[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer contained three major forms of non-small-cell lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), adenocarcinoma (AdC), and large cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was first, to assess the reproducibility of a set of histopathological features for SqCC in relation to other poorly differentiated non-small-cell lung cancers and second, to assess the value of immunohistochemistry in improving the diagnosis.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 09/2014; 9(9):1354-1362. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are different tumor categories with no pathogenetic, morphologic, clinical, or therapeutic similarities: NETs are epithelial to neural tumors in contrast to GISTs, which show mesenchymal cell lineage. Both tumors, however, arise more frequently from the gastrointestinal tract and may benefit of specific target therapeutic approaches: imatinib/STI-571 for GISTs and m-Tor pathway inhibitors or somatostatin analogs for NETs. The role of pathologist is crucial when dealing with both NETs and GISTs, as morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis often provide helpful information on the clinical behavior and management. We here propose a general overview on nomenclature of tumors classification and suggestions for histological report of both NETs and GISTs. Moreover, we will approach in finer details the immunohistochemical analysis on origin and differential diagnosis in NETs as well as the prognosis and resistance to therapy in GISTs. This review emphasized recent literature advances regarding similarities and differences in the managerial pathologist's approach to either tumor type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastatic malignant mesothelioma to the oral cavity is extremely rare. They are more common in the jaw bones than the soft tissue. Occurrence of the malignant disease typically carries an average survival rate of 9-12 months METHODS:: Thirteen patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical pleurectomy decortication, followed by radiotherapy from August 2012 to September 2013. Patients were followed up with computed tomography of the chest and the abdomen every 3 months. All patients were followed up until February 2014.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2014; 9(8):1226-1229. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard treatment of peritoneal pseudomyxoma is based on cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The establishment of newer systemic treatments is an unmet clinical need for unresectable or relapsed peritoneal pseudomyxoma. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-4 regimen) in terms of response rate in this subset of patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were included in a single-center, observational study and treated with FOLFOX-4 administered every 2 weeks for up to 12 cycles or until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity.RESULTS: Twenty consecutive patients were reviewed from July 2011 to September 2013. Only partial responses were observed, with an objective response rate of 20%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 8 months and 26 months, respectively. Two patients were able to undergo laparotomy with complete cytoreduction and HIPEC in one case. Safety data for FOLFOX-4 were consistent with the literature. By means of a mutant enriched polymerase chain reaction, KRAS mutation was found in 16 of 19 cases (84%), and MGMT promoter methylation was found in 8 (42%, all KRAS mutant).CONCLUSION: FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy is tolerable and active in patients with peritoneal pseudomyxoma when disease is deemed unresectable or relapsed after peritonectomy and HIPEC. The identification of predictive biomarkers, such as KRAS for resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies and MGMT for response to temozolomide, is a priority for the development of evidence-based treatment strategies for peritoneal pseudomyxoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims. This randomized trial evaluated the feasibility and safety of thulium 2010-nm laser to perform anatomic lung resections in patients with incomplete fissures, as compared to mechanical staplers with or without sealants. Study design. Seventy-two patients scheduled for segmentectomy or lobectomy were enrolled. After intraoperative confirmation of the extent of resection and incomplete fissures (Craig type 2, 3 or 4), they were randomized and allocated to one of the following arms: laser resection by thulium (group A) or standard resection with mechanical staplers with or without sealants (group B). The primary endpoints of the study included analysis of intraoperative and postoperative course, and costs. Results. Thirty-eight patients were assigned to group A (32 lobectomies, 6 segmentectomies) and 34 to group B (31 lobectomies, 3 segmentectomies). No 30-day mortality was observed. Median operative times were 145.0 minutes (group A) and 142.5 minutes (group B, P = 0.83). The median time to drainage removal was 5 days (group A) and 4 days (group B), while the median length of hospital stay was the same (7 days). Prolonged air leaks >7 days were observed in 12 patients of group A (32%) and 10 patients of group B (29%, P = 0.46). Unpredictable late pneumothorax occurred in 3 patients of group A (2 readmissions, need for 1 repeat thoracotomy). Cost analysis demonstrated an intraoperative advantage for group A (mean 807 ± 212 euro) versus group B (mean 1,047+/-276 euro, P <0.0001), but the differences in total costs could be due to chance (P = 0.83). Conclusions. The use of laser to complete fissures can lead to late pneumothorax, even in the absence of postoperative air leaks. Moreover, the use of laser to complete fissures did not prove to reduce overall costs. Trial Registration Identification Number: 41/10 (IRB00001457 - FWA00001798 - IORG0001063).