[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-HLA antibodies hamper successful transplantation, and activation of the complement cascade is involved in antibody-mediated rejection. We investigated whether the complement-binding capacity of anti-HLA antibodies plays a role in kidney-allograft failure.
We enrolled patients who received kidney allografts at two transplantation centers in Paris between January 1, 2005, and January 1, 2011, in a population-based study. Patients were screened for the presence of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and their complement-binding capacity. Graft injury phenotype and the time to kidney-allograft loss were assessed.
The primary analysis included 1016 patients. Patients with complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after transplantation had the lowest 5-year rate of graft survival (54%), as compared with patients with non-complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (93%) and patients without donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (94%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The presence of complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after transplantation was associated with a risk of graft loss that was more than quadrupled (hazard ratio, 4.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.69 to 8.49) when adjusted for clinical, functional, histologic, and immunologic factors. These antibodies were also associated with an increased rate of antibody-mediated rejection, a more severe graft injury phenotype with more extensive microvascular inflammation, and increased deposition of complement fraction C4d within graft capillaries. Adding complement-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies to a traditional risk model improved the stratification of patients at risk for graft failure (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.97).
Assessment of the complement-binding capacity of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies appears to be useful in identifying patients at high risk for kidney-allograft loss.
New England Journal of Medicine 09/2013; 369(13):1215-26. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humoral immune responses during heart transplantation may result in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), which is now taken into account on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens and ranked according to the pathologic AMR (pAMR) grades of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation classification. This classification might benefit from new immunohistological markers and validation by others biomarkers, namely donor-specific antibodies (DSA).
From the 293 protocol EMBs performed in 113 patients in our institution during a 1-year period for this prospective study, 280 EMB specimens were available with both histology and immunohistochemistry. C4d and labeling of intravascular cells by cluster of differentiation (CD) 68 were performed on paraffin sections. Available sera (n = 150) concomitant of EMB specimens were tested for the presence of DSA. All of the pAMR+ EMB specimens, along with a set of randomized pAMR0 EMB specimens, were immunolabeled for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) effectors, phosphorylated 70 S6-kinase (p70S6K) and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP).
AMR was diagnosed in 37 EMB specimens (13.2%): 1 pAMR1(I+), 27 pAMR1(H+), and 9 pAMR2. The proportion of DSA-positive EMB varied according to the pAMR grade, with pAMR0, pAMR1(H+), and pAMR2 EMB presenting 17.6%, 77.3%, and 100% of DSA-positivity, respectively. Among the 30 pAMR+ specimens with available DSA testing and the 30 pAMR0 randomized specimens, mTOR pathway immunohistochemistry showed endothelial cell positivity for p70S6K in 17 pAMR+ EMB specimens (56.7%) and in 1 pAMR0 EMB specimen (3.3%). pS6RP was detected in 8 pAMR+ EMB specimens (26.7%) and in 1 pAMR0 EMB specimen (3.3%).
p70S6K and pS6RP immunohistochemistry afford new markers of AMR on EMB specimens because their expression is correlated with microcirculation inflammation and DSA. The correlation of DSA with pAMR grade suggests that this grading system is valid.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 08/2013; 32(8):769-76. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rejection of allografts has always been the major obstacle to transplantation success. We aimed to improve characterisation of different kidney-allograft rejection phenotypes, identify how each one is associated with anti-HLA antibodies, and investigate their distinct prognoses. METHODS: Patients who underwent ABO-compatible kidney transplantations in Necker Hospital and Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris, France) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2008, were included in our population-based study. We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection, which was defined as the association of deterioration in function and histopathological lesions. The main outcome was kidney allograft loss-ie, return to dialysis. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology, C4d in allograft biopsies, and donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. FINDINGS: 2079 patients were included in the main analyses, of whom 302 (15%) had acute biopsy-proven rejection. We identified four distinct patterns of kidney allograft rejection: T cell-mediated vascular rejection (26 patients [9%]), antibody-mediated vascular rejection (64 [21%]), T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (139 [46%]), and antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis (73 [24%]). Risk of graft loss was 9·07 times (95 CI 3·62-19·7) higher in antibody-mediated vascular rejection than in T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (p<0·0001), compared with an increase of 2·93 times (1·1-7·9; P=0·0237) in antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis and no significant rise in T cell-mediated vascular rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1·5, 95% CI 0·33-7·6; p=0·60). INTERPRETATION: We have identified a type of kidney rejection not presently included in classifications: antibody-mediated vascular rejection. Recognition of this distinct phenotype could lead to the development of new treatment strategies that could salvage many kidney allografts. FUNDING: None.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collapsing glomerulopathy(CG), characterized by collapse of the glomerular capillary loops onto the mesangial stalks is rarely associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently a genetic predisposition to HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been shown in Afro-Americans: MYH9 polymorhism in 2008 and then APOL1 variants (G1 and G2 alleles) in 2010 were shown to be strongly associated with HIVAN. We describe here for the first time the association of CG in a young Afro-American female with SLE having a homozygous mutation of APOL1. The clinical history, laboratory findings and immunofluorescence all confirmed a diagnosis of SLE. However, studies for factors associated with collapsing glomerulopathy in other situations were consistently negative. As this Afro-American patient developed a CG, we performed genotyping of APOL1. It was found that she is homozygotic for the G2 allele of APOL1. Despite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of organic renal lesions in patients with end-stage liver disease is unknown. The goal of this study was to make a prospective evaluation of renal histological lesions in a group of unselected patients awaiting liver transplantation.
