Andrew G Jobson

NCI-Frederick, Фредерик, Maryland, United States

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Publications (12)44.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) is a serine/threonine kinase that participates in a series of signaling networks responsible for maintaining genomic integrity and responding to DNA damage. The development of selective Chk2 inhibitors has recently attracted much interest as a means of sensitizing cancer cells to current DNA-damaging agents used in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, selective Chk2 inhibitors may reduce p53-mediated apoptosis in normal tissues, thereby helping to mitigate adverse side effects from chemotherapy and radiation. Thus far, relatively few selective inhibitors of Chk2 have been described and none have yet progressed into clinical trials. Here, we report crystal structures of the catalytic domain of Chk2 in complex with a novel series of potent and selective small molecule inhibitors. These compounds exhibit nanomolar potencies and are selective for Chk2 over Chk1. The structures reported here elucidate the binding modes of these inhibitors to Chk2 and provide information that can be exploited for the structure-assisted design of novel chemotherapeutics.
    Journal of Structural Biology 09/2011; 176(3):292-301. DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2011.09.008 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serine/threonine checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is an attractive molecular target for the development of small molecule inhibitors to treat cancer. Here, we report the rational design of Chk2 inhibitors that target the gatekeeper-dependent hydrophobic pocket located behind the adenine-binding region of the ATP-binding site. These compounds exhibit IC(50) values in the low nanomolar range and are highly selective for Chk2 over Chk1. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structures of the inhibitors in complex with the catalytic kinase domain of Chk2 to verify their modes of binding.
    FEBS letters 09/2011; 585(20):3245-9. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.08.050 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2009; 8(Supplement 1):A120-A120. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.TARG-09-A120 · 6.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2009; 331(3):816-26. DOI:10.1124/jpet.109.154997 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous in vitro cleavage data showed that XR11576 and XR5944 stabilised topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II complexes on DNA in a dose-dependent fashion. However, some studies indicated a possible topoisomerase-independent mechanism of action for these drugs. Three methods, the TARDIS assay, immunoband depletion and the K(+)/SDS assay have been used to assess topoisomerase complex formation induced by XR11576 or XR5944 in human leukaemic K562 cells. TARDIS and immunoband depletion assays demonstrated that XR11576 and XR5944 induced complex formation for both topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, following exposure times of 24 and 48 h at concentrations of 1 or 10 microM. The K(+)/SDS assay showed the formation of protein/DNA complexes after a 1 h exposure to 1 or 10 muM XR11576. Our data confirm that XR11576 or XR5944 can form topoisomerase complexes, after long periods of exposure.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 09/2008; 63(5):889-901. DOI:10.1007/s00280-008-0812-9 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that curcumin, a phytochemical with cancer chemopreventive potential, might be useful in the treatment of several solid and hematological malignancies. DNA topoisomerases (topos) are the target of several drugs commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. These drugs induce topo-DNA complexes with either topo I or topo II; then cellular processing converts these complexes into permanent DNA strand breaks that trigger cell death. Using the TARDIS in vivo assay, this study shows for the first time that curcumin induces topo I and topo II (alpha and beta)-DNA complexes in K562 leukemia cells. A comparative analysis revealed that the levels of these complexes were higher than those induced by several standard topo I and topo II inhibitors at equitoxic doses. Curcumin-induced topo I and topo II-DNA complexes were prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine; this suggests that, unlike the standard topo inhibitors, reactive oxygen species may mediate the formation of these complexes. Overall, this work shows that curcumin is capable of inducing topo-DNA complexes in cells with both topo I and topo II and increases the evidence suggesting that this dietary agent has potential to be tested in cancer chemotherapy.
    Journal of Natural Products 01/2008; 70(12):1884-8. DOI:10.1021/np070332i · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a ser/thr kinase involved in the ATM-Chk2 checkpoint pathway, is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either arrest of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur or apoptosis if the DNA damage is severe. Drugs that specifically target Chk2 could be beneficial when administered in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in cancer therapy. Recently, a novel inhibitor of Chk2, NSC 109555, was identified that exhibited high potency (IC(50) = 240 nM) and selectivity. This compound represents a new chemotype and lead for the development of novel Chk2 inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. To facilitate the discovery of new analogs of NSC 109555 with even greater potency and selectivity, we have solved the crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with the catalytic domain of Chk2. The structure confirms that the compound is an ATP-competitive inhibitor, as the electron density clearly reveals that it occupies the ATP-binding pocket. However, the mode of inhibition differs from that of the previously studied structure of Chk2 in complex with debromohymenialdisine, a compound that inhibits both Chk1 and Chk2. A unique hydrophobic pocket in Chk2, located very close to the bound inhibitor, presents an opportunity for the rational design of compounds with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity.
    Protein Science 01/2008; 18(1):92-100. DOI:10.1002/pro.16 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chk2 is a protein kinase involved in the ATM-dependent checkpoint pathway ( This pathway is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either cell cycle arrest, to allow DNA repair to occur, or cell death (apoptosis). Chk2 is activated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation and autophosphorylation and in turn phosphorylates its downstream targets (Cdc25A, Cdc25C, BRCA1, p53, Hdmx, E2F1, PP2A, and PML). Inhibition of Chk2 has been proposed to sensitize p53-deficient cells as well as protect normal tissue after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. We have developed a drug-screening program for specific Chk2 inhibitors using a fluorescence polarization assay, immobilized metal ion affinity-based fluorescence polarization (IMAP). This assay detects the degree of phosphorylation of a fluorescently linked substrate by Chk2. From a screen of over 100,000 compounds from the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, we identified a bis-guanylhydrazone [4,4'-diacetyldiphenylureabis(guanylhydrazone); NSC 109555] as a lead compound. In vitro data show the specific inhibition of Chk2 kinase activity by NSC 109555 using in vitro kinase assays and kinase-profiling experiments. NSC 109555 was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP, which was supported by docking of NSC 109555 into the ATP binding pocket of the Chk2 catalytic domain. The potency of NSC 109555 was comparable with that of other known Chk2 inhibitors, such as debromohymenialdisine and 2-arylbenzimidazole. These data define a novel chemotype for the development of potent and selective inhibitors of Chk2. This class of drugs may ultimately be useful in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in the clinic.
    Molecular Pharmacology 11/2007; 72(4):876-84. DOI:10.1124/mol.107.035832 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel stable-isotope labeling approach for identification of phosphopeptides that utilizes adenosine triphosphate, in which four oxygen-16 atoms attached to the terminal phosphate group are substituted with oxygen-18 [gamma((18)O4)-ATP], has been developed. The ability to use gamma((18)O4)-ATP to monitor phosphorylation modification within various proteins was conducted by performing in vitro kinase reactions in the presence of a 1:1 mixture of gamma((18)O4)-ATP and normal isotopic abundance ATP (ATP). After tryptic digestion, the peptides were analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). Phosphorylated peptides are easily recognized within the MS spectrum owing to the presence of doublets separated by 6.01 Da; representing versions of the peptide modified by ATP and gamma((18)O4)-ATP. Standard peptides phosphorylated using gamma((18)O4)-ATP via in vitro kinase reactions showed no exchange loss of (18)O with (16)O. The identity of these doublets as phosphorylated peptides could be readily confirmed using tandem MS. The method described here provides the first direct stable-isotope labeling method to definitely detect phosphorylation sites within proteins.
    Analytical Chemistry 11/2007; 79(20):7603-10. DOI:10.1021/ac071584r · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is the target of camptothecin, and novel Top1 inhibitors are in development as anticancer agents. Top1 inhibitors damage DNA by trapping covalent complexes between the Top1 catalytic tyrosine and the 3'-end of the broken DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) can repair Top1-DNA covalent complexes by hydrolyzing the tyrosyl-DNA bond. Inhibiting Tdp1 has the potential to enhance the anticancer activity of Top1 inhibitors ( and to act as antiproliferative agents. In the present study, we report that neomycin inhibits Tdp1 more effectively than the related aminoglycosides paromomycin and lividomycin A. Inhibition of Tdp1 by neomycin is observed both with single- and double-stranded substrates but is slightly stronger with duplex DNA, which is different from aclarubicin, which only inhibits Tdp1 with the double-stranded substrate. Inhibition by neomycin can be overcome with excess Tdp1 and is greatest at low pH. To our knowledge, aminoglycoside antibiotics and the ribosome inhibitors thiostrepton, clindamycin-2-phosphate, and puromycin are the first reported pharmacological Tdp1 inhibitors.
    Molecular Pharmacology 08/2006; 70(1):366-72. DOI:10.1124/mol.105.021865 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 02/2006; 81:179-229. DOI:10.1016/S0079-6603(06)81005-6 · 4.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

276 Citations
44.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom