and quiescent human CD4+ T cells. Lastly, blocking the proteosomal degradation of MCPIP1 by MG132 abrogated HIV-1 production in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin-stimulated human CD4+ T cells isolated from healthy donors. Overall, MCPIP1 poses a potent barrier against HIV-1 infection at a posttranscriptional stage. Although the observed HIV restriction conferred by MCPIP1 does not seem to be overcome by any viral protein, it is removed during cellular stimulation. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms of cellular activation-mediated HIV-1 production in CD4+ T cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tristetraprolin (TTP), an mRNA-binding protein, plays a significant role in regulating the expression of adenylate-uridylate-rich elements containing mRNAs. Mice deficient of TTP (TTP(-/-)) develop a systemic autoimmune inflammatory syndrome characterized by cachexia, conjunctivitis, and dermatitis. IL-12 plays a crucial role in immune defense against infectious and malignant diseases. In this study, we found increased production of IL-12 during endotoxic shock and enhanced Th1 cells in TTP knockout mice. The levels of IL-12 p70 and p40 protein as well as p40 and p35 mRNA were also increased in activated macrophages deficient of TTP. In line with these findings, overexpression of TTP suppressed IL-12 p35 and p40 expression at the mRNA and promoter level, whereas it surprisingly had little effects on their mRNA stability. Our data showed that the inhibitory effects of TTP on p35 gene transcription were completely rescued by overexpression of NF-кB p65 and c-Rel but not by the p50 in activated macrophages. Our data further indicated that TTP acquired its inhibition on IL-12 expression through blocking nuclear translocation of NF-кB p65 and c-Rel while enhancing p50 upon stimulation. In summary, our study reveals a novel pathway through which TTP suppresses IL-12 production in macrophages, resulting in suppression of Th1 cell differentiation. This study may provide us with therapeutic targets for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell-derived molecules such as cytokines and lipid mediators play a critical role in inducing chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. We found that Th17 cells were increased in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissues of mammary gland tumor-bearing mice. The Th17 cell survival factor, IL-23, was also overexpressed in tumor tissues isolated from mice and human breast cancer patients. Soluble molecules secreted from breast tumor cells, but not normal breast epithelial cells, induced IL-23 protein secretion in dendritic cells via induction of p19 mRNA expression. Our data further indicate that tumor-secreted PGE2 through EP2 and EP4 receptors enhanced IL-23 p19 gene transcription through binding to the cAMP-response element in the p19 promoter. Blocking PGE2 synthesis by NS398, a COX2 inhibitor, abrogated the enhancement of p19 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, blocking protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 completely abrogated the inductive effects of tumor-conditioned medium and PGE2 on p19 transcription, whereas the cAMP active analog, Forskolin, mimics the PGE2 effect. Taken together, our results indicate that tumor-secreted PGE2 induces IL-23, but not IL-12, production in the tumor microenvironment, leading to Th17 cell expansion. This inductive effect of PGE2 on IL-23 p19 transcription is mediated through cAMP/PKA signaling transduction pathway.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies using MCP-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1)/Zc3h12a-deficient mice suggest that MCPIP1 is an important regulator of inflammation and immune homeostasis. However, the characterization of the immunological phenotype of MCPIP1-deficient mice has not been detailed. In this study, we performed evaluation through histological, flow cytometric, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR analysis and found that targeted disruption of MCPIP1 gene leads to fatal, highly aggressive and widespread immune-related lesions. In addition to previously observed growth retardation, splenomegaly, lymphoadenopathy, severe anemia and premature death, MCPIP1-deficient mice showed disorganization of lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and thymus, and massive infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils into many other non-lymphoid organs, primarily in lungs and liver. Flow cytometric analysis found significant increase in activated and differentiated T cells in peripheral blood and spleen of MCPIP1-deficient mice. Moreover, heightened production of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and T cells were observed in MCPIP1-deficient mice. Interestingly, treatment of MCPIP1-deficient mice with antibiotics resulted in significant improvement of life span and a decrease in inflammatory syndrome. Taken together, these results suggest a prominent role for MCPIP1 in the control of inflammation and immune homeostasis.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 9 April 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.11.
Immunology and Cell Biology 04/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism to regulate energy balance is not completely understood. Here we observed that Egr-1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) was highly correlated with dietary-induced obesity and insulin resistance both in mice and humans. Egr-1 null mice were protected from diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated pathologies such as fatty liver, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. This phenotype can be largely explained by the increase of energy expenditure in Egr-1 null mice. Characterization of these mice revealed that the expression of FOXC2 and its target genes were significantly elevated in white adipose tissues, leading to WAT energy expenditure instead of energy storage. Altogether, these studies suggest an important role for Egr-1, which, by repressing FOXC2 expression, promotes energy storage in WAT and favored the development of obesity under high energy intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Septic shock is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital patients. However, genetic factors predisposing to septic shock are not fully understood. Our previous work showed that MCP-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which then negatively regulates LPS-induced inflammatory signaling in vitro. Here we report that although MCPIP1 was induced by various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in macrophages, MCPIP1-deficient mice are extremely susceptible to TLR4 ligand (LPS)-induced septic shock and death, but not to the TLR2, 3, 5 and 9 ligands-induced septic shock. Consistently, LPS induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) production in MCPIP1-deficient mice was 20-fold greater than that in their wild-type littermates. Further analysis revealed that MCPIP1-deficient mice developed severe acute lung injury after LPS injection and JNK signaling was highly activated in MCPIP1-deficient lungs after LPS stimulation. Finally, macrophage-specific MCPIP1 transgenic mice were partially protected from LPS-induced septic shock, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines from sources other than macrophages may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of LPS-induced septic shock. Taken together, these results suggest that MCPIP1 selectively suppresses TLR4 signaling pathway and protects mice from LPS-induced septic shock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial activation characterized by the expression of multiple chemokines and adhesive molecules is a critical initial step of vascular inflammation which results in recruitment of leukocytes into sub-endothelial layer of vascular wall and triggers vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Although inhibiting the endothelial inflammation has already been well recognized as a therapeutic strategy in vascular inflammatory diseases, the therapeutic targets are still elusive. In the present study we found that Zc3h12c, a recently discovered CCCH-zinc finger containing protein, significantly inhibited endothelial cell inflammatory response in vitro. Overexpression of Zc3h12c significantly attenuated tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) induced expression of chemokines and adhesive molecules, and thus reduced monocyte adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conversely, siRNA-mediated knocking down of Zc3h12c increased TNFα-induced expression of chemokines and adhesive molecules in HUVECs. Furthermore, forced expression of Zc3h12c decreased TNFα-induced IKKa/b and IkBa phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation, suggesting that Zc3h12c exerted the anti-inflammatory function probably by suppressing nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway. Thus, Zc3h12c is an endogenous inhibitor of TNFα-induced inflammatory signaling in HUVECs and might be a therapeutic target in vascular inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and their activation has been shown to inhibit cardiovascular disease and reduce atherosclerosis in animal models. Small molecule agonists of LXR activity are therefore of great therapeutic interest. However, the finding that such agonists also promote hepatic lipogenesis has led to the idea that hepatic LXR activity is undesirable from a therapeutic perspective. To investigate whether this might be true, we performed gene targeting to selectively delete LXRα in hepatocytes. Liver-specific deletion of LXRα in mice substantially decreased reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol catabolism, and cholesterol excretion, revealing the essential importance of hepatic LXRα for whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Additionally, in a pro-atherogenic background, liver-specific deletion of LXRα increased atherosclerosis, uncovering an important function for hepatic LXR activity in limiting cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, synthetic LXR agonists still elicited anti-atherogenic activity in the absence of hepatic LXRα, indicating that the ability of agonists to reduce cardiovascular disease did not require an increase in cholesterol excretion. Furthermore, when non-atherogenic mice were treated with synthetic LXR agonists, liver-specific deletion of LXRα eliminated the detrimental effect of increased plasma triglycerides, while the beneficial effect of increased plasma HDL was unaltered. In sum, these observations suggest that therapeutic strategies that bypass the liver or limit the activation of hepatic LXRs should still be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
The Journal of clinical investigation 04/2012; 122(5):1688-99. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pivotal in macrophage activation. The molecular mechanisms controlling TLR signaling and macrophage activation are not completely understood. Zc3h12d is originally identified as a possible tumor suppressor gene. However, its function remains unknown. We here report that Zc3h12d negatively regulates TLR signaling and macrophage activation. Zc3h12d was enriched in spleen, lung and lymph node. In macrophages, the expression of Zc3h12d was remarkably induced by TLR ligands through JNK and NF-κB signal pathways. On the other hand, overexpression of Zc3h12d significantly inhibited TLR2 and TLR4 activation-induced JNK, ERK and NF-κB signaling as well as macrophage inflammation. Similar to Zc3h12a/MCPIP1, Zc3h12d also decreased the global cellular protein ubiquitination. These findings suggest that Zc3h12d is a novel negative feedback regulator of TLR signaling and macrophage activation and thus may play a role in host immunity and inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines play a crucial role in inflammation and in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis by recruiting inflammatory immune cells to the endothelium. Chemokine CCL5 has been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis progression. However, little is known about how CCL5 is regulated in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study we report that CCL5 mRNA expression was induced and peaked in aorta at day 7 and then declined after balloon artery injury, whereas IP-10 and MCP-1 mRNA expression were induced and peaked at day 3 and then rapidly declined.The expression of CCL5 receptors (CCR1, 3 & 5) were also rapidly induced and then declined except CCR5 which expression was still relatively high at day 14 after balloon injury. In rat smooth muscle cells (SMCs), similar as in aorta CCL5 mRNA expression was induced and kept increasing after LPS plus IFN-gamma stimulation, whereas IP-10 mRNA expression was rapidly induced and then declined. Our data further indicate that induction of CCL5 expression in SMCs was mediated by IRF-1 via binding to the IRF-1 response element in CCL5 promoter. Moreover, p38 MAPK was involved in suppression of CCL5 and IP-10 expression in SMCs through common upstream molecule MKK3. The downstream molecule MK2 was required for p38-mediated CCL5 but not IP-10 inhibition. Our findings indicate that CCL5 induction in aorta and SMCs is mediated by IRF-1 while activation of p38 MAPK signaling inhibits CCL5 and IP-10 expression. Methods targeting MK2 expression could be used to selectively regulate CCL5 but not IP-10 expression in SMCs.