Sixty cirrhotic patients underwent a renal biopsy via the transjugular route. The potential effect of renal lesions on renal function was evaluated five years after transplantation.
The yield of biopsies enabling satisfactory analysis was 77%, and no major complications occurred. Proteinuria>0.5 g/day was observed in only 8.7% of these patients, microscopic haematuria in 4.3%, creatinine levels>133 mmol/L (1.5mg/dl) in 10.9%, and Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) clearance<60 ml/min in 13.0%. Twenty-five patients (55.3%) had a morphological diagnosis of renal disease, 15 displayed IgA nephropathy and immunofluorescence testing showed that 12 had specific diabetic linear staining for IgG and albumin, of whom seven had associated histological lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Five years after liver transplantation, renal function had significantly deteriorated more in patients with initial diabetic lesions than in those with normal histology or IgA nephropathy alone.
In patients with end-stage liver disease, IgA nephropathy and diabetic lesions were frequently found despite the absence of renal impairment and/or urinalysis anomalies. Our results strongly suggest that severe renal failure develops preferentially in liver transplant recipients with diabetes or carbohydrate intolerance, and that pre-existing arterial lesions may favour the nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors. Diabetes prior to transplantation needs to be strictly managed and requires a renal sparing immunosuppressive regimen after transplantation.
Journal of Hepatology 05/2012; 57(3):572-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite improvements in outcomes of renal transplantation, kidney allograft loss remains substantial, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Identifying the pathologic pathways responsible for allograft loss, and the attendant development of therapeutic interventions, will be one of the guiding future objectives of transplant medicine. One of the most important advances of the past decade has been the demonstration of the destructive power of anti-HLA alloantibodies and their association with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Compelling evidence exists to show that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are largely responsible for the chronic deterioration of allografts, a condition previously attributed to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. The emergence of sensitive techniques to detect DSAs, together with advances in the assessment of graft pathology, have expanded the spectrum of what constitutes ABMR. Today, subtler forms of rejection--such as indolent ABMR, C4d-negative ABMR, and transplant arteriopathy--are seen in which DSAs exert a marked pathological effect. In addition, arteriosclerosis, previously thought to be a bystander lesion related to the vicissitudes of aging, is accelerated in ABMR. Advances in our understanding of the pathological significance of DSAs and ABMR show their primacy in the mediation of chronic allograft destruction. Therapies aimed at B cells, plasma cells and antibodies will be important therapeutic options to improve the length and quality of kidney allograft survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurs in IgA nephropathy, but its clinical significance is not well described. We retrospectively examined a series of 128 patients diagnosed with IgA nephropathy between 2002 and 2008 who had a mean follow-up of 44±27 months. In our series, 53% presented with lesions of TMA, acute or organized, in arteries and/or arterioles. Among patients with TMA, 4% were normotensive, 25% had controlled hypertension, and 71% had uncontrolled hypertension. Of those with uncontrolled hypertension, 26% had malignant hypertension. Histologically, the group with TMA had a significantly greater percentage of sclerotic glomeruli and worse tubulointerstitial fibrosis than those of the group without TMA. However, a significant minority of patients had near-normal histology, with minimal tubular atrophy (20%) and/or <20% interstitial fibrosis (24%). TMA rarely occurred in the absence of significant proteinuria. During follow-up, a doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD occurred in all patients with laboratory evidence of TMA, in 42% of those with morphologic evidence but no laboratory evidence of TMA, and in 11% of those without TMA. In summary, lesions of TMA are frequent in IgA nephropathy and may occur in normotensive patients with near-normal renal histology. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved remain undetermined, the current study rules out severe hypertension or advanced renal disease as sole causes.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2011; 23(1):137-48. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In biopsies of renal allografts, arteriosclerosis is often more severe than expected based on the age of the donor, even without a history of rejection vasculitis. To determine whether preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) may contribute to the severity of arteriosclerosis, we examined protocol biopsies from patients with (n=40) or without (n=59) DSA after excluding those with any evidence of vasculitis. Among DSA-positive patients, arteriosclerosis significantly progressed between month 3 and month 12 after transplant (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 1.12 ± 0.10, P=0.014); in contrast, among DSA-negative patients, we did not detect a statistically significant progression during the same timeframe (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.10, P=not significant). Available biopsies at later time points supported a rate of progression of arteriosclerosis in DSA-negative patients that was approximately one third that in DSA-positive patients. Accelerated arteriosclerosis was significantly associated with peritubular capillary leukocytic infiltration, glomerulitis, subclinical antibody-mediated rejection, and interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that donor-specific antibodies dramatically accelerate post-transplant progression of arteriosclerosis.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2011; 22(5):975-83. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that lesions morphologically identical with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may appear in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Capsular adhesions without underlying abnormalities in the tuft, often the first sign of FSGS, are frequent in IgAN. In this retrospective study, a new cohort of 128 adult patients with IgAN was used to validate the new Oxford classification system of IgAN, and shown to have highly significant associations with clinical and outcome parameters. We then used these patients to determine the extent to which IgAN could be accounted for in terms of FSGS. Some form of lesion consistent with FSGS, notably hyalinosis and collapsing glomerulopathy, was found in 101 of these patients. No glomerular lesions were found in 16 patients, and 11 had mild lesions not definable as FSGS. Those with FSGS had significantly worse renal survival at 80 months than those without. Comparison of pure forms of FSGS (excluding collapsing glomerulopathy) with cases of FSGS having other glomerular lesions (mesangial hyperplasia, endocapillary hypercellularity, glomerular necroses, extracapillary proliferation) revealed that those with FSGS and other superimposed lesions did significantly worse than cases of pure FSGS at 80 months following diagnosis. Importantly, patients with pure FSGS had relatively poor survival even without other superimposed glomerular abnormalities. Thus, the majority of cases of IgAN can be interpreted as representing one or another variant of FSGS. Hence, interpreting IgAN in terms of FSGS emphasizes the role that podocyte lesions may play in the pathogenesis and progression of this disease.
Kidney International 12/2010; 79(6):643-54. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) often shows lesions morphologically identical with those of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In order to determine the possible role of FSGS in IgAN lesions, we measured glomerular capsular adhesions, often the first step toward FSGS, in biopsies from 127 patients with IgAN, 100 with lupus nephritis, and 26 with primary FSGS. Capsular adhesions with no lesions in the underlying tuft, consistent with podocyte abnormality or loss, were found regularly in FSGS and IgAN, but infrequently in lupus. Fifteen biopsies of patients with IgAN were studied immunohistochemically using markers for podocytes, Bowman's parietal epithelial cells, proliferating cells, and macrophages. Cytokeratins CK-8 and C2562 differentiated normal podocytes (negative) from parietal epithelial cells (variably positive). There was focal loss of the podocyte markers synaptopodin, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP-1), nephrin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly at sites of capsular adhesions in otherwise histologically normal glomeruli. Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paired box gene 2) and the cytokeratins were also positive for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These cells gathered at sites of adhesion, and in response to active lesions in the tuft, grew inward along the adhesion onto the tuft, forming a monolayer positive for parietal markers and the podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1). These cells deposited a layer of collagen over the sclerosing tuft. Thus, all biopsies of patients with IgAN had changes basically identical to those classically described in FSGS. Hence, our study strongly suggests that podocytopathy of a type similar to that in primary FSGS occurs frequently in IgAN.
