G E Gibson

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (214)888.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Thiamine dependent enzymes are diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency in vitro and in rodents is a useful model of this reduction. Thiamine interacts with cellular calcium stores. To directly test the relevance of the thiamine dependent changes to dynamic processes in AD, the interactions must be studied in cells from patients with AD. These studies employed fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction including reductions in thiamine dependent enzymes and abnormalities in calcium homeostasis and oxidative processes occur in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. Bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exaggerated in fibroblasts from patients with AD bearing a presenilin-1 (PS-1) mutation and in control fibroblasts treated with oxidants. ER calcium regulates calcium entry into the cell through capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which is reduced in fibroblasts and neurons from mice bearing PS-1 mutations. Under physiological conditions, mitochondria and ER play important and interactive roles in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Thus, the interactions of mitochondria and oxidants with CCE were tested. Inhibition of ER Ca(2+)-ATPase by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) stimulates CCE. CPA-induced CCE was diminished by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) export (-60 %) or import (-40 %). Different aspects of mitochondrial Ca(2+) coupled to CPA-induced-CCE were sensitive to select oxidants. The effects were very different when CCE was examined in the presence of InsP3, a physiological regulator of ER calcium release, and subsequent CCE. CCE under these conditions was only mildly reduced (20-25 %) by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) export, and inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake exaggerated CCE (+53 %). However, t-BHP reversed both abnormalities. The results suggest that in the presence of InsP3, mitochondria buffer the local Ca(2+) released from ER following rapid activation of InsP3R and serve as a negative feedback to the CCE. The results suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+) modifies the depletion and refilling mechanism of ER Ca(2+) stores.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 04/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20-48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ∼30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/- or DLD+/- littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on "in-house" mitochondrial ATP reserves.-Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.
    The FASEB Journal 03/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced glucose metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and an outstanding biomarker of disease progression. Glucose metabolism may be an attractive therapeutic target, whether the decline initiates AD pathophysiology or is a critical component of a cascade. The cause of cerebral regional glucose hypometabolism remains unclear. Thiamine-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and are diminished in brains of AD patients at autopsy. Further, the reductions in thiamine-dependent processes are highly correlated to the decline in clinical dementia rating scales. In animal models, thiamine deficiency exacerbates plaque formation, promotes phosphorylation of tau and impairs memory. In contrast, treatment of mouse models of AD with the thiamine derivative benfotiamine diminishes plaques, decreases phosphorylation of tau and reverses memory deficits. Diabetes predisposes to AD, which suggests they may share some common mechanisms. Benfotiamine diminishes peripheral neuropathy in diabetic humans and animals. In diabetes, benfotiamine induces key thiamine-dependent enzymes of the pentose shunt to reduce accumulation of toxic metabolites including advanced glycation end products (AGE). Related mechanisms may lead to reversal of plaque formation by benfotiamine in animals. If so, the use of benfotiamine could provide a safe intervention to reverse biological and clinical processes of AD progression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function'.
    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 09/2012; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the molecular sequence of events that culminate in multiple abnormalities in brains from patients that died with Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help to reveal the mechanisms of the disease and identify upstream events as therapeutic targets. The activity of the mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) in homogenates from autopsy brain declines with AD. Experimental reductions in KGDHC in mouse models of AD promote plaque and tangle formation, the hallmark pathologies of AD. We hypothesize that deficits in KGDHC also lead to the abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and cytosolic calcium following K(+) depolarization that occurs in cells from AD patients and transgenic models of AD. The activity of the mitochondrial enzyme KGDHC was diminished acutely (minutes), long-term (days), or chronically (weeks). Acute inhibition of KGDHC produced effects on calcium opposite to those in AD, while the chronic or long-term inhibition of KGDHC mimicked the AD-related changes in calcium. Divergent changes in proteins released from the mitochondria that affect endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels may underlie the selective cellular consequences of acute versus longer term inhibition of KGDHC. The results suggest that the mitochondrial abnormalities in AD can be upstream of those in calcium.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2011; 33(6):1121.e13-24. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    Qingli Shi, Gary E Gibson
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    ABSTRACT: These experiments reveal for the first time that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate oxidant regulated expression of a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle gene (mdh2). mdh2 encoded malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is elevated by an unknown mechanism in brains of patients that died with Alzheimer's disease. Oxidative stress, an early and pervasive event in Alzheimer's disease, increased MDH activity and mRNA level of mdh2 by 19% and 22%, respectively, in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22). Post-transcriptional events underlie the change in mRNA because actinomycin D did not block the elevated mdh2 mRNA. Since miRNAs regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, the expression of miR-743a, a miRNA predicted to target mdh2, was determined and showed a 52% reduction after oxidant treatment. Direct interaction of miR-743a with mdh2 was demonstrated with a luciferase based assay. Over-expression or inhibition of miR-743a led to a respective reduction or increase in endogenous mRNA and MDH activity. The results demonstrate that miR-743a negatively regulates mdh2 at post-transcriptional level by directly targeting the mdh2 3'UTR. The findings are consistent with the suggestion that oxidative stress can elevate the activity of MDH through miR-743a, and provide new insights into possible roles of miRNA in oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2011; 118(3):440-8. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced brain metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer Disease (AD) that is highly correlated to the decline in brain functions. Decreased activities of key tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle enzymes may underlie this abnormality and are highly correlated to the clinical state of the patient. The activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), an arguably rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle, declines with AD, but the mechanism of inactivation and whether it can be reversed remains unknown. KGDHC consists of multiple copies of three subunits. KGDHC is sensitive to oxidative stress, which is pervasive in AD brain. The present studies tested the mechanism for the peroxynitrite-induced inactivation and subsequent reactivation of purified and cellular KGDHC. Peroxynitrite inhibited purified KGDHC activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduced subunit immunoreactivity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. Nano-LC-MS/MS showed that the inactivation was related to nitration of specific tyrosine residues in the three subunits. GSH diminished the nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity of peroxynitrite-treated KGDHC, restored the activity and the immunoreactivity for KGDHC. Nano-LC-MS/MS showed this was related to de-nitration of specific tyrosine residues, suggesting KGDHC may have a denitrase activity. Treatment of N2a cells with peroxynitrite for 5 min followed by recovery of cells for 24 h reduced KGDHC activity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. Increasing cellular GSH in peroxynitrite-treated cells rescued KGDHC activity to the control level. The results suggest that restoring KGDHC activity is possible and may be a useful therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(20):17640-17648. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that mediates the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle, is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the metabolic effects of a partial KGDHC activity reduction on brain glucose metabolism using mice with disrupted expression of dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST; gene encoding the E2k subunit of KGDHC). Brain tissue extracts from cortex and cerebellum of 6-week-old heterozygote DLST knockout mice (DLST+/-) and corresponding wild-type mice injected with [U-(13) C]glucose and decapitated 15 min later were analyzed. An increase in the concentration of glucose in cortex suggested a decrease in the cortical utilization of glucose in DLST+/- mice. Furthermore, the concentration and (13) C labelling of aspartate in cortex were reduced in DLST+/- mice. This decline was likely caused by a decrease in the pool of oxaloacetate. In contrast to results from cell culture studies, no indications of altered glycolysis or GABA shunt activity were found. Glucose metabolism in the cerebellum was unaffected by the decrease in KGDHC activity. Among metabolites not related to glucose metabolism, the concentration of taurine was decreased in the cortex, and that of tyrosine was increased in the cerebellum. These results imply that diminished KGDHC activity has the potential to induce the reduction in glucose utilization that is seen in several neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 03/2011; 89(12):1997-2007. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Images of brain metabolism and measurements of activities of components of the electron transport chain support earlier studies that suggest that brain glucose oxidation is inherently abnormal in a significant proportion of persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, we measured the activities of enzymes of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle in dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex from schizophrenia patients (N=13) and non-psychiatric disease controls (N=13): the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), succinate thiokinase (STH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarase and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Activities of aconitase (18.4%, p<0.05), KGDHC (26%) and STH (28.2%, p<0.05), enzymes in the first half of the TCA cycle, were lower, but SDH (18.3%, p<0.05) and MDH (34%, p<0.005), enzymes in the second half, were higher than controls. PDHC, CS, ICDH and fumarase activities were unchanged. There were no significant correlations between enzymes of TCA cycle and cognitive function, age or choline acetyl transferase activity, except for aconitase activity which decreased slightly with age (r=0.55, p=003). The increased activities of dehydrogenases in the second half of the TCA cycle may reflect a compensatory response to reduced activities of enzymes in the first half. Such alterations in the components of TCA cycle are adequate to alter the rate of brain metabolism. These results are consistent with the imaging studies of hypometabolism in schizophrenia. They suggest that deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes can be associated with mental disease that takes the form of schizophrenia.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2011; 21(3):254-60. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced brain metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer Disease (AD) that is highly correlated to the decline in brain functions. Decreased activities of key tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle enzymes may underlie this abnormality and are highly correlated to the clinical state of the patient. The activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), an arguably rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle, declines with AD, but the mechanism of inactivation and whether it can be reversed remains unknown. KGDHC consists of multiple copies of three subunits. KGDHC is sensitive to oxidative stress, which is pervasive in AD brain. The present studies tested the mechanism for the peroxynitrite-induced inactivation and subsequent reactivation of purified and cellular KGDHC. Peroxynitrite inhibited purified KGDHC activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduced subunit immunoreactivity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. Nano-LC-MS/MS showed that the inactivation was related to nitration of specific tyrosine residues in the three subunits. GSH diminished the nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity of peroxynitrite-treated KGDHC, restored the activity and the immunoreactivity for KGDHC. Nano-LC-MS/MS showed this was related to de-nitration of specific tyrosine residues, suggesting KGDHC may have a denitrase activity. Treatment of N2a cells with peroxynitrite for 5 min followed by recovery of cells for 24 h reduced KGDHC activity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. Increasing cellular GSH in peroxynitrite-treated cells rescued KGDHC activity to the control level. The results suggest that restoring KGDHC activity is possible and may be a useful therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(20):17640-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diminished thiamine (vitamin B1) dependent processes and oxidative stress accompany Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency in animals leads to oxidative stress. These observations suggest that thiamin may act as an antioxidant. The current experiments first tested directly whether thiamin could act as an antioxidant, and then examined the physiological relevance of the antioxidant properties on oxidant sensitive, calcium dependent processes that are altered in AD. The first group of experiments examined whether thiamin could diminish reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by two very divergent paradigms. Dose response curves determined the concentrations of t-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP) (ROS production) or 3-morpholinosydnonimine ((SIN-1) (RNS production) to induce oxidative stress within cells. Concentrations of thiamine that reduced the RNS in cells did not diminish the ROS. The second group of experiments tested whether thiamine alters oxidant sensitive aspects of calcium regulation including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and capacitative calcium entry (CCE). Thiamin diminished ER calcium considerably, but did not alter CCE. Thiamine did not alter the actions of ROS on ER calcium or CCE. On the other hand, thiamine diminished the effect of RNS on CCE. These data are consistent with thiamine diminishing the actions of the RNS, but not ROS, on physiological targets. Thus, both experimental approaches suggest that thiamine selectively alters RNS. Additional experiments are required to determine whether diminished thiamine availability promotes oxidative stress in AD or whether the oxidative stress in AD brain diminishes thiamine availability to thiamine dependent processes.
    Neurochemical Research 12/2010; 35(12):2107-16. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Qingli Shi, Gary Gibson
    Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2010; 6(4).
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2010; 6(4).
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    Gary E Gibson, Qingli Shi
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques made of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, and memory deficits. Thus, the events initiating the cascade leading to these end points may be more effective therapeutic targets than treating each facet individually. In the small percentage of cases of AD that are genetic (or animal models that reflect this form of AD), the factor initiating AD is clear (e.g., genetic mutations lead to high Abeta1-42 or hyperphosphorylated tau proteins). In the vast majority of AD cases, the cause is unknown. Substantial evidence now suggests that abnormalities in glucose metabolism/mitochondrial function/oxidative stress (GMO) are an invariant feature of AD and occur at an early stage of the disease process in both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD. Indeed, decreases in brain glucose utilization are diagnostic for AD. Changes in calcium homeostasis also precede clinical manifestations of AD. Abnormal GMO can lead to plaques, tangles, and the calcium abnormalities that accompany AD. Abnormalities in GMO diminish the ability of the brain to adapt. Therapies targeting mitochondria may ameliorate abnormalities in plaques, tangles, calcium homeostasis, and cognition that comprise AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2010; 20 Suppl 2:S591-607. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilin-1 (PS1) and -2 (PS2), which when mutated cause familial Alzheimer disease, have been localized to numerous compartments of the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, nuclear envelope, endosomes, lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and mitochondria. Using three complementary approaches, subcellular fractionation, gamma-secretase activity assays, and immunocytochemistry, we show that presenilins are highly enriched in a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum that is associated with mitochondria and that forms a physical bridge between the two organelles, called endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria-associated membranes. A localization of PS1 and PS2 in mitochondria-associated membranes may help reconcile the disparate hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and may explain many seemingly unrelated features of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2009; 175(5):1810-6. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of a key mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), declines in many neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of three subunits. The dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase (DLST) component is unique to KGDHC. DLST(+/-) mice showed reduced mRNA and protein levels and decreased brain mitochondrial KGDHC activity. Neurotoxic effects of mitochondrial toxins were exacerbated in DLST(+/-) mice. MPTP produced a significantly greater reduction of striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of DLST(+/-) mice. DLST deficiency enhanced the severity of lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment. Striatal lesions induced by either malonate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) were significantly larger in DLST(+/-) mice than in wildtype controls. DLST deficiency enhanced the 3-NP inhibition of mitochondria enzymes, and 3-NP induced protein and DNA oxidations. These observations support the hypothesis that reductions in KGDHC may impair the adaptability of the brain and contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2009; 36(2):320-30. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sublethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post-transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhances ROS production in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington's Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II+III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium-activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a crosslinking enzymes that can modulate transcription, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic approaches in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2009; 1802(1):122-34. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Saravanan Karuppagounder, Gary E. Gibson
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    ABSTRACT: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) is a unique example of a nutritional deficit that produces a generalized impairment in oxidative metabolism and leads to metabolic encephalopathy or delirium, memory deficits and selective neuronal death in particular brain regions. Experimental TD is a classical model of a nutritional deficit associated with a generalized impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective cell loss in the brain. The response to TD is altered by the genetic background (i.e., strain) and the age of the animal. Changes in thiamine-dependent processes have also been implicated in ischemia (stroke), diabetes and multiple neurodegenerative disorders. An understanding of the mechanism by which TD leads to brain dysfunction and eventually to selective neuronal death is likely to facilitate our understanding of the role of thiamine in all these disorders. In addition, the results are likely to help our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms leading to altered neuronal functions and neuronal death in these other disorders.
    05/2009: pages 235-260;
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    ABSTRACT: Diminished energy metabolism and reduced activity of brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The relation between diminished KGDHC activity and altered energy metabolism is unknown. The present study tested whether a reduction in the KGDHC activity would alter cellular metabolism by comparing metabolism of [U-13C]glucose in a human embryonic kidney cell line (E2k100) to one in which the KGDHC activity was about 70% of control (E2k67). After a 2 h incubation of the cells with [U-13C]glucose, the E2k67 cells showed a greater increase in 13C labeling of alanine compared with the E2k100 cells. This suggested an increase in glycolysis. Furthermore, an increase in labeled lactate after 12 h incubation supported the suggestion of an increased glycolysis in the E2k67 cells. Increased GABA shunt in the E2k67 cells was indicated by increased 13C labeling of GABA at both 2 and 12 h compared with the control cells. GABA concentration as determined by HPLC was also increased in the E2k67 cells compared with the control cells. However, the GABA shunt was not sufficient to normalize metabolism in the E2k67 cells compared with control at 2 or 12 h. However, by 24 h metabolism had normalized (i.e. labeling was similar in E2k67 and E2k100). Thus, the data are consistent with an enhanced glycolysis and GABA shunt in response to a mild reduction in KGDHC. Our findings indicate that a mild change in KGDHC activity can lead to large changes in metabolism. The changes may maintain normal energy metabolism but make the cells more vulnerable to perturbations such as occur with oxidants.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2009; 109 Suppl 1:214-21. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial abnormalities link gene defects and/or environmental insults to the neurodegenerative process. The interaction of oxidants with calcium and the mitochondrial enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle are central to that relationship. Abnormalities that were discovered in brains or fibroblasts from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been modeled in vitro and in vivo to assess their pathophysiological importance and to determine how they might be reversed. The conclusions are consistent with the hypothesis that the AD-related abnormalities result from oxidative stress. The selection of compounds for reversal is complex because the actions of the relevant compounds vary under different conditions, such as cell redox states and acute versus chronic changes. However, the models that have been developed are useful for testing the effectiveness of the potential medications. The results suggest that the reversal of mitochondrial deficits and a reduction in oxidative stress will reduce clinical and pathological changes and benefit patients.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 1147:221-32. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. In human AD brains, the activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (α-KGDHC) is reduced. KGDHC is mostly involved in NADH production. It can also participate in oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The mitochondrial dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase enzyme (DLST) is a key subunit specific to the α-KGDHC. In cultured cells, reduction of DLST increased H2O2-induced ROS generation and cell death. Thus, we asked whether partial genetic deletion of DLST could accelerate the onset of AD pathogenesis, using a transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition crossed with DLST+/− mice. Tg19959 mice, which carry the human amyloid precursor protein with two mutations, develop amyloid deposits and progressive behavioral abnormalities. We compared Tg19959 mice to Tg19959-DLST+/− littermates at 2–3 months of age and studied the effects of DLST deficiency on amyloid deposition, spatial learning and memory, and oxidative stress. We found that α-KGDHC activity was reduced in DLST+/− mice. We also found that DLST deficiency increased amyloid plaque burden, Aβ oligomers, and nitrotyrosine levels and accelerated the occurrence of spatial learning and memory deficits in female Tg19959 mice. Our data suggest that α-KGDHC may be involved in AD pathogenesis through increased mitochondrial oxidative stress.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2009; · 5.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
888.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2012
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1981–2012
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1991–2009
    • Burke Medical Research Institute New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1981–2008
    • White Plains Hospital
      White Plains, New York, United States
  • 1976–2008
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Moscow State Textile University
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 2006
    • University of North Dakota
      • School of Medicine and Health Sciences
      Grand Forks, ND, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Institute for Nutritional Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2004
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1995
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      Maryland, United States
    • New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1993–1995
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1992
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1984
    • Cornell College
      Cornell, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1979
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Center for Culture and Health
      Los Angeles, CA, United States