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30873. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that has been identified in the development of heart. It is likely to be regulated by survival and death signals that are also present in many other tissues. To understand cardiomyocyte apoptosis in normal and abnormal development of heart, the cell death detection techniques were applied to various researches. These methods include morphological, histological, or molecular assays based on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of cell death, including: (1) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling of fragmented nuclei, (2) cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis using Annexin V, and (3) immunohistochemical detection of activated caspases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear how stress granule (SG) formation and cellular apoptosis are coordinately regulated. MCPIP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1), also known as Zc3h12a, is a critical regulator of the inflammatory response and immune homeostasis. However, the role of MCPIP1 in stress response remains unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of MCPIP1 inhibited the assembly of SGs in response to various stresses. Conversely, MCPIP1-deficient splenocytes developed more SGs even without stress. On the other hand, overexpression of MCPIP1 sensitized RAW 264.7 cells to apoptosis under stress, whereas MCPIP1-deficient cells were resistant to stress-induced apoptosis. Mutagenesis study showed that the ability of MCPIP1 to repress SG formation is dependent on its deubiquitinating activity. Consistently, MCPIP1 negatively regulated stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α and thus released stress-induced inhibition of protein translation. However, MCPIP1 also inhibited 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2)-induced SG formation, which was reported to be independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that MCPIP1 coordinates SG formation and apoptosis during cellular stress and may play a critical role in immune homeostasis and resolution of macrophage inflammation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(48):41692-700. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intensity and duration of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are controlled by proteins that modulate inflammatory signaling pathways. MCPIP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1), a recently identified CCCH Zn finger-containing protein, plays an essential role in controlling macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. However, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this study, we show that MCPIP1 negatively regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB activity by removing ubiquitin moieties from proteins, including TRAF2, TRAF3, and TRAF6. MCPIP1-deficient mice spontaneously developed fatal inflammatory syndrome. Macrophages and splenocytes from MCPIP1(-/-) mice showed elevated expression of inflammatory gene expression, increased JNK and IκB kinase activation, and increased polyubiquitination of TNF receptor-associated factors. In vitro assays directly demonstrated the deubiquitinating activity of purified MCPIP1. Sequence analysis together with serial mutagenesis defined a deubiquitinating enzyme domain and a ubiquitin association domain in MCPIP1. Our results indicate that MCPIP1 is a critical modulator of inflammatory signaling.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2010; 207(13):2959-73. · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, albeit the mechanisms need to be fully elucidated. We here report that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha substantially increased the expression of MCP-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1). Overexpression of MCPIP1 protected ECs against TNFalpha-induced endothelial activation, as characterized by the attenuation in the expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and monocyte adherence to ECs. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knock down of MCPIP1 increased the expression of VCAM-1 and monocytic adherence to ECs. These studies identified MCPIP1 as a feedback control of cytokines-induced endothelial inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a CCCH zinc finger-containing protein that destabilizes mRNA by binding to an AU-rich element. Mice deficient in TTP develop a severe inflammatory syndrome mainly because of overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha. We report here that TTP also negatively regulates NF-kappaB signaling at the transcriptional corepressor level, by which it may repress inflammatory gene transcription. TTP expression inhibited NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. However, overexpression of TTP did not affect reporter mRNA stability. Instead, TTP functioned as a corepressor of p65/NF-kappaB. In support of this concept, we found that TTP physically interacted with the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB and was also associated with HDAC1, -3, and -7 in vivo. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors or small interfering RNA induced HDAC1 or HDAC3 knockdown completely or partly abolished the inhibitory activity of TTP on NF-kappaB reporter activation. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed decreased recruitment of HDAC1 and increased recruitment of CREB-binding protein on the Mcp-1 promoter in TTP(-/-) cells compared with wild-type cells. Moreover, overexpression of TTP blocked CREB-binding protein-induced acetylation of p65/NF-kappaB. Taken together, these data suggest that TTP may also function in vivo as a modulator in suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(43):29383-90. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves a highly orchestrated series of events including clonal expansion, growth arrest, and terminal differentiation. The mechanisms coordinating these different steps are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated whether microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in this process. Microarray analysis was performed to detect miRNA expression during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Several miRNAs, including let-7, were up-regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Ectopic introduction of let-7 into 3T3-L1 cells inhibited clonal expansion as well as terminal differentiation. The mRNA encoding high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), a transcription factor that regulates growth and proliferation in other contexts, was inversely correlated with let-7 levels during 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, and let-7 markedly reduced HMGA2 concentrations. Knockdown of HMGA2 inhibited 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that let-7 plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and that it does so in part by targeting HMGA2, thereby regulating the transition from clonal expansion to terminal differentiation.