Gary S Hill

Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Ouest), Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (68)536.33 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existing data suggest that increased interstitial fibrosis may occur abnormally in renal transplants from donations after uncontrolled circulatory death (uDCD).
    Transplantation 06/2014; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-HLA antibodies hamper successful transplantation, and activation of the complement cascade is involved in antibody-mediated rejection. We investigated whether the complement-binding capacity of anti-HLA antibodies plays a role in kidney-allograft failure. We enrolled patients who received kidney allografts at two transplantation centers in Paris between January 1, 2005, and January 1, 2011, in a population-based study. Patients were screened for the presence of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and their complement-binding capacity. Graft injury phenotype and the time to kidney-allograft loss were assessed. The primary analysis included 1016 patients. Patients with complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after transplantation had the lowest 5-year rate of graft survival (54%), as compared with patients with non-complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (93%) and patients without donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (94%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The presence of complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after transplantation was associated with a risk of graft loss that was more than quadrupled (hazard ratio, 4.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.69 to 8.49) when adjusted for clinical, functional, histologic, and immunologic factors. These antibodies were also associated with an increased rate of antibody-mediated rejection, a more severe graft injury phenotype with more extensive microvascular inflammation, and increased deposition of complement fraction C4d within graft capillaries. Adding complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies to a traditional risk model improved the stratification of patients at risk for graft failure (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.97). Assessment of the complement-binding capacity of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies appears to be useful in identifying patients at high risk for kidney-allograft loss.
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2013; 369(13):1215-26. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 09/2013; 9(5):256. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Humoral immune responses during heart transplantation may result in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), which is now taken into account on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens and ranked according to the pathologic AMR (pAMR) grades of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation classification. This classification might benefit from new immunohistological markers and validation by others biomarkers, namely donor-specific antibodies (DSA). From the 293 protocol EMBs performed in 113 patients in our institution during a 1-year period for this prospective study, 280 EMB specimens were available with both histology and immunohistochemistry. C4d and labeling of intravascular cells by cluster of differentiation (CD) 68 were performed on paraffin sections. Available sera (n = 150) concomitant of EMB specimens were tested for the presence of DSA. All of the pAMR+ EMB specimens, along with a set of randomized pAMR0 EMB specimens, were immunolabeled for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) effectors, phosphorylated 70 S6-kinase (p70S6K) and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP). AMR was diagnosed in 37 EMB specimens (13.2%): 1 pAMR1(I+), 27 pAMR1(H+), and 9 pAMR2. The proportion of DSA-positive EMB varied according to the pAMR grade, with pAMR0, pAMR1(H+), and pAMR2 EMB presenting 17.6%, 77.3%, and 100% of DSA-positivity, respectively. Among the 30 pAMR+ specimens with available DSA testing and the 30 pAMR0 randomized specimens, mTOR pathway immunohistochemistry showed endothelial cell positivity for p70S6K in 17 pAMR+ EMB specimens (56.7%) and in 1 pAMR0 EMB specimen (3.3%). pS6RP was detected in 8 pAMR+ EMB specimens (26.7%) and in 1 pAMR0 EMB specimen (3.3%). p70S6K and pS6RP immunohistochemistry afford new markers of AMR on EMB specimens because their expression is correlated with microcirculation inflammation and DSA. The correlation of DSA with pAMR grade suggests that this grading system is valid.
    The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 08/2013; 32(8):769-76. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rejection of allografts has always been the major obstacle to transplantation success. We aimed to improve characterisation of different kidney-allograft rejection phenotypes, identify how each one is associated with anti-HLA antibodies, and investigate their distinct prognoses. METHODS: Patients who underwent ABO-compatible kidney transplantations in Necker Hospital and Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris, France) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2008, were included in our population-based study. We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection, which was defined as the association of deterioration in function and histopathological lesions. The main outcome was kidney allograft loss-ie, return to dialysis. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology, C4d in allograft biopsies, and donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. FINDINGS: 2079 patients were included in the main analyses, of whom 302 (15%) had acute biopsy-proven rejection. We identified four distinct patterns of kidney allograft rejection: T cell-mediated vascular rejection (26 patients [9%]), antibody-mediated vascular rejection (64 [21%]), T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (139 [46%]), and antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis (73 [24%]). Risk of graft loss was 9·07 times (95 CI 3·62-19·7) higher in antibody-mediated vascular rejection than in T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (p<0·0001), compared with an increase of 2·93 times (1·1-7·9; P=0·0237) in antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis and no significant rise in T cell-mediated vascular rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1·5, 95% CI 0·33-7·6; p=0·60). INTERPRETATION: We have identified a type of kidney rejection not presently included in classifications: antibody-mediated vascular rejection. Recognition of this distinct phenotype could lead to the development of new treatment strategies that could salvage many kidney allografts. FUNDING: None.
    The Lancet 11/2012; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collapsing glomerulopathy(CG), characterized by collapse of the glomerular capillary loops onto the mesangial stalks is rarely associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently a genetic predisposition to HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been shown in Afro-Americans: MYH9 polymorhism in 2008 and then APOL1 variants (G1 and G2 alleles) in 2010 were shown to be strongly associated with HIVAN. We describe here for the first time the association of CG in a young Afro-American female with SLE having a homozygous mutation of APOL1. The clinical history, laboratory findings and immunofluorescence all confirmed a diagnosis of SLE. However, studies for factors associated with collapsing glomerulopathy in other situations were consistently negative. As this Afro-American patient developed a CG, we performed genotyping of APOL1. It was found that she is homozygotic for the G2 allele of APOL1. Despite.
    Lupus 09/2012; 21(13):1459-62. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 09/2012; 8(5):282. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of organic renal lesions in patients with end-stage liver disease is unknown. The goal of this study was to make a prospective evaluation of renal histological lesions in a group of unselected patients awaiting liver transplantation. Sixty cirrhotic patients underwent a renal biopsy via the transjugular route. The potential effect of renal lesions on renal function was evaluated five years after transplantation. The yield of biopsies enabling satisfactory analysis was 77%, and no major complications occurred. Proteinuria>0.5 g/day was observed in only 8.7% of these patients, microscopic haematuria in 4.3%, creatinine levels>133 mmol/L (1.5mg/dl) in 10.9%, and Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) clearance<60 ml/min in 13.0%. Twenty-five patients (55.3%) had a morphological diagnosis of renal disease, 15 displayed IgA nephropathy and immunofluorescence testing showed that 12 had specific diabetic linear staining for IgG and albumin, of whom seven had associated histological lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Five years after liver transplantation, renal function had significantly deteriorated more in patients with initial diabetic lesions than in those with normal histology or IgA nephropathy alone. In patients with end-stage liver disease, IgA nephropathy and diabetic lesions were frequently found despite the absence of renal impairment and/or urinalysis anomalies. Our results strongly suggest that severe renal failure develops preferentially in liver transplant recipients with diabetes or carbohydrate intolerance, and that pre-existing arterial lesions may favour the nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors. Diabetes prior to transplantation needs to be strictly managed and requires a renal sparing immunosuppressive regimen after transplantation.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2012; 57(3):572-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite improvements in outcomes of renal transplantation, kidney allograft loss remains substantial, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Identifying the pathologic pathways responsible for allograft loss, and the attendant development of therapeutic interventions, will be one of the guiding future objectives of transplant medicine. One of the most important advances of the past decade has been the demonstration of the destructive power of anti-HLA alloantibodies and their association with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Compelling evidence exists to show that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are largely responsible for the chronic deterioration of allografts, a condition previously attributed to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. The emergence of sensitive techniques to detect DSAs, together with advances in the assessment of graft pathology, have expanded the spectrum of what constitutes ABMR. Today, subtler forms of rejection--such as indolent ABMR, C4d-negative ABMR, and transplant arteriopathy--are seen in which DSAs exert a marked pathological effect. In addition, arteriosclerosis, previously thought to be a bystander lesion related to the vicissitudes of aging, is accelerated in ABMR. Advances in our understanding of the pathological significance of DSAs and ABMR show their primacy in the mediation of chronic allograft destruction. Therapies aimed at B cells, plasma cells and antibodies will be important therapeutic options to improve the length and quality of kidney allograft survival.
