S C Tiwari

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (131)373.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: HIV/AIDS patients may have renal involvement also, however, Indian data are sparse. The present study was done to find the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, HIV positive patients aged >18 yr were screened for renal involvement [serum creatinine >1.5 mg% and/or significant proteinuria (>500 mg /day)]. Patients who were positive on screening were followed up prospectively and underwent kidney biopsy if indicated. Results: A total of 526 patients were screened, of these, 91 (17.3%) were found to have renal involvement. Group A (Treatment naοve) comprised 392 patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and group B (patients on ART) comprised 134 patients. More patients (74/392, 18.9%) in group A had renal involvement as compared to patients in group B (17/134, 12.7%). Of the 91 patients with renal involvement, 26 were followed up and underwent kidney biopsy. Thirteen patients had only proteinuria and another 13 had renal dysfunction with or without proteinuria. Most common histological diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (mes PGN) (10/26). Two patients had collapsing FSGS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and three patients had immune complex glomerulonephritis. Seven patients had acute kidney injury, whom six totally recovered from their renal function. All patients with mesPGN tolerated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors well. There was mixed response of collapsing FSGS to steroids. Both patients with MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) did well on low dose of steroid and ART. Interpretation & conclusions: Renal involvement was found to be common in HIV positive patients (17.3%). A low occurrence of renal involvement found in patients already on ART suggests some renoprotective effect of ART. Our preliminary results showed that collapsing FSGS was not rare in Indian HIV positive population, but classical HIV associated nephropathy was not seen. Longitudinal studies with robust study design and large sample size need to be done to confirm the findings.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 05/2013; 137(5):950-6. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated important nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function and oxidative stress (OS) among stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Their association with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) was also assessed. Thirty-eight adult patients (13 diabetics, 20 males) on PD for >6 months and 15 age and sex-matched controls were studied. Duration of dialysis (DOD), residual urine output (UO), weekly Kt/V urea, detailed biochemical and lipid profile were noted. OS was measured by serum concentration of antioxidants; vitamin C and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and pro-oxidant; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). High-resolution ultrasonography was used to determine CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery [endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD)] and dilatation subsequent to nitrate spray [endothelium-independent dilatation (EID)]. Mean age, DOD, UO and Kt/V of study population were 49.3 ± 11.6 years, 19.4 ± 11.8 months, 508.2 ± 422.9 ml/day and 1.73 ± 0.24, respectively. As compared to controls PD patients had higher CIMT (0.46 ± 0.05 vs 0.50 ± 0.07 mm, P = 0.003) and TBARS (1.5 ± 0.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.3 nM/ml, P < 0.001) but lower Vitamin C (1.7 ± 0.3 vs 0.6 ± 0.2 mg%, P < 0.001), FRAP (990.8 ± 78.1 vs 328.7 ± 183.5 μM/L, P < 0.001) and EDD (26.2 ± 5.4 vs 9.8 ± 4.6 %, P < 0.001). TBARS correlated positively with DOD and negatively with hemoglobin. Vitamin C and FRAP correlated positively with serum albumin. EDD correlated positively with UO, Kt/V and hemoglobin. CIMT correlated negatively with Kt/V and hemoglobin. Among themselves CIMT correlated negatively with EDD and vitamin C. EDD correlated positively with vitamin C, while FRAP correlated positively with vitamin C and negatively with TBARS. PD patients have higher OS, poorer endothelial function and higher structural atherosclerosis. These parameters are closely linked to each other, hemoglobin, DOD, residual UO, serum albumin and small solute clearances.
    Indian Journal of Nephrology 10/2011; 21(4):264-9.
  • Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 05/2011; 22(3):564-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Sternum is resistant to infections and thus infrequent site of osteomyelitis. Involvement of sternum by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare. We report case of 37-year-old male with isolated tuberculosis of the sternum, a 14-year-old girl with tuberculosis of the sternum and Potts spine and a 55-year-old male with tubercular sinus of the sternum, three different presentations of the same disease.
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 08/2009; 57:595-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A 34-year-old man presented with polymerase chain reaction-positive pleuropulmonary tuberculosis with asymptomatic subnephrotic proteinuria and microscopic haematuria. He was diagnosed to have IgA nephropathy on renal biopsy. The patient was started on a four-drug anti-tuberculous therapy. Healing of the pleuropulmonary lesions along with disappearance of proteinuria and haematuria were seen both at one month and six months post-treatment, with no relapse of renal symptoms at one-year follow-up.
    Singapore medical journal 08/2009; 50(7):e268-9. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • S K Agarwal, S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients on hemodialysis and renal transplantation (RT) usually has an unfavorable course. Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analog with a potent action on HBV replication. There is limited data on lamivudine in renal transplant patients with HBV infection and no published report from India. Present study reports on lamivudine therapy in these patients. Patients with HBV infection taken for RT were included. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), HBV-DNA, and liver biopsy before RT were done in all patients. Lamivudine was given in the dose of 50 mg daily during the dialysis and 100 mg daily following successful transplant. Response was evaluated at one year. Of the 739 adult RTs during study period, 35 (4.7%) had HBV infection. Mean age of patients was 30.7 +/- 9.8 (16-55 years) and 88.5% were males. Four (11.4%) patients had HCV coinfection. HCV was not treated in any patient. All patients were HBsAg and HBV-DNA positive, while 27 (77%) were HBeAg positive. Mean ALT was 77.8 +/- 90 IU/dl; 11 (31.4%) patients had normal ALT. Mean liver biopsy grade was 5.2 +/- 1.5 (3-9) and stage was 0.7 +/- 0.6 (0-2). At one year following transplantation, ALT was normal in 27 (77%) cases, HBV-DNA undetectable in 16 (45.7%), HBeAg and HBsAg seroconversion in 8 (22.8%), and 3 (8.6%) cases, respectively. All patients tolerated the drug without any significant side effects. Treatment with lamivudine in dialysis and renal transplant patients is well tolerated and safe with efficacy comparable to patients with normal renal function.
    Indian Journal of Nephrology 07/2009; 19(3):91-5.
  • C Lal, A Gupta, A Khaira, S C Tiwari
    The Medical journal of Malaysia 06/2009; 64(2):184.
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    ABSTRACT: Very often, physicians confront with patients who have concomitant heart and kidney failure. The coexistence of kidney and heart failure carries an extremely bad prognosis. The exact cause of deterioration of kidney function and the mechanism underlying this interaction are complex, multifactorial in nature, and still not completely understood. Both the heart and the kidney act in tandem to regulate blood pressure, vascular tone, diuresis, natriuresis, etc. An extension to the Guytonian model of volume and blood pressure control is proposed called cardiorenal connection. Regulating actions of Guyton's model were coupled to their extended actions on structure and function of the heart and the kidney changes in the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the imbalance between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammation are the cardiorenal connectors to develop cardiorenal syndrome. Imbalance in this closed complex will often lead to deterioration of both cardiac and kidney function. The World Congress of Nephrology emphasized vast interrelated derangements that can occur in cardiorenal syndrome and proposed that the recent definition of cardiorenal syndrome be modified into categories whose labels reflect the likely primary and secondary pathology and time frame. For management, drugs that impair kidney function are undesirable, particularly in a population with already compromised or at risk of kidney function. In severe volume-loaded patients who are refractory to diuretics, management of cardiorenal dysfunction is challenging. In the absence of definitive clinical trials, treatment decision must be based on a combination of patient's condition and understanding of individual treatment options.
    Iranian journal of kidney diseases 05/2009; 3(2):61-70. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 02/2009; 13(2):185-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in transplantation are well established. However, tacrolimus (Pan Graf) has only been available in India for the last 2 years. We conducted this study to assess the safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in living related kidney transplantation. Herein we have reported our experience with tacrolimus as de novo therapy in a living related renal transplant program. One hundred fifty-five consecutive recipients of living donor renal allografts were included in this study after consent and ethical clearance. Immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine, and steroids. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted according to levels done on a regular basis. All patients were followed for periods ranging from 3 to 33 months. All episodes of graft dysfunction were evaluated by a graft biopsy. We evaluated the effects of this regimen on the incidence of graft rejection, graft survival, patient survival, and new onset diabetes mellitus. Six patients were diabetic prior to transplantation and 9 patients were hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive. There were 137 male and 18 female patients. The incidence of acute rejection was 3.87%; 17.93% developed new onset diabetes mellitus; and 77.7% of HCV-positive patients and 14.07% of HCV-negative patients developed posttransplantation diabetes mellitus. The patient survival at the current follow-up was 94.19%. This generic form of tacrolimus is a safe, effective immunosuppressant in living related renal transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2008; 40(7):2237-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 19 years male presented with fever, oliguria and purpuric lesions involving both hands. The patient was diagnosed as a case of purpura fulminans with disseminated intravascular coagulation due to complicated falciparum malaria. The case is presented to sensitize the physicians to keep malaria as a differential in cases of fever with purpura fulminans.
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 10/2008; 56:721-3.
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    ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old male presented with fever, oliguria and purpuric lesions involving both hands. The patient was diagnosed as a case of purpura fulminans with disseminated intravascular coagulation due to complicated Falciparum malaria. The case is presented to sensitize the physicians to keep malaria as a differential in cases of fever with purpura fulminans.
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 07/2008; 56:467-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Eighteen adult males with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were studied to determine the serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone. All of the patients were studied longitudinally while undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and six months after renal transplantation. Prior to transplantation, significantly high levels of gonadotropins and PRL were observed. During HD the serum testosterone levels tended to be subnormal in most of the uremic patients and low normal in some of the subjects. Renal transplantation led to a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in serum testosterone. Elevated gonadotropin and PRL levels observed in patients on HD returned to the normal range in most of the patients after successful renal transplantation.
    International Urology and Nephrology 04/2008; 40(2):397-403. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • D Bhowmik, S C Tiwari
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 03/2008; 56:131-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Panniculitis may result due to various etiologies. In post-transplant immunosuppressed patients infection is the foremost cause of panniculitis. We present 2 cases of fungal panniculitis in renal transplant recipients. The first patient presented with non-tender firm erythematous plaques on the left thigh. Biopsy showed panniculitis with cryptococci. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of cryptococcal antigens in the blood, urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There was no evidence of cryptococcal meningitis. The second patient complained of subcutaneous nodules on the trunk and right thigh. Biopsy of one of the nodules showed panniculitis with histoplasma. This patient had been treated earlier (inadequately) for disseminated histoplasmosis. Both the cases responded well to conventional amphotericin B therapy. Their renal functions remained stable.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 01/2008; 10(4):286-9. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    D Bhowmik, C S Pandav, S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: It is estimated that 10-15% of the population has chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in significant health expenditure, which is largely met by out-of-pocket by the patient in India. However, the seriousness of this public health problem has remained largely under-recognized so far. Luckily the preventive measures are simple and not difficult to implement. Public health strategies are essential to control the burgeoning problem. Lifestyle modifications can reduce the incidence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes. These diseases account for a significant proportion of CKD cases. Active involvement of the primary care physicians is vital for early detection of CKD with retardation of its progress, since nephrologists do not see the patients in the early stages. The role of community health specialists is essential to organize health education programs and screening camps, form active patient support groups; and incorporate the prevention program in the various tiers of the health-care system. Availability of optimal nephrology services in peripheral hospitals can rehabilitate most cases of end-stage renal disease, and also prevent the illegal organ trade, which keeps rearing its ugly head at regular intervals in India.
    Indian journal of public health 01/2008; 52(4):224-9.
  • D Bhowmik, S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is fast becoming a bane for the present civilization, as a result of sedentary lifestyle, atherogenic diet, and a susceptible thrifty genotype. The concept of metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of metabolic disturbances, has crystallized over the last 80 years with the aim of identifying those at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These patients have visceral obesity and insulin resistance characterized by hypertyriglyceridemia. Recently, it has been realized that they are also at an increased risk of chronic renal disease. Release of adipocytokines leads to endothelial dysfunction. There is also activation of systemic and local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, and impaired fibrinolysis. This leads to glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and ultimately end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Treatment consists of lifestyle modifications along with optimal control of blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids. Metformin and thiazolidenidiones reduce insulin resistance; while angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce proteinuria and have a renoprotective effect. Exciting new medical therapies on the horizon include rimonabant a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, soy proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity has also been shown to be effective in treating metabolic syndrome.
    Indian Journal of Nephrology 01/2008; 18(1):1-4.
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86:125-126. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Success of modern transplantation is in large part due to the successful development of effective immunosuppressive agents. The safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in transplantation is well established. However, tacrolimus (Pan Graf, Panacea Biotec Ltd, India) has only been available in India for the last 2 years. This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in live related kidney transplantation. We report an initial experience of tacrolimus as de novo therapy in a live related renal transplantation program. One hundred one consecutive recipients of a live renal allograft were commenced on triple immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine, and steroids. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted to keep trough levels at 10-12 ng/mL in the first 3 months, 8-10 ng/mL in the next 3 months, and 5-8 ng/mL thereafter. All patients were followed up for a period ranging from 4 weeks to 24 months. The effect of this regimen on the incidence of graft rejection, graft survival, patient survival, and new-onset diabetes mellitus was evaluated. Any evidence of graft dysfunction was evaluated using a graft biopsy. There were 89 male and 12 female patients with mean age of 32.08 years. The incidence of acute rejection was 3.96%; 21.05% developed new-onset diabetes mellitus. Six patients were diabetic prior to transplantation and 9 patients were hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive; 77.7% of HCV-positive patients and 15.1% of HCV-negative patients developed posttransplantation diabetes mellitus. The patient survival rate at the current follow-up was 92.07%. No graft was lost due to rejection. Tacrolimus is a safe and effective immunosuppressant in live related renal transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2007; 39(3):747-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid-induced osteoporosis is a major problem after organ transplantation. There is considerable evidence that bisphosphonates are effective in decreasing osteoporosis. This prospective study was carried out to see the effects of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density (BMD) after successful renal transplantation. Fifty consecutive patients of successful renal transplantation were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 27) received 35 mg/wk of Alendronate for 6 months after transplantation. Group B (n = 23) did not receive Alendronate and served as a control. Both groups underwent a pretransplant baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of their hips and lumber spines. Both groups received oral calcium and vitamin D supplement. Both groups were matched for the regimen and dose of immunosuppressive drugs. BMD was measured at 3 months and 6 months after transplantation. Both groups showed a decline in BMD in early months posttransplantation. However, the 6-month DEXA scans showed a significant rise in BMD in group A as compared to group B. Bisphosphonates appear to have a beneficial effect on steroid-induced bone loss.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2007; 39(3):750-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

495 Citations
373.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • Maulana Azad Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New Delhi, NCT, India
  • 1983–2009
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Nephrology
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      New Delhi, NCT, India
  • 1996
    • AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India