Kidney International 12/2010; 79(6):635-42. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of preexisting HLA antibodies at the time of transplantation, identified by contemporary techniques, is not well understood. We conducted an observational study analyzing the association between preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies (HLA-DSA) and incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and survival of patients and grafts among 402 consecutive deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. We detected HLA-DSA using Luminex single-antigen assays on the peak reactive and current sera. All patients had a negative lymphocytotoxic cross-match test on the day of transplantation. We found that 8-year graft survival was significantly worse (61%) among patients with preexisting HLA-DSA compared with both sensitized patients without HLA-DSA (93%) and nonsensitized patients (84%). Peak HLA-DSA Luminex mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) predicted AMR better than current HLA-DSA MFI (P = 0.028). As MFI of the highest ranked HLA-DSA detected on peak serum increased, graft survival decreased and the relative risk for AMR increased: Patients with MFI >6000 had >100-fold higher risk for AMR than patients with MFI <465 (relative risk 113; 95% confidence interval 31 to 414). The presence of HLA-DSA did not associate with patient survival. In conclusion, the risk for both AMR and graft loss directly correlates with peak HLA-DSA strength. Quantification of HLA antibodies allows stratification of immunologic risk, which should help guide selection of acceptable grafts for sensitized patients.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2010; 21(8):1398-406. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assesses the immunologic, functional, and histologic course of kidney recipients with preformed donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) receiving deceased donor kidneys according to two prophylactic strategies that have been sequentially applied posttransplant.
The first strategy combined posttransplant quadritherapy/intravenous immunoglobulin (group 1, n=36) and the second added to the above protocol anti-CD20/plasmapheresis (group 2, n=18). All patients had a concomitant evaluation of glomerular filtration rate, protocol biopsies, and DSA mean intensity of fluorescence (MFI) at 3 month and 1 year posttransplant.
Peak and day-0 class-I or II DSAmax-MFI were similar in both groups. The rate of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was similar in both groups (19.6% vs. 16.6%, respectively). At 1 year posttransplant, group 2 was characterized by lower microcirculation inflammation lesions (glomerulitis+capilaritis score of 1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.7+/-0.2, respectively, P=0.03), a lower rate of transplant glomerulopathy (7% vs. 38%, P=0.02), and a lower rate of chronic AMR (41.3% vs. 13.3%, respectively, P=0.03). The decline in DSA-MFI from day 0 to 1 year was 44%+/-13% in group 1 compared with 80%+/-8% in group 2 (P=0.02). Finally, the 1-year glomerular filtration rate was 43+/-16 vs. 54+/-16 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.04).
This study raises the possibility that a more intensive day 0 prophylactic immunosuppressive strategy combining intravenous immunoglobulin/anti-CD20/plasmapheresis in this high-risk population, despite similar rates of early acute clinical humoral rejection, is associated with significant differences in long-term function and chronic AMR rate. Future prospective randomized studies are needed to assess the best strategies to be applied in light of the pretransplant immunologic risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relevance of borderline change (BL) and subclinical cellular rejection (SCR) observed in renal transplantation remains to be determined. Several studies have shown in BL and SCR the presence of a Th1 immune response, qualitatively similar to but quantitatively reduced in comparison with infiltrates typical of acute cellular rejection (ACR).
To elucidate the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the local control of the allogenic response, we studied their presence by immunohistochemistry in 24 biopsies with graft dysfunction (12 ACR and 12 BL) and in 16 protocol biopsies at 1 year (eight SCR and eight subclinical BL).
The proportion of Tregs in CD4 T infiltrates was higher in BL and SCR when compared with ACR. Moreover, their presence was correlated with the intensity of interstitial inflammation (r=-0.35, P=0.027, n=40) and with graft function at the time of the biopsy (r=-0.37, P=0.018, n=40).
These data suggest Treg recruitment at the acute phase of the allogenic response, where they could act to diminish the interstitial inflammation and its associated lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminology for posttransplant renal arterial lesions is confusing, with multiple terms being applied, the more common among them being the comprehensive terms, transplant arteriosclerosis and transplant atherosclerosis; endarteritis, for intimal lesions with an inflammatory component; and finally for advanced lesions with or without intimal inflammation, transplant arteriopathy. However, these latter lesions may present the appearance of banal arteriosclerosis, albeit more advanