Akinori Egashira

Fukuoka City Hospital Organization, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (75)185.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old man had laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and unexpected gallbladder cancer, followed by a liver bed resection and lymph node dissection. Eleven years later, he had a port-site recurrence of gallbladder cancer requiring resection; at that time, no other site of recurrence was observed. The patient has survived for 20 months without another recurrence. Although a rare finding, clinicians should be alert to the possibility of such a recurrence even 11 years after complete cure of the primary tumor, particularly in patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for unexpected gallbladder cancer.
    Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery 11/2014; 7(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with increased chromosomal instability and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. The methylation status of the long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) element is a useful surrogate marker for global DNA methylation. Although LINE-1 hypomethylation is recognized as a poor prognostic marker, the correlation of LINE-1 methylation level with tumor suppressor gene mutation, chromosomal instability, and clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There seemed to be characteristic risk factors in cirrhotic patients for posthepatectomy complications because these patients have less hepatic reserve as compared with noncirrhotic patients. The aim of the current study was to identify these characteristic risk factors in cirrhotic patients. We performed 419 primary hepatectomies for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patients were divided into the cirrhotic group (n = 198) and the noncirrhotic group (n = 221), and the risk factors for posthepatectomy complications were compared between the groups. Thirty-six cirrhotic patients (18.2%) experienced Clavien's Grade III or more complications. Tumor size, intraoperative blood loss, duration of operation, major hepatectomy (two or more segments), and necessity of blood transfusion were found to be significant risk factors in univariate analyses. Multivariate analysis revealed that major hepatectomy and intraoperative blood loss were independent risk factors for posthepatectomy complications in patients with cirrhosis. On the other hand, the duration of operation was only an independent risk factor for posthepatectomy complication in noncirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients should avoid a major hepatectomy and undergo a limited resection preserving as much liver tissue as possible and meticulous surgical procedures to lessen intraoperative blood loss are mandatory to prevent major posthepatectomy complications.
    The American surgeon 02/2014; 80(2):166-170. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with esophageal cancer are susceptible to other primary cancers, but multiple primary cancers involving the esophagus and jejunum are rare. We herein report a case of primary jejunal cancer as a component of metachronous triple primary cancers including esophageal cancer and ascending colon cancer. A 63-year-old male patient with a history of surgery for esophageal cancer and ascending colon cancer was admitted to our hospital after experiencing 1 month of repeated vomiting and epigastric abdominal pain. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, duodenography, and computed tomography revealed a jejunal tumor located 2 cm from the ligament of Treitz on the anal side. Partial resection of the jejunum with lymph node dissection was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient remains well with no signs of recurrence 10 months after the operation. This is the first report of curative resection of triple primary cancers of the esophagus, jejunum, and colon. Patients with a history of esophageal cancer are susceptible to other primary cancers, and it is important to perform surveillance for the subsequent development of other cancers.
    Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica 11/2013; 104(11):435-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Both internal and external oxidative stresses act on DNA and can induce carcinogenesis. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is an indicator of oxidative stress and it leads to transversion mutations and carcinogenesis. 8-OHdG is excision-repaired by 8-OHdG DNA glycosylase (OGG1). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of oxidative DNA damage and repair enzymes on esophageal carcinogenesis. The levels of 8-OHdG and OGG1 were immunohistochemically evaluated in resected specimens, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 97 patients with esophageal cancer. Higher levels of 8-OHdG in normal esophageal epithelium were associated with a higher smoking index (P = 0.0464). The 8-OHdG level was higher in cancerous areas than in normal epithelia (P = 0.0061), whereas OGG1 expression was weaker in cancerous areas than in normal epithelia (P < 0.0001). An increase of OGG1 expression in normal epithelium was observed as 8-OHdG levels increased (P = 0.0011). However, this correlation was not observed in cancerous areas. High OGG1 expression in the cytoplasm was related to deeper tumors (P = 0.0023), node metastasis (P = 0.0065) and stage (P = 0.0019). Oxidative DNA damage, which is attributable to smoking as well as disturbances in DNA repair systems, appears to be closely related to esophageal carcinogenesis and its progression.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 08/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term dialysis often causes physiological and metabolic problems that may affect the outcomes of surgery. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether emergency surgery for acute abdomen yields similar outcomes in dialysis patients versus non-dialysis patients. The subjects were 126 patients who underwent emergency surgery for acute abdomen between January, 2007 and November, 2011 in our hospital. They were divided into a dialysis group (HD group; n = 9) and a non-dialysis group (non-HD group; n = 117) and their postoperative morbidity and mortality were compared. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were significantly worse in the HD group. All 9 of these patients succumbed to postoperative complications versus only 5 of the 117 patients in the non-HD group. The outcomes of emergency surgery for acute abdomen were significantly worse for dialysis patients than for non-dialysis patients. Prompt diagnosis, initiation of the most suitable surgical procedure, and meticulous postoperative cares are imperative to improving the surgical outcomes of dialysis patients.
    Surgery Today 07/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Akinori Egashira, Yasushi Toh
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    ABSTRACT: Although the surgical technique and perioperative management have been improving, the mortality and morbidity rates for transthoracic esophagectomy followed by reconstruction are still comparatively high among the surgery for gastrointestinal cancers. Necrosis of reconstructed organ is a rare but fatal complication associated with high mortality rate. It is quite important to promptly and accurately diagnose the disturbance of blood circulation of reconstructed organs and appropriately treat those diseases. Otherwise, the patients could easily fall into endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and multiple organ failure( MOF). Here, we will summarize the way of diagnosis and treatment for the necrosis of reconstructed organs and present 2 cases of reconstruction organ necrosis (gastric tube and ascending colon) after esophagectomy in our institute.
    Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery 07/2013; 66(8):767-71.
  • Yasushi Toh, Akinori Egashira, Manabu Yamamoto
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve a change in the DNA sequence have been increasingly recognized as an important key event of carcinogenesis, referred to as "epigenetic" changes. Major epigenetic mechanisms include the methylation of cytosines in DNA, changes of histone and chromatin structure by covalent posttranslational modifications of histone proteins and alterations in the expression of microRNAs. These epigenetic alterations have also been identified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this brief review, we will discuss DNA hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene promoters, histone modifications including histone acetylation/deacetylation and histone methylation and microRNAs in ESCC. Clinical implications of these epigenetic alterations in ESCC will be also discussed.
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer is frequently associated with head-and-neck cancer. It is difficult to select treatment modalities for synchronous multiple cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract. A 58-year-old woman had synchronous quintuple cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract and was in a poor nutritional state due to oral pain and dysphagia. Clinical stages of cancer in the oral cavity, hypopharynx, cervical esophagus, middle thoracic esophagus, and lower thoracic esophagus were IVA (cT4a N2b M0), I (cT1 N0 M0), IA (cT1 N0 M0), IA (cT1 N0 M0), and IIA (cT3 N0 M0), respectively. After preoperative chemoradiotherapy, curative resection of oral cavity cancer and a tube jejunostomy were performed. Then, pharyngolaryngectomy, total esophagectomy, and pharyngostomy were performed. Finally, after additional radiotherapy to the oral cavity, pharyngogastrostomy with gastric tube and microvascular anastomosis were performed. The patient achieved oral intake and is in good condition and has at this writing remained recurrence free for 26 months. This report suggests that even if there are multiple cancers, adopting multimodal treatment strategies for controlling each cancer may lead to a chance to obtain a complete cure.