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations, morphological features, and clinical behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary mucin-producing adenocarcinomas may be indistinguishable on conventional histology from a metastasis, as thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression often is lacking and KRAS mutations are widely present even in extrapulmonary sites. Few data have been reported on the diagnostic role of napsin-A and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene alterations in this challenging differential diagnosis. Seventy-seven surgically resected cases, including 53 primary and 24 metastatic tumors from different sites, were evaluated for napsin-A, TTF-1, and ALK by immunohistochemistry and for EGFR mutations by direct sequencing. Overall, napsin-A expression in primary lung mucin-producing adenocarcinomas was 36% (8% mucinous, 17% colloid, 87.5% solid, and 100% signet ring cell) and TTF-1 expression reached an overall figure of 42% (12.5% mucinous, 33% colloid, 87.5% solid, and 100% signet ring cell). Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas did not react with napsin-A or with TTF-1. All primary and metastatic tumors lacked EGFR mutations, while a single case of signet ring cell lung adenocarcinoma showed ALK expression and rearrangement at fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. Napsin-A has a lower sensitivity compared with TTF-1 in primary mucin-producing adenocarcinomas of the lung. However, both antibodies have an absolute specificity, being always negative in metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas. EGFR mutations and ALK translocation or expression are exceedingly rare in mucin-producing adenocarcinomas of the lung, resulting unnecessary as diagnostic tool in this setting.
International Journal of Surgical Pathology 03/2014; · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classification of lung neuroendocrine (NE) tumors is a step-wise process with four tumor categories being identified by morphology, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid, large-cell NE carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Ki-67 antigen or protein (henceforth simply Ki-67) has been largely studied in these tumors, but the clinical implications are so far not clear. A well-defined role has regarded the diagnostic use in the separation of TC and AC from SCLC in nonsurgical specimens, with monoclonal antibody MIB-1 resulting in the most used reagent after antigen retrieval procedures. Uncertainties, however, have arisen in its assessment, usually expressed as Ki-67 labeling index, because of some variability in obtaining either value of the fraction. A diagnostic role is currently lacking, even though there are significant differences in most cases between TC and AC, less so between large-cell NE carcinoma and SCLC. In addition, the prognostic role of Ki-67 is debated, likely due to methodological and biological reasons. The last challenge would be to identify an effective lung-specific grading system based on Ki-67 labeling index. In this review article, five relevant issues to Ki-67 have been addressed by using a question-answer methodology, with relevant key points discussing major interpretation issues. The conclusion is that Ki-67 is a feasible and potentially meaningful marker in lung NE tumors, but more data are needed to determine its ideal function in this setting of tumors.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2014; 9(3):273-84. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cetuximab and panitumumab show an increased efficacy for patients with KRAS-NRAS-BRAF and PI3KCA wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, primary resistance occurs in a relevant subset of molecularly enriched populations.
We evaluated the outcome of 68 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and RAS, BRAF and PI3KCA status according to ALK gene status (disomic vs. gain of ALK gene copy number - defined as mean of 3 to 5 fusion signals in ≥10% of cells). All consecutive patients received cetuximab and irinotecan or panitumumab alone for chemorefractory disease.
No ALK translocations or amplifications were detected. ALK gene copy number gain was found in 25 (37%) tumors. Response rate was significantly higher in patients with disomic ALK as compared to those with gain of gene copy number (70% vs. 32%; p = 0.0048). Similarly, progression-free survival was significantly different when comparing the two groups (6.7 vs. 5.3 months; p = 0.045). A trend was observed also for overall survival (18.5 vs. 15.6 months; p = 0.885).
Gain of ALK gene copy number might represent a negative prognostic factor in mCRC and may have a role in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e92147. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung neuroendocrine tumors are catalogued in four categories by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004) classification. Its reproducibility and prognostic efficacy was disputed. The WHO 2010 classification of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms is based on Ki67 proliferation assessment and proved prognostically effective. This study aims at comparing these two classifications and at defining a prognostic grading system for lung neuroendocrine tumors. The study included 399 patients who underwent surgery and with at least 1 year follow-up between 1989 and 2011. Data on 21 variables were collected, and performance of grading systems and their components was compared by Cox regression and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. At Cox analysis, WHO 2004 stratified patients into three major groups with statistically significant survival difference (typical carcinoid vs atypical carcinoid (AC), P=0.021; AC vs large-cell/small-cell lung neuroendocrine carcinomas, P<0.001). Optimal discrimination in three groups was observed by Ki67% (Ki67% cutoffs: G1 <4, G2 4-<25, G3 ≥25; G1 vs G2, P=0.021; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001), mitotic count (G1 ≤2, G2 >2-47, G3 >47; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001), and presence of necrosis (G1 absent, G2 <10% of sample, G3 >10% of sample; G1 vs G2, P≤0.001; and G2 vs G3, P≤0.001) at uni and multivariable analyses. The combination of these three variables resulted in a simple and effective grading system. A three-tiers grading system based on Ki67 index, mitotic count, and necrosis with cutoffs specifically generated for lung neuroendocrine tumors is prognostically effective and accurate.
Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2014; 21(1):1-16. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) unveiled by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has the same clinical outcome as those typed by morphology is still matter of debate. A total of 145 stage III-IV, consecutive inoperable NSCLC patients treated by chemotherapy (133 cases) or EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (12 cases) and including 100 biopsies, 11 surgical specimens, and 34 cytological samples had originally accounted for 120 adenocarcinomas (ADs), 19 squamous cell carcinomas (SQCs), and 6 adenosquamous carcinomas (ADSQCs) by integrating morphology and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1)/p40 IHC. Thirty-two NSCLC-not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) cases were identified by morphology revision of the original diagnoses, which showed solid growth pattern (P < .001), 22 ADs, 5 SQCs, and 5 ADSQCs by IHC profiling (P < .001), and 10 gene-altered tumors (3 EGFR, 5 KRAS, and 2 ALK). While no significant relationships were observed between response to therapy and original, morphology or IHC diagnoses, driver mutations and tumor differentiation by TTF1 expression, AD run better progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) than other tumor types by morphology (P = .010 and P = .047) and IHC (P = .033 and P = .046), respectively. Furthermore, patients with NSCLC-NOS confirmed as AD by IHC tended to have poorer OS (P = .179) and PFS (P = .193) similar to that of ADSQC and SQC (P = .702 and P = .540, respectively). A category of less differentiated AD with poorer prognosis on therapy could be identified by IHC, while there were no differences for SQC or ADSQC. The terminology of "NSCLC-NOS, favor by IHC" is appropriate to alert clinicians toward more aggressive tumors.
International Journal of Surgical Pathology 12/2013; · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsEwing sarcoma primary to the ileum (IES) has rarely been documented. Little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical implications of IES, which may be critical to identify novel molecular markers. EWSR1-FEV translocation is exceedingly rare in ES, as FEV expression is restricted to prostate, brain, and serotonin neuroendocrine cells (NE) and related tumors. Methods and resultsParaffin sections or snap-frozen material was used in this investigation. Tumors were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR (EWSR1-FLI1, EWSR1-ERG and EWSR1-FEV transcripts), FISH analysis (EWSR1 break-apart and specific EWSR1-FEV translocation) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Ten ileum neuroendocrine tumors (INET) made up the control group for EWSR1-FEV translocation.Among 445 ES cases spanning a period of 20 years, seven (1.6%) were IES. All tumors were immunoreactive for synaptophysin, CD99, FLI 1 and vimentin. FISH identified EWSR1 rearrangement in all cases, with EWSR1-FLI1 transcripts being detected in all but one tumor showing the uncommon EWSR1-FEV rearrangement upon SKY, RT-PCR and FISH confirmation. The mean survival of EWSR1-FLI1 patients was 14 months, whereas the EWSR1-FEV patient was alive after 15 years despite several recurrences controlled by surgery alone. No INET showed EWSR1 translocation. Conclusions
Most IES share the common EWSR1-FLI1 translocation, but EWSR1-FEV could be specific of tumors arising in the ileum and showing better prognosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at challenging pulmonary large cell carcinoma (LLC) as tumor entity and defining different subgroups according to immunohistochemical and molecular features. Expression of markers specific for glandular (TTF-1, napsin A, cytokeratin 7), squamous cell (p40, p63, cytokeratins 5/6, desmocollin-3), and neuroendocrine (chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56) differentiation was studied in 121 LCC across their entire histological spectrum also using direct sequencing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations and FISH analysis for ALK gene translocation. Survival was not investigated. All 47 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrated a true neuroendocrine cell lineage, whereas all 24 basaloid and both 2 lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas showed squamous cell markers. Eighteen out of 22 clear cell carcinomas had glandular differentiation, with KRAS mutations being present in 39 % of cases, whereas squamous cell differentiation was present in four cases. Eighteen out of 20 large cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified, had glandular differentiation upon immunohistochemistry, with an exon 21 L858R EGFR mutation in one (5 %) tumor, an exon 2 KRAS mutation in eight (40 %) tumors, and an ALK translocation in one (5 %) tumor, whereas two tumors positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for all other markers were considered adenocarcinoma. All six LCC of rhabdoid type expressed TTF-1 and/or CK7, three of which also harbored KRAS mutations. When positive and negative immunohistochemical staining for these markers was combined, three subsets of LCC emerged exhibiting glandular, squamous, and neuroendocrine differentiation. Molecular alterations were restricted to tumors classified as adenocarcinoma. Stratifying LCC into specific categories using immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis may significantly impact on the choice of therapy.