[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of Brazil nuts on the inflammatory markers of healthy individuals.
A randomized crossover study was conducted with 10 healthy individuals (mean age 24.7 ± 3.4 y). Each individual was tested four times regarding intake of different portions of Brazil nuts: 0, 5, 20 and 50 g. At each testing period, peripheral blood was collected before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after intake of nuts, as well as at 5 and 30 d after intake of various Brazil nut portions. Blood samples were tested for high-sensitivity to C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urea, and creatinine.
Consumption of nuts did not affect biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function, indicating absence of hepatic and renal toxicity. A single intake of Brazil nuts (20 or 50 g) caused a significant decrease in serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels (P < 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05).
The results indicate a long-term decrease in inflammatory markers after a single intake of large portions of Brazil nuts in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the long-term effect of regular Brazil nut consumption on inflammatory markers should be better investigated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the potential protective effect of organic purple grape juice (PGJ) on oxidative stress produced by an exhaustive exercise bout in rats. To test this hypothesis, rats were acutely treated with organic PGJ (Vitis labrusca) and subsequently submitted to an exhaustive exercise bout. Parameters of oxidative stress, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels, 2',7',-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, and nonprotein sulfhydryl levels (NP-SH) in the brain, skeletal muscle, and blood, were evaluated. Enzyme activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in the brain, skeletal muscle, and blood were also assayed. Statistical analysis showed that the exhaustive exercise bout increased TBARS levels and DCFH-DA oxidation, and decreased NP-SH levels in rat tissue. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was increased in groups exposed to both exercise and PGJ treatment. The results indicate that organic PGJ intake was able to protect against the oxidative damage caused by an exhaustive exercise bout in different rat tissues.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the efficacy of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] in attenuating methylmercury- (MeHg-)induced toxicity in rats. Adult rats were treated with MeHg [5 mg/kg/day, intragastrically (i.g.)] and/ or (PhSe)2 [1 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] for 21 days. Body weight gain and motor deficits were evaluated prior to treatment, on treatment days 11 and 21. In addition, hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial function (reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, total and nonprotein thiol levels, membrane potential (ΔΨm), metabolic function, and swelling), hepatic, cerebral, and muscular mercury levels, and hepatic, cerebral, and renal thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were evaluated. MeHg caused hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited TrxR activity in liver (38,9%), brain (64,3%), and kidney (73,8%). Cotreatment with (PhSe)2 protected hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial thiols from depletion by MeHg but failed to completely reverse MeHg's effect on hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction or hepatic, cerebral, and renal inhibition of TrxR activity. Additionally, the cotreatment with (PhSe)2 increased Hg accumulation in the liver (50,5%) and brain (49,4%) and increased the MeHg-induced motor deficits and body-weight loss. In conclusion, these results indicate that (PhSe)2 can increase Hg body burden as well as the neurotoxic effects induced by MeHg exposure in rats.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:983821.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute liver failure (ALF) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to oxidative damage and depletion of hepatic glutathione, consequently changes in cell energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction have been observed after APAP overdose. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], a simple organoselenium compound with antioxidant properties, previously demonstrated to confer hepatoprotection. However, little is known about the protective mechanism on mitochondria. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects (PhSe)2 to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and, secondly, compare in the liver homogenate the hepatoprotective effects of the (PhSe)2 to the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during APAP-induced ALF to validate our model. Mice were injected intraperitoneal with APAP (600 mg/kg), (PhSe)2 (15.6 mg/kg), NAC (1200 mg/kg), APAP+(PhSe)2 or APAP+NAC, where the (PhSe)2 or NAC treatment were given 1 h following APAP. The liver was collected 4 h after overdose. The plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased after APAP administration. APAP caused a remarkable increase of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reactive species and protein carbonylation) and decrease of the antioxidant defense in the liver homogenate and mitochondria. APAP caused a marked loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the mitochondrial ATPase activity, and the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and increased the mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were significantly prevented by (PhSe)2. The effectiveness of (PhSe)2 was similar at a lower dose than NAC. In summary, (PhSe)2 provided a significant improvement to the mitochondrial redox homeostasis and the mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction caused by membrane permeability transition in the hepatotoxicity APAP-induced.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81961. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a strong soft electrophile chemical form ubiquitously found in environment and it can exhibit highly toxic effects in multiple organs. Previously, we observed that diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] reduced the deposition and toxicity of MeHg in brain, liver and kidney of mice. The present study was designed to investigate the possible interaction of (PhSe)2 with MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver slices in vitro. The liver slices were treated with MeHg (25 μM) and/or (PhSe)2 (0.5, 1, and 5 μM) for 30 min at 37 °C, then mitochondria were isolated from these slices, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, oxygen consumption, membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial metabolic function, nonprotein and total thiol content, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were assessed. MeHg decreased the mitochondrial function by increasing ROS production, impairing oxygen consumption, and collapsing the ΔΨm. (PhSe)2 protected against the MeHg-induced ROS generation and prevented the decrease in the respiratory rate and in the mitochondrial metabolic function [measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction]. (PhSe)2 (0.5 μM) blunted the MeHg-induced ΔΨm collapse; however at 5 μM, (PhSe)2 alone decreased ΔΨm, yet partially protected the mitochondria from MeHg-induced depolarization. MeHg and (PhSe)2 (0.5 μM) alone or in combination had no effect on nonprotein and total thiol levels and on the GPx activity in mitochondria isolated from liver slices. The protection afforded by (PhSe)2 against the MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be associated with (PhSe)2 metabolism to a selenol intermediate, forming inert complex(es) with MeHg, thus effectively decreasing its toxicity. Furthermore, the selenol intermediate of (PhSe)2 (selenophenol) may have direct antioxidant properties against peroxides induced by MeHg. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that low (PhSe)2 concentrations effectively prevent the MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of glutamate uptake have been hypothesized as key mechanisms contributing to quinolinic acid (QA)-induced toxicity. Thus, here we investigate if the use of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2), guanosine (GUO) and MK-801, alone or in combination, could protect rat brain slices from QA-induced toxicity. QA (1 mM) increased ROS formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased cell viability after 2 h of exposure. (PhSe)(2) (1 μM) protected against this ROS formation in the cortex and the striatum and also prevented decreases in cell viability induced by QA. (PhSe)(2) (5 μM) prevented ROS formation in the hippocampus. GUO (10 and 100 μM) blocked the increase in ROS formation caused by QA and MK-801 (20 and 100 μM) abolished the pro-oxidant effect of QA. When the noneffective concentrations were used in combination produced a decrease in ROS formation, mainly (PhSe)(2) + GUO and (PhSe)(2) + GUO + MK-801. These results demonstrate that this combination could be effective to avoid toxic effects caused by high concentrations of QA. Furthermore, the data obtained in the ROS formation and cellular viability assays suggest different pathways in amelioration of QA toxicity present in the neurodegenerative process.
Neurochemical Research 06/2012; 37(9):1993-2003. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. From this perspective, we have evaluated the possible antioxidant capacities of five different phthalocyanines (PCs), consisting of four metallophthalocyanines (MPCs) and one simple phthalocyanine (PC) in order to explore, for the first time, the potential antioxidant activities of these compounds. Our results show that all PCs tested in this study have significant antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation assay, providing protection from sodium nitroprusside -induced oxidative damage to supernatant from the homogenized liver, brain, e rim of mice. Compared to the non-induced control, the PCs were generally more efficient in reducing malondialdehyde levels in all assays on lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside; the order of approximate decrease in efficiency was as follows: manganese-PC (better efficiency)>copper-PC>iron-PC>zinc-PC>PC (worst efficiency). Furthermore, the copper-PC and manganese-PC compounds exerted a significant protective effect in deoxyribose degradation assays, when employing Fe(2+), Fe(2+)+H(2)O(2), and H(2)O(2) solutions. In conclusion, all PCs tested here were shown to be promising compounds for future in vivo investigations, because of their potential antioxidant activities in vitro.
Toxicology in Vitro 02/2012; 26(1):125-32. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the combination of guanosine and 2 organoselenium compounds (ebselen and diphenyl diselenide) against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brains. Glutamate caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a decrease in [(3)H]-glutamate uptake in striatal, cortical, and hippocampal slices. Guanosine, ebselen, and diphenyl diselenide prevented glutamate-induced ROS production in striatal, cortical and hippocampal slices. The combination of guanosine with organoselenium compounds was more effective against glutamate-induced ROS production than the individual compounds alone. Guanosine prevented [(3)H]-glutamate uptake inhibition in striatal, cortical, and hippocampal slices. Thus, protection against the harmful effects of glutamate is possibly due to the combination of the antioxidant properties of organoselenium compounds and the stimulatory effect of guanosine on glutamate uptake. In conclusion, the combination of antioxidants and glutamatergic system modulators could be considered a potential therapy against the prooxidant effects of glutamate.
Brain research 11/2011; 1430:101-11. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of chronic exposure to fluphenazine in liver and kidney of rats, as well as the possible protective effect of diphenyl diselenide on the fluphenazine-induced damage. Long-term treatment with fluphenazine caused an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in liver and kidney homogenates. Diphenyl diselenide treatment did not affect delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, but fluphenazine alone or in combination with diphenyl diselenide showed an inhibitory effect on delta-ALA-D activity in liver. Diphenyl diselenide plus fluphenazine treatment increased the reactivation index of hepatic delta-ALA-D by approximately 80%. Superoxide dismutase activity decreased in liver of rats treated with fluphenazine alone. The combined treatment with fluphenazine and diphenyl diselenide was able to ameliorate superoxide dismutase activity in liver of rats. Catalase activity was augmented in liver from rats treated with fluphenazine, and this increase was prevented when diphenyl diselenide was co-administered. Taken together, these results indicate that the association of diphenyl diselenide with fluphenazine could protect the liver from lipid peroxidation and ameliorate superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Moreover, our data point to the relationship between the oxidative stress and fluphenazine treatment in liver and kidney of rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although physical activity and creatine supplementation have been a documented beneficial effect on neurological disorders, its implications for epilepsy are still controversial. Thus, we decided to investigate the effects of 6 weeks swimming training, creatine supplementation (300 mg/kg; p.o.) or its combination seizures and neurochemical alterations induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We found that 6 weeks of physical training or creatine supplementation decreased the duration of PTZ-induced seizures in adult male Wistar rats, as measured by cortical and hippocampal electroencephalography and behavioral analysis. Importantly, the combination between physical training and creatine supplementation had additive anticonvulsant effects, since it increased the onset latency for PTZ-induced seizures and was more effective in decrease seizure duration than physical training and creatine supplementation individually. Analysis of selected parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in the hippocampus revealed that physical training, creatine supplementation or its combination abrogated the PTZ-elicited increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonylation, as well as decrease in non-protein-thiols content, catalase (CAT) and SOD activities. In addition, this protocol of physical training and creatine supplementation prevented the PTZ-induced decrease in hippocampal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Altogether, these results suggest that protection elicited physical training and creatine supplementation of selected targets for reactive species-mediated damage decrease of neuronal excitability and consequent oxidative damage elicited by PTZ. In conclusion, the present study shows that physical training, creatine supplementation or its combination attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and oxidative damage in vivo, and provide evidence that combination between creatine supplementation and physical exercise may be a useful strategy in the treatment of convulsive disorders.
Neurochemistry International 05/2009; 55(5):333-40. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we decided to investigate whether physical exercise protects against the electrographic, oxidative, and neurochemical alterations induced by subthreshold to severe convulsive doses of pentyltetrazole (PTZ).
The effect of swimming training (6 weeks) on convulsive behavior induced by PTZ (30, 45, and 60 mg/kg, i.p.) was measured and different electrographic electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies obtained from freely moving rats. After EEG recordings, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPS), protein carbonyl, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, and glutamate uptake were measured in the cerebral cortex of rats.