    Esophagus 12/2012; 9(4). · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Surgical risk of laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in high risk patients was evaluated with E-PASS scoring system. Methodology: This study was based on 63 patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy; 14 patients belonging to high risk group (ASA≥3) and 49 classified as low risk group (ASA≤2). Fifty six patients who underwent conventional gastrectomy were used for comparison. Results: Intra- and postoperative complications were found in 4 and 3 of 14 high risk patients, respectively. We found a significant correlation between E-PASS score and complications. E-PASS score in high risk group was significantly higher than the value in low risk group. The estimated in-hospital mortality rate was significantly different between the two groups. When conventional gastrectomy group for high risk patients was compared, postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were similar in two surgical procedures; however E-PASS score and the estimated in-hospital mortality rate with conventional gastrectomy were significantly higher than the value with laparoscopic gastrectomy. Conclusions: There were no fatal complications in high risk patients with laparoscopic gastrectomy and E-PASS score was within safety margin. Extension of laparoscopic surgery in high risk patients was feasible when careful procedure was performed by a surgical team.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 07/2012; 60(121). · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replacing the thoracic esophagus with the colon is one mode of reconstruction after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. There is, however, a high incidence of postoperative necrosis of the transposed colon. This study evaluated the outcomes of colon interposition with the routine use of superdrainage by microvascular surgery. Twenty-one patients underwent colon interposition from 2004 to 2009. The strategy for colon interposition was to: (i) use the right hemicolon; (ii) reconstruct via the subcutaneous route; (iii) perform a microvascular venous anastomosis for all patients; and (iv) perform a microvascular arterial anastomosis when the arterial blood flow was insufficient. The clinicopathologic features, surgical findings, and outcomes were investigated. The colon was used because of a previous gastrectomy in 18 patients (85.7%) and synchronous gastric cancer in three patients (14.3%). Eight patients (38.1%) underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy including three (14.3%) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Seven patients (33.3%) underwent microvascular arterial anastomosis to supplement the right colon blood supply. Pneumonia occurred in four patients (19.0%). Anastomotic leakage was observed in five patients (23.8%); however, no colon necrosis was observed. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were both 50.6%. Colon interposition with superdrainage results in successful treatment outcomes. This technique is one option for colon interposition employing the right hemicolon.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 03/2012; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results and outcomes of surgical resection for esophageal carcinoma have improved remarkably in recent years; however, recurrence still frequently develops, even after complete resection. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of recurrence in this patient population. Among 208 patients, who underwent R0 resection for esophageal carcinoma, recurrence developed in 61. Clinical data were available for 56 of these patients, who were the subjects of this study. We evaluated the time, patterns, and treatment of recurrence in these patients. Recurrence developed within 1 and 2 years after esophagectomy in 71 and 84% of the patients, respectively, and was classified as loco-regional (54%), hematogenous (36%), or mixed type (10%). The prognosis of patients with loco-regional recurrence tended to be better than that of those with distant metastasis, although the difference was not significant (P = 0.088). Patients with recurrence treated by chemotherapy alone or multimodal therapy, such as radiation or surgery combined with systemic chemotherapy, survived significantly longer than those with untreatable recurrence (P = 0.016). These findings reinforce the importance of careful follow-up for both loco-regional and hematogenous recurrence after esophagectomy, particularly during the first 2 years.
    Surgery Today 02/2012; 42(8):752-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas can develop in the esophagogastric junction. To clarify the appropriate lymph node dissection range, lymph node metastases from cancers in the esophagogastric junction were investigated. The nodal metastases were analyzed in 64 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 129 with adenocarcinoma according to Siewert's classification, which is based on topographic anatomical criteria for adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinomas located above the esophagocardial junction had more frequent metastasis to the lower and middle mediastinal lymph nodes in proportion to the depth of the tumor. Nodal metastasis was also often detected in the abdominal lymph nodes. In contrast, adenocarcinomas metastasized less frequently to the mediastinal lymph nodes, and the metastatic rates in the abdominal nodes were higher than those from squamous cell carcinoma. Esophagectomy with mediastinal and abdominal lymph node dissection is considered to be an appropriate approach for surgical resection of squamous cell carcinomas, whereas transhiatally extended gastrectomy with lower mediastinal and abdominal lymph node dissection is recommended for the treatment of adenocarcinomas.
    Surgery Today 01/2012; 42(4):351-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multicenter phase II study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of oxaliplatin in combination with levofolinate and infusion 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX4) as first-line therapy for Japanese patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Sixty consecutive patients with histologically confirmed advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled in the study. Treatment was repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Two patients were ineligible. Toxicity was evaluated in 60 patients, who had received a part or all of the protocol therapy. A partial response was observed in 20 patients. The overall response rate was 34.5% (95% CI, 22.5%-48.1%) and the tumor control rate (partial response + stable disease) was 82.8%. The median progression-free survival was 6.9 months (95% CI, 5.1-9.8 months), and the median overall survival was 31.5 months (95% CI, 18.1-40.1 months). There were no toxicity-related deaths. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 48.3% of patients and often caused a delay in the subsequent treatment course. Mild to moderate cumulative peripheral sensory neuropathy affected 71.7% of patients. The results showed good tolerability and efficacy for first-line FOLFOX4 in the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer, indicating the promise of this regimen as first-line therapy for advanced colorectal cancer in the Japanese population.
    Surgery Today 12/2011; 41(12):1610-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) should be surgically resected, even those smaller than 5 cm in size, which is the threshold of clinical malignancy for submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviewed the use of laparoscopic surgery for gastric partial resection of GISTs or SMTs that were suspected to be GISTs. Eighteen patients underwent laparoscopic partial resection of the stomach for GISTs or SMTs. The tumor location was confirmed by intraluminal endoscopy. One-half of the circumference around the tumor was dissected, and the tumor was turned toward the abdominal cavity. The nonresected part of the tumor and the edge of the incision line was lifted up using forceps, and the incision line was closed using laparoscopic stapling devices. Two cases were diagnosed as GIST by endoscopic biopsy. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) examinations, which diagnosed five GISTs. There were 18 tumors smaller than 5 cm, including 10 GISTs, 4 leiomyomas, 3 schwannomas, and one heterotopic pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNAB is recommended for definite preoperative diagnosis of histopathologically unknown SMTs to determine the indications for surgery. The laparoscopic approach with the assistance of endoscopy is useful for improving the curability, with minimal invasiveness for the partial resection of GISTs.
    Surgery Today 11/2011; 42(6):554-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) for potentially resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. Patients with clinical stage II-III ESCC were classified into an NACRT group (n=76) and surgery alone group (n=92). The prognosis and the incidence of postoperative complications were retrospectively investigated. The pathological response to NACRT and patient prognosis were also analyzed. The 5-year survival rate was 47.7% in the surgery alone group and 56.5% in the NACRT group (p=0.4831). The 5-year survival rates of patients in whom NACRT was markedly effective was clearly better than that of the other patients (ineffective/slightly effective: 36.9%, moderately effective: 53.8%, markedly effective: 100%). The incidence of postoperative complications was 31.5% in the surgery alone group and 40.8% in the NACRT group (p=0.2121). A pathological complete response to NACRT is critical for improving the survival of patients with clinical stageII-III ESCC.
    Anticancer research 09/2011; 31(9):3073-7. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer on the postoperative course, and to determine the clinical significance of salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. Based on their preoperative treatment, 477 patients with esophageal cancer were classified into three groups: 253 patients who received surgery alone (Group I), 197 who received planned CRT (30-45 Gy, Group II), and 27 who received a salvage esophagectomy (radiation ≥60 Gy, Group III). Postoperative complications developed in 25, 40, and 59% of the patients in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, with pulmonary complications developing in 10, 15, and 30%, and anastomotic leakage developing in 13, 23, and 37%, respectively. Mortality rates were 2.4, 2.0, and 7.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed preoperative therapy to be an independent factor associated with postoperative risks: the odds ratios (ORs) of Groups II and III compared to Group I were 1.8 and 4.0 for pulmonary complications, while they were 1.9 and 2.8, respectively, for anastomotic leakage. No critical complications developed in the 14 patients who received salvage surgery performed with strict surgical indications after 2005. The survival of Group III was not significantly different from that of Groups I and II. Most patients who received an R1/R2 resection after definitive CRT died within 2 years after salvage surgery. Preoperative CRT is associated with postoperative complications especially in patients with R2 resection, while long-term survival can be achieved after R0 resections. Salvage surgery should be considered for carefully selected patients in whom R0 resection can be achieved.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2011; 46(11):1284-91. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metachronous gastric carcinoma arising in a gastric tube used for esophageal reconstruction has been occasionally encountered in long-term survivors of esophageal cancer. This study investigated 10 cases of gastric tube cancer in order to clarify the characteristics and the outcome of these patients. Four hundred and seventy-one patients underwent a radical esophagectomy at Kyushu University Hospital between 1989 and 2003. There were 10 cases of gastric tube cancer after an esophagectomy. The interval between the esophagectomy and the development of the gastric tube cancer ranged from 1.1 to 7 years. There was no peak for the incidence of gastric tube cancer. In 6 of 10 cases of gastric tube cancer, endoscopic or surgical resection were performed for the treatment; however, chemotherapy was administered to the other 4 cases for several reasons. The prognosis of patients who underwent resection was better than that of the other patients. Frequent endoscopic examinations are therefore important even several years after performing an esophagectomy, since the risk of gastric tube cancer is higher than the risk of a recurrence of esophageal cancer several years after an esophagectomy. Only an early diagnosis permits a less invasive and appropriate approach for the treatment of gastric tube cancer.
    Surgery Today 07/2011; 41(7):966-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: Hepatitis B or C virus infection is considered to be the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogen associated with HCC in regions with high exposure. Mutations in codon 249, exon 7 are a hallmark of AFB1 exposure. Therefore, to clarify the role of AFB1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined AFB1-DNA in liver tissue and sequenced TP53 in Japanese patients with HCC.Methods: Hepatocyte AFB1-DNA adducts were determined immunohistochemically and direct sequencing of TP53 was done to determine mutations in 188 of 279 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC. We assessed hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab) and HBSAg expression; patients without either were defined as having non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC HCC).Results: AFB1-DNA adducts were detected in hepatocyte nuclei in 18/279 patients (6%), including13/83 patients (16%) with NBNC HCC and 5/51 patients (10%) expressing hepatitis B surface antigen. None of the patients with HCV Ab (n=136) were positive for AFB1-DNA. The incidence of the G–T transversion and mutations in exon 7 of TP53 in patients with AFB1-DNA adducts were significantly higher in patients with than in patients without AFB1-DNA adducts. All three patients with the codon 249 AGG–AGT mutation had AFB1-DNA adducts.Conclusion: Although exposure to AFB1 is thought to be low in Japan, it is still associated with hepatocarcinogenesis, particularly in NBNC HCC and hepatitis B individuals.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 06/2011; 31(9):1366 - 1372. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast appears to be a rare neoplasm. Due to the limited number of the cases, a definitive therapeutic option for the disease has not yet been established. We herein report the case of a 57-year-old female patient with primary NEC of the breast who underwent a surgical resection and for whom the suitable adjuvant therapy is now being considered.
    Surgery Today 06/2011; 41(6):829-31. · 0.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
185.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Fukuoka City Hospital Organization
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1998–2013
    • Kyushu University
      • • Department of Surgery and Science
      • • Department of Clinical Radiology
      • • Graduate School of Medical Sciences
      • • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2011
    • Kumamoto University
      • Graduate School of Medical Sciences
      Kumamoto-shi, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2008
    • Japanese Red Cross
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004
    • Gunma University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken, Japan