    Nature Reviews Nephrology 04/2012; 8(6):348-57. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurs in IgA nephropathy, but its clinical significance is not well described. We retrospectively examined a series of 128 patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy between 2002 and 2008 who had a mean follow-up of 44±27 months. In our series, 53% presented with lesions of TMA, acute or organized, in arteries and/or arterioles. Among patients with TMA, 4% were normotensive, 25% had controlled hypertension, and 71% had uncontrolled hypertension. Of those with uncontrolled hypertension, 26% had malignant hypertension. Histologically, the group with TMA had a significantly greater percentage of sclerotic glomeruli and worse tubulointerstitial fibrosis than those of the group without TMA. However, a significant minority of patients had near-normal histology, with minimal tubular atrophy (20%) and/or <20% interstitial fibrosis (24%). TMA rarely occurred in the absence of significant proteinuria. During follow-up, a doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD occurred in all patients with laboratory evidence of TMA, in 42% of those with morphologic evidence but no laboratory evidence of TMA, and in 11% of those without TMA. In summary, lesions of TMA are frequent in IgA nephropathy and may occur in normotensive patients with near-normal renal histology. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved remain undetermined, the current study rules out severe hypertension or advanced renal disease as sole causes.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2011; 23(1):137-48. · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • Kidney International 08/2011; 80(3):319-20. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2011; 11(8):1757; author reply 1758. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In heart transplants, the significance of very late rejection (after 7 years post-transplant, VLR) detected by routine endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the prevalence, histopathological and immunological phenotype, and outcome of VLR in clinically stable patients. Between 1985 and 2009, 10 662 protocol EMB were performed at our institution in 398 consecutive heart transplants recipients. Among the 196 patients with >7-year follow-up, 20 (10.2%) presented subclinical ≥3A/2R-ISHLT rejection. The VLR group was compared to a matched control group of patients without rejection. All biopsies were stained for C4d/C3d/CD68 with sera screened for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). In addition to cellular infiltrates with myocyte damage, 60% of VLR patients had evidence of intravascular macrophages. C4d and/or C3d-capillary deposition was found in 55% VLR EMB. All cases of VLR associated with microcirculation injury had DSAs (mean DSA(max) -MFI = 1751 ± 583). This entity was absent from the control group (p < 0.0001). Finally, after a similar follow-up postreference EMB of 6.4 ± 1 years, the mean of CAV grade was 0.76 ± 0.18 in the control group compared to 2.06 ± 0.26 in the VLR group respectively, p = 0.001). There was no difference in patient survival between study and control groups. In conclusion, VLR is frequently associated with complement-cascade activation, microvascular injury and DSA, suggesting an antibody-mediated process. VLR is associated with a dramatic progression to severe CAV in long-term follow-up.
    American Journal of Transplantation 06/2011; 11(7):1478-87. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In biopsies of renal allografts, arteriosclerosis is often more severe than expected based on the age of the donor, even without a history of rejection vasculitis. To determine whether preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) may contribute to the severity of arteriosclerosis, we examined protocol biopsies from patients with (n=40) or without (n=59) DSA after excluding those with any evidence of vasculitis. Among DSA-positive patients, arteriosclerosis significantly progressed between month 3 and month 12 after transplant (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 1.12 ± 0.10, P=0.014); in contrast, among DSA-negative patients, we did not detect a statistically significant progression during the same timeframe (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.10, P=not significant). Available biopsies at later time points supported a rate of progression of arteriosclerosis in DSA-negative patients that was approximately one third that in DSA-positive patients. Accelerated arteriosclerosis was significantly associated with peritubular capillary leukocytic infiltration, glomerulitis, subclinical antibody-mediated rejection, and interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that donor-specific antibodies dramatically accelerate post-transplant progression of arteriosclerosis.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2011; 22(5):975-83. · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - J HEART LUNG TRANSPLANT. 01/2011; 30(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The significance of C4d-Banff scores in protocol biopsies of kidney transplant recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) has not been determined. We reviewed 157 protocol biopsies from 80 DSA+ patients obtained at 3 months and 1 year post-transplant. The C4d Banff scores (1,2,3) were associated with significant increments of microcirculation inflammation (MI) at both 3 months and 1 year post-transplant, worse transplant glomerulopathy and higher class II DSA-MFI (p < 0.01). Minimal-C4d had injury intermediate between negative and focal, while focal and diffuse-C4d had the same degree of microvascular injury. A total of 54% of patients had variation of C4d score between 3 months and 1 year post-transplant. Cumulative (3 month + 1 year) C4d scores correlated with long-term renal function worsening (p = 0.006). However, C4d staining was not a sensitive indicator of parenchymal disease, 55% of C4d-negative biopsies having evidence of concomitant MI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of MI and class II DSA at 3 months were associated with a fourfold increased risk of progression to chronic antibody-mediated rejection independently of C4d (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the substantial fluctuation of C4d status in the first year post-transplant reflects a dynamic humoral process. However, C4d may not be a sufficiently sensitive indicator of activity, MI and DSA being more robust predictors of bad outcome.
