[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease with renal dysfunction is uncommon but has long been recognized in several families. Recently, mutations in the INF2 gene, which encodes inverted formin-2, were identified in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and a dominant intermediate form of CMT (CMTDIE, OMIM #614455). We describe the pathologic lesions of nerve biopsies from 6 patients with INF2-related CMTDIE. There were 4 females and 2 males; ages were from 12 to 47 years; durations between neuropathy onset and biopsy were from 2 to 37 years. Clinical phenotypes were similar to those seen in other forms of CMT disease, but there was always an associated proteinuria (and later renal failure). Motor median nerve conduction velocities were in the range of intermediate CMT disease. Pathologic lesions suggested chronic demyelination and remyelination associated with progressive axonal loss. By electron microscopy, we observed unusual whorl-like proliferations of flattened Schwann cell cytoplasm and anomalies of unmyelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm with supernumerary elongated extensions similar to those described in CMT4C. We also observed abnormal accumulation of β-actin in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that these lesions reflect a global disorder of the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells and that CMTDIE is the first peripheral nerve disorder associated with a Schwann cell actinopathy.
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 01/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Domino liver transplantation (DLT) has become an accepted procedure designed to address problems with organ limited supply. However, cases of acquired amyloid neuropathy are increasingly being recognized following this procedure. Until now, only one patient had undergone liver retransplantation and follow-up findings were not reported. We describe the case of a 72-year-old patient with partial recovery from acquired amyloid neuropathy following retransplantation with a deceased donor 7 years after DLT performed for end-stage liver disease. His clinical and paraclinical improvement is described, and the impact of this case on the indication for a domino procedure and the challenges linked to retransplantation are discussed.
American Journal of Transplantation 08/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is typically a predominantly sensory and autonomic neuropathy with progressive and late motor involvement leading to death within 10 years. Recently, prognosis was transformed with liver transplantation. Methods: We report an atypical sporadic pure motor and bulbar neuropathy initially mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a 50-year-old Malian man. Results: The diagnostic procedure of this clinical purely motor and bulbar neuropathy disclosed amyloid deposits on nerve biopsy which led to the identification of a new Val93Met mutation of transthyretin. This case was also remarkable by its slow progression. Conclusions: This report confirms the motor phenotype of TTR-FAP. That should be considered in the differential diagnosis of motor neuron diseases in order to start accurate therapy.
Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 08/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Tafamidis, which slows the progression of early stages of Met30 transthyretin (TTR) familial amyloidosis polyneuropathy (FAP) in more advanced cases.
The study was a prospective, non-randomized controlled trial carried out at the French national reference centre for FAP with follow-up at 1 year. Thirty-seven consecutive Met30-TTR-FAP patients were enrolled between December 2009 and July 2011, with NIS-LL (Neuropathy Impairment Score-lower limbs) > 10 and Karnofsky score > 60. Their mean (SD) age was 56.4 (19) years. Seventy-seven per cent of patients had a walking disability. Seven patients (19%) were withdrawn for adverse effects. The primary study outcome measurements, planned before data collection began, were NIS-LL and NIS-UL (upper limbs) scores and disability scores.
Of the 37 patients entered into the study, 29 were evaluated at 6 months and 13 at 12 months. During the first 6 months of treatment, the mean progression of NIS-LL score was 4.8 and was similar to that during the period before treatment. Among the 45% of patients without NIS-LL progression, the NIS-UL score worsened in 55%. During the first year, 55% deteriorated with respect to disability and 38% with respect to NIS only; only two patients (7%) remained stable. Four (out of 20; 20%) patients who were previously stage 1 reached stage 2 (walking with aid) after this period. Two out of nine patients who were initially normotensive developed orthostatic hypotension. There were a total of 19 adverse events, including four febrile urinary tract infections and three severe diarrhoeas, with faecal incontinence in two.
In most patients with advanced Met30 TTR-FAP, Tafamidis is not able to stop disease progression, in respect of both NIS-LL and disability. Other anti-amyloid medicines should be assessed in this context.
European Journal of Neurology 07/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida spp. are responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised patients and those undergoing invasive procedures. The accurate identification of Candida species is important because emerging species can be associated with various antifungal susceptibility spectra. Conventional methods have been developed to identify the most common pathogens, but have often failed to identify uncommon species. Several studies have reported the efficiency of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of clinically relevant Candida species. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available MALDI-TOF systems, Andromas™ and Bruker Biotyper™, for Candida identification in routine diagnosis. For this purpose, we investigated 1383 Candida isolates prospectively collected in eight hospital laboratories during routine practice. MALDI-TOF MS results were compared with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Analysis of rDNA gene sequences with internal transcribed regions or D1-D2 regions is considered the reference standard for identification. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems could accurately identify 98.3% of the isolates at the species level (1359/1383 for Andromas™; 1360/1383 for Bruker Biotyper™) vs. 96.5% for conventional techniques. Furthermore, whereas conventional methods failed to identify rare or emerging species, these were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems are accurate and cost-effective alternatives to conventional methods for mycological identification of clinically relevant Candida species and should improve the diagnosis of fungal infections as well as patient management.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe misleading lower limb mono radiculopathy revealing peripheral nerve vasculitis. Retrospective review of eight patients with biopsy confirmed vasculitis presenting as mono-radicululopathy in a tertiary referral centre dedicated to patients with rare peripheral neuropathies. Patients presented with chronic (6/8) or acute (n = 2) radiculopathy in L4, L5 or S1 territories associated with subtle systemic signs. A diagnostic workup was performed because of secondary motor deficit, the absence of clear radicular compression or failure of initial treatment focused on pain relief. In all, nerve conduction studies showed signs of asymmetrical axonal peripheral neuropathy (mononeuritis multiplex). Necrotizing vasculitis was eventually confirmed by peripheral nerve biopsy. Biological markers of inflammation or eosinophilia were present in 5/8 and a progressive motor deficit (7/8) is suggestive of the diagnosis. Under steroid treatment, all patients improved during a mean of 2 years 6 months of follow-up (Mean Rankin score improvement 1.9 point), but five relapsed including three mononeuritis multiplex, and one had acral necrosis. Vasculitis presenting as LL radiculopathy is rare; EMG studies with signs of mononeuritis multiplex and nerve biopsy studies are useful for making the diagnosis.
Internal and Emergency Medicine 10/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As amyloid neuropathies have benefited from recent major progress, this review is timely and relevant.
The main recent articles on amyloid neuropathy cover its description, methods for diagnosis and therapies. Varied clinical presentations are described in transthyretin (TTR)-familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) and light chain amyloid neuropathy. Mass spectrometry is able to identify the biochemical nature of amyloidogenic protein in nerve biopsy and skin biopsy samples for diagnosis of small fiber polyneuropathy. Both nerve biopsy and TTR gene sequencing are important to identify sporadic cases of amyloid neuropathy. Nerve biopsy is useful in demonstrating the amyloid origin of neuropathies developing after domino liver transplant recipients. Liver transplantation improves long-term survival in Met30 TTR-FAP. Factors recognized as leading to cardiomyopathy progression or heart involvement after liver transplantation are late disease onset and fibril composition. Combined heart and liver transplantation is recommended in severe restrictive cardiomyopathy. Antiamyloid drugs are emerging: tafamidis, a TTR stabilizer, showed in a phase III controlled study its ability to slow stage 1 FAP progression. Other strategies are emerging for TTR-FAP (combination doxycycline-tauroursodeoxycholic acid, small interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotide, monoclonal antibody antiserum amyloid P component). For light chain neuropathy, intensive chemotherapy may be helpful.
There is better recognition of amyloid neuropathies, and hope for enrolling patients with FAP in future clinical trials testing new antiamyloid drugs.
Current opinion in neurology 08/2012; 25(5):564-72. · 5.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a kindred with slowly progressive gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic neuropathy caused by autosomal dominant, hereditary systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid consists of Asp76Asn variant β(2)-microglobulin. Unlike patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis caused by sustained high plasma concentrations of wild-type β(2)-microglobulin, the affected members of this kindred had normal renal function and normal circulating β(2)-microglobulin values. The Asp76Asn β(2)-microglobulin variant was thermodynamically unstable and remarkably fibrillogenic in vitro under physiological conditions. Previous studies of β(2)-microglobulin aggregation have not shown such amyloidogenicity for single-residue substitutions. Comprehensive biophysical characterization of the β(2)-microglobulin variant, including its 1.40-Å, three-dimensional structure, should allow further elucidation of fibrillogenesis and protein misfolding.
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2012; 366(24):2276-83. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) in France have a large genetic heterogeneity with 29 transthyretin (TTR) gene mutations; Met30-TTR is the most frequent one (62%); followed by Tyr77-TTR (11.8%) and Phe77-TTR (6.2%). Analysis of 60 FAP patients diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 showed amyloid polyneuropathy was initially suspected in only 38% patients. TTR Met30 of Portuguese ancestry is different from TTR Met30 of non Portuguese ancestry and other non Met30 variants in geographical distribution and clinical presentation. There are three additional phenotypes of the neuropathy including multifocal upper limbs neuropathy, ataxic polyneuropathy and motor neuropathy. Patients with Tyr77-TTR are characterized by a late onset (>50 years), frequent ataxic phenotype; they are localized mainly in north of France. The more frequent use of the TTR genetic tests and the French network for FAP will help in the future to improve diagnosis and care.
Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 06/2012; 19 Suppl 1:61-4. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: E396-E400 ABSTRACT: We conducted a nationwide retrospective study to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcome of mucormycosis among allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed between 2003 and 2008. Mucormycosis occurred at a median of 225 days after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant, and as a breakthrough infection in 23 cases. Twenty-six patients were receiving steroids, mainly for graft-versus-host disease treatment, while ten had experienced a prior post-transplant invasive fungal infection. Twenty-six patients received an antifungal treatment; surgery was performed in 12. Overall survival was 34% at 3 months and 17% at 1 year.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 05/2012; 18(10):E396-E400. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment for demyelinating neuropathy associated with MGUS and anti-MAG neuropathy is not known.
We retrospectively studied the efficacy of IVIg in 14 patients with DN-MGUS (seven IgM and seven IgG/A) and seven with anti-MAG neuropathies, treated in our reference center between 2002 and 2007. Patients were clinically evaluated before the first infusion, after the first infusion, and after the last IVIg treatment.
Anti-MAG neuropathy: after a single infusion, one patient improved and six were stable. At last follow-up (mean: 15.6months [range: 3.5-31], mean number of IVIg courses: 8 [2-33]), one patient maintained her improvement from baseline. DN-MGUS: after a single infusion, nine patients improved (64%), four were stable and one deteriorated further. The factor predictive of short-term response to IVIg was relapsing neuropathy responding better in the walking score analysis (Fisher exact test: P=0.005). At last follow-up (mean: 22.6months [range 2-72], mean number of IVIg courses: seven [1-24]), neurological status improved in four patients, five patients remained stable, including three who are still under regular IVIg, and four had deteriorated. Improvement from baseline persisted for a prolonged period in two patients after IVIg were stopped. Patients who were responders on Norris after the first IVIg course were significantly better responders at long-term follow-up than the others (P=0.001). We report no serious adverse effect.
IVIg are not very efficient in the management of anti-MAG neuropathies. Nevertheless, they have a frequent short-term beneficial effect in DN-MGUS, which was maintained at long-term follow-up in one-third of our patients. When a DN-MGUS patient is regularly treated by IVIg courses, frequent periodic clinical evaluations must be performed to determine when to stop treatment and switch to another one.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a traumatic injury of the nervous system or in the course of a neurodegenerative disease, the speed of axonal regeneration and the control of the inflammatory response are fundamental parameters of functional recovery. Spontaneous regeneration takes place in the peripheral nervous system, although the process is slow and often incomplete. There is currently no efficient treatment for enhancing axonal regeneration, including elongation speed and functional reinnervation. Ligands of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) are currently under investigation as therapeutic means for promoting neuroprotection, accelerating axonal regeneration and modulating inflammation. The mechanisms of action of TSPO ligands involve the regulation of mitochondrial activity and the stimulation of steroid biosynthesis. In the peripheral nervous system, TSPO expression is strongly up-regulated after injury, primarily in Schwann cells and macrophages, but also in neurones. Its levels return to low control values when nerve regeneration is completed, strongly supporting an important role in regenerative processes. We have demonstrated a role for the benzoxazine etifoxine in promoting axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat sciatic nerve, either after freeze-injury or complete transection. Etifoxine is already clinically approved for the treatment of anxiety disorders (Stresam(®) , Biocodex, Gentilly, France). Daily treatment with etifoxine resulted in a two-fold acceleration in axonal regeneration, as well as in a marked improvement of both the speed and quality of functional recovery. The neuroregenerative effects of etifoxine are likely to be mediated by TSPO, and they may involve an increased synthesis of pregnenolone and its metabolites, such as progesterone. After freeze-injury of the sciatic nerve, administration of etifoxine also strongly reduced the number of activated macrophages and decreased the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Thus, this drug offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. It may also be used as a lead compound in the development of new TSPO-based neuroprotective approaches.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology 09/2011; 24(1):71-81. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paragangliomas are tumors arising in the paraganglia. Involvement of the spine is less common, and usually takes the form of intradural compression of the cauda equina. We report here a case of a 60-year-old man with recurrent and progressive pain of his sacral and perineal area, accompanied by occasional rod and perineal hypoesthesia on admission. He underwent laminectomies of the vertebral bodies S1 and S2, and an en bloc resection of the tumor. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed a paraganglioma. Postoperative staging showed no pathological abnormalities, and no tumor recurrence after one year. Even though rare, the paraganglioma of the sacral spinal canal should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors occurring in the spine.