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 11/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular marker of well-differentiated/de-differentiated liposarcomas is MDM2 gene amplification coupled with protein overexpression and wild-type TP53. MDMX is a recently identified MDM2 homolog and its presence in this tumor is unexplored. Our aim was to investigate the role of full-length MDM2 and MDMX proteins and their isoforms in surgical specimens of well-differentiated/de-differentiated liposarcomas in view of Nutlin-3A (a MDM2 inhibitor) treatment. Frozen and matched formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from surgical specimens was examined by means of: (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine MDM2 and MDMX gene copy numbers; (2) RT-PCR and densitometry to analyze alternative splicing forms of mdm2 and mdmx; (3) immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to assess the corresponding translated proteins; and (4) in vitro and in silico assays to determine their affinity for Nutlin-3A. All these cases showed MDM2 gene amplification with an MDMX disomic pattern. In all cases, the full-length mdm2 transcript was associated with the mdm2-b transcript, with ratios ranging from 0.07 to 5.6, and both were translated into protein; mdmx and mdmx-s were co-transcripted, with ratios ranging from 0.1 to 5.6. MDMX-S was frequently more upregulated than MDMX at both transcriptional and protein level. Each case showed different amounts of mdm2, mdm2-b, mdmx, and mdmx-s transcripts and the corresponding proteins. In vitro assays showed that Nutlin-3A was ineffective against MDM2-B and was unable to disrupt the MDMX/TP53 and MSMX-S/TP53 complexes. Molecular simulations confirmed these in vitro findings by showing that MDM2 has high Nutlin-3A affinity, followed by MDMX-S, MDMX, and MDM2-B. Nutlin-3A is predicted to be a good therapeutic option for well-differentiated/de-differentiated liposarcomas. However, our findings predict heterogeneous responses depending on the relative expression of mdm2, mdm2-b, mdmx, and mdmx-s transcripts and proteins.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 9 September 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.107.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) may be used in lung carcinoids (LCs) for diagnosis and therapy, although additional targets are clearly warranted. This study aimed to investigate whether olfactory receptor 51E1 (OR51E1) may be a potential target for LCs. OR51E1 coding sequence was analyzed in LC cell lines, NCI-H727 and NCI-H720. OR51E1 transcript expression was investigated in LC cell lines and frozen specimens by quantitative real-time PCR. OR51E1, SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections of 73 typical carcinoids (TCs), 14 atypical carcinoids (ACs) and 11 regional/distant metastases, and compared to OctreoScan data. Immunohistochemistry results were rendered semiquantitatively on a scale from 0 to 3+, taking into account the cellular compartmentalization (membrane vs. cytoplasm) and the percentage of tumor cells (<50% vs. >50%). Our results showed that wild-type OR51E1 transcript was expressed in both LC cell lines. OR51E1 mRNA was expressed in 9/12 TCs and 7/9 ACs (p=NS). Immunohistochemically, OR51E1, SSTR2, SSTR3 and SSTR5 were detected in 85%, 71%, 25% and 39% of TCs, and in 86%, 79%, 43% and 36% of ACs, respectively. OR51E1 immunohistochemical scores were higher or equal compared to SSTRs in 79% of TCs and 86% of ACs. Furthermore, in the LC cases where all SSTR subtypes were lacking, membrane OR51E1 expression was detected in 10/17 TCs and 1/2 ACs. Moreover, higher OR51E1 immunohistochemical scores were detected in 5/6 OctreoScan-negative LC lesions. Therefore, the high expression of OR51E1 in LCs makes it a potential novel diagnostic target in SSTR-negative tumors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 08/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some experimental evidence indicates that uncommon BRAF mutations consisting in the substitution of 2 adjacent nucleotides within codon 600 are in a cis configuration and associate with BRAF gene amplification. These findings suggest that BRAF(V600) mutations are unlikely to occur as homozygous alterations in clinical melanoma samples, with gene amplification perhaps contributing to mask the heterozygous state.