    American Journal of Transplantation 01/2011; 11(1):56-65. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) often shows lesions morphologically identical with those of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In order to determine the possible role of FSGS in IgAN lesions, we measured glomerular capsular adhesions, often the first step toward FSGS, in biopsies from 127 patients with IgAN, 100 with lupus nephritis, and 26 with primary FSGS. Capsular adhesions with no lesions in the underlying tuft, consistent with podocyte abnormality or loss, were found regularly in FSGS and IgAN, but infrequently in lupus. Fifteen biopsies of patients with IgAN were studied immunohistochemically using markers for podocytes, Bowman's parietal epithelial cells, proliferating cells, and macrophages. Cytokeratins CK-8 and C2562 differentiated normal podocytes (negative) from parietal epithelial cells (variably positive). There was focal loss of the podocyte markers synaptopodin, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP-1), nephrin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly at sites of capsular adhesions in otherwise histologically normal glomeruli. Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paired box gene 2) and the cytokeratins were also positive for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These cells gathered at sites of adhesion, and in response to active lesions in the tuft, grew inward along the adhesion onto the tuft, forming a monolayer positive for parietal markers and the podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1). These cells deposited a layer of collagen over the sclerosing tuft. Thus, all biopsies of patients with IgAN had changes basically identical to those classically described in FSGS. Hence, our study strongly suggests that podocytopathy of a type similar to that in primary FSGS occurs frequently in IgAN.
    Kidney International 12/2010; 79(6):635-42. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that lesions morphologically identical with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may appear in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Capsular adhesions without underlying abnormalities in the tuft, often the first sign of FSGS, are frequent in IgAN. In this retrospective study, a new cohort of 128 adult patients with IgAN was used to validate the new Oxford classification system of IgAN, and shown to have highly significant associations with clinical and outcome parameters. We then used these patients to determine the extent to which IgAN could be accounted for in terms of FSGS. Some form of lesion consistent with FSGS, notably hyalinosis and collapsing glomerulopathy, was found in 101 of these patients. No glomerular lesions were found in 16 patients, and 11 had mild lesions not definable as FSGS. Those with FSGS had significantly worse renal survival at 80 months than those without. Comparison of pure forms of FSGS (excluding collapsing glomerulopathy) with cases of FSGS having other glomerular lesions (mesangial hyperplasia, endocapillary hypercellularity, glomerular necroses, extracapillary proliferation) revealed that those with FSGS and other superimposed lesions did significantly worse than cases of pure FSGS at 80 months following diagnosis. Importantly, patients with pure FSGS had relatively poor survival even without other superimposed glomerular abnormalities. Thus, the majority of cases of IgAN can be interpreted as representing one or another variant of FSGS. Hence, interpreting IgAN in terms of FSGS emphasizes the role that podocyte lesions may play in the pathogenesis and progression of this disease.
    Kidney International 12/2010; 79(6):643-54. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of preexisting HLA antibodies at the time of transplantation, identified by contemporary techniques, is not well understood. We conducted an observational study analyzing the association between preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies (HLA-DSA) and incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and survival of patients and grafts among 402 consecutive deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. We detected HLA-DSA using Luminex single-antigen assays on the peak reactive and current sera. All patients had a negative lymphocytotoxic cross-match test on the day of transplantation. We found that 8-year graft survival was significantly worse (61%) among patients with preexisting HLA-DSA compared with both sensitized patients without HLA-DSA (93%) and nonsensitized patients (84%). Peak HLA-DSA Luminex mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) predicted AMR better than current HLA-DSA MFI (P = 0.028). As MFI of the highest ranked HLA-DSA detected on peak serum increased, graft survival decreased and the relative risk for AMR increased: Patients with MFI >6000 had >100-fold higher risk for AMR than patients with MFI <465 (relative risk 113; 95% confidence interval 31 to 414). The presence of HLA-DSA did not associate with patient survival. In conclusion, the risk for both AMR and graft loss directly correlates with peak HLA-DSA strength. Quantification of HLA antibodies allows stratification of immunologic risk, which should help guide selection of acceptable grafts for sensitized patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2010; 21(8):1398-406. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    A Loupy, G S Hill, D Nochy, C Legendre
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2010; 10(4):952; author reply 953. · 6.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
536.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2013
    • Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Ouest)
      • Service d’Anatomie-Pathologie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • CHU de Lyon - Groupement Hospitalier Edouard Herriot
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2009–2012
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Angers
      • Département de réanimation médicale et médecine hyperbare
      Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
  • 2001–2007
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1999–2002
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France