We showed that physical training increased latency and attenuated the duration of generalized seizures induced by administration of PTZ (45 mg/kg). EEG recordings showed that physical exercise decreased the spike amplitude after PTZ administration (all doses). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that protection of physical training against PTZ-induced seizures strongly correlated with NPS content, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, and glutamate-uptake maintenance. Physical training also increased SOD activity, NPS content, attenuated ROS generation per se, and was effective against inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity induced by a subthreshold convulsive dose of PTZ (30 mg/kg). In addition, physical training protected against 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, TBARS and protein carbonyl increase, decrease of NPS content, inhibition of SOD and catalase, and inhibition glutamate uptake induced by PTZ.
These data suggest that effective protection of selected targets for free radical damage, such as Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, elicited by physical training protects against the increase of neuronal excitability and oxidative damage induced by PTZ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oximes are compounds generally used to reverse the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition caused by organophosphates (OPs). The aim of this study was to examine the capacity of the butane-2,3-dionethiosemicarbazone oxime to scavenge different forms of reactive species (RS) in vitro, as well as counteract their formation. The potential antioxidant and toxic activity of the oxime was assayed both in vitro and ex vivo. The obtained results indicate a significant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity at 0.275, 0.5 and 5microM of oxime, respectively (p< or =0.05). The oxime exhibited a powerful inhibitory effect on dihydroxybenzoate formation (25microM) (p< or =0.05) and also decreased deoxyribose degradation induced by Fe2+ and via Fenton reaction (0.44 and 0.66mM, respectively) (p< or =0.05). The oxime showed a significant inhibitory effect on sigma-phenantroline reaction with Fe2+ (0.4mM) suggesting a possible interaction between the oxime and iron. A significant decrease in the basal and pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, and kidney of mice was observed both in vitro and ex vivo (p< or =0.05). In addition, in our ex vivo experiments the oxime did not depict any significant changes in thiol levels of liver, kidney and brain as well as did not modify the delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity in these tissues. Taken together our results indicate an in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of the oxime possibly due to its scavenging activity toward different RS and a significant iron interaction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine whether the treatment with haloperidol (HP), valerian or both in association impairs the liver or kidney functions. Valerian alone did not affect oxidative stress parameters in the liver or kidney of rats. HP alone only increased glutathione (GSH) depletion in liver, but not in kidney. However, when HP was associated with valerian, an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) reactive species production was observed in the hepatic tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities were not affected by the HP plus valerian treatment in the liver and kidney of rats. HP and valerian when administered independently did not affect the activity of hepatic and renal delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D), however, these drugs administered concomitantly provoked an inhibition of hepatic delta-ALA-D activity. The delta-ALA-D reactivation index was higher in rats treated with HP plus valerian than other treated groups. These results strengthen the view that delta-ALA-D can be considered a marker for oxidative stress. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was not altered by any treatment. However, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was higher in the HP group and HP plus valerian group. Our findings suggest adverse interactions between haloperidol and valerian.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 08/2008; 46(7):2369-75. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diethyl-2-phenyl-2-tellurophenyl vinylphosphonate (DPTVP) is an organotellurium compound with low toxicity after subcutaneous administration in mice. This study evaluated possible in vivo and ex vivo toxicological effects of daily injections of DPTVP for 12 days in mice, using the intraperitoneal administration. This route potentially increases the pharmacokinetics of absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity of DPTVP. Treatment with DPTVP (0, 30, 50, 75, 100, 250, 350 or 500 micromol/kg) were not associated with mortality or body weight loss. Nevertheless, the liver and liver-to-body weight ratio increased in groups treated with 350 and 500 micromol/kg of DPTVP. However, plasmatic aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities (classical markers of hepatotoxicity) were not increased after diethyl-2-phenyl-2-tellurophenyl vinylphosphonate administration. Hepatic, renal and cerebral thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), delta-ALA-D activity and Vitamin C levels were not modified after DPTVP treatment. Renal and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were unchanged after DPTVP treatment. Conversely, SOD activity significantly increased in brain in groups treated with 50, 75, 100 and 500 micromol/kg of DPTVP treated groups. Our findings corroborates that brain is a potential target for organochalcogen action. The absence of severe overt signs of toxicity after sub-chronic exposure to DPTVP reinforces the necessity for more detailed pharmacological studies concerning this new organotellurium compound.
Life Sciences 05/2007; 80(20):1865-72. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species have been demonstrated to be associated with a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoid compounds have been investigated for their protective action against oxidative mechanisms in different in vivo and in vitro models, which seems to be linked to their antioxidant properties. In the present study, we examine the protective mechanism of quercitrin, a glycoside form of quercetin, against the production of TBARS induced by different agents. TBARS production was stimulated by the incubation of rat brain homogenate with Fe2+, Fe2+ plus EDTA, quinolinic acid (QA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and potassium ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6]3-). Quercitrin was able to prevent the formation of TBARS induced by pro-oxidant agents tested; however, it was more effective against potassium ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6]3-, IC50=2.5), than quinolinic acid (QA, IC50=6 microg/ml) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, IC50=5.88 microg/ml) than Fe2+ (Fe2+, IC50=14.81 microg/ml), Fe2+ plus EDTA (Fe2+ plus EDTA, IC50=48.15 microg/ml). The effect of quercitrin on the Fenton reaction was also investigated (deoxyribose degradation). Quercitrin caused a significant decrease in deoxyribose degradation that was not dependent on the concentration. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that quercitrin exhibits a scavenger and antioxidant role, and these effects probably are mediated via different mechanisms, which may involve the negative modulation of the Fenton reaction and NMDA receptor.
Brain Research 09/2006; 1107(1):192-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential role of oxidative stress in the evolution of cervical cancer, including its pre-malignant states.
Erythrocytes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, plasma vitamin C and thiol content and total blood delta-ALA-D levels were estimated in 46 untreated cervical cancer and pre-malignant patients and in 46 age-sex-matched controls.
Erythrocytes from patients, regardless of disease state, pre-malignant (low squamous intraepithelial lesion--LSIL and high squamous intraepithelial lesion--HSIL) or cancer, showed a significant 2-3 times increase in TBARS levels (P<0.01). Plasma vitamin C was lower in the carcinoma group (P<0.01). The reactivation index of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) was higher in the patient group, when compared to control (P<0.01).
LSIL, HSIL or cervical cancer can be associated with changes in 3 indicators of oxidative stress: increase in erythrocyte TBARS, ALA-D reactivation index and a decrease in vitamin C content, that may play an important role in carcinogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the effects of three simple organochalcogenides (diphenyl diselenide, diphenyl ditelluride and diphenyl telluride) and ebselen on the glutamate-driven 45Ca2+ influx into chick embryonic retinal cells, as well as their effects on the excitotoxic injury in retina cells. None of the compounds tested interfered with basal 45Ca2+ uptake. Diphenyl diselenide and diphenyl ditelluride had no effects on glutamate-driven 45Ca2+ influx. Diphenyl telluride (100-400 microM) decreased and ebselen (100-400 microM) completely blocked the glutamate-driven 45Ca2+ influx (P < 0.01) into chick retinal explants. The assessment of neural injury was made spectrophotometrically by quantification of cellularly reduced MTT (3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) 24 h after the beginning of glutamate exposure (8 h). Ebselen had no effects on retinal MTT reduction when co-incubated with glutamate for 8 h. However, when ebselen (100 and 400 microM) was co-incubated for 8 h with glutamate and remained in the incubation media until MTT evaluation (24 h after the beginning of incubation), it protected retinal cells against the decrease in MTT reduction induced by glutamate. These data indicate that besides its capacity of interacting with Ca2+ channels, other mechanisms are involved in the neuroprotection afforded by ebselen in this work, possibly its antioxidant properties.
Brain Research 03/2005; 1039(1-2):146-52. · 2.88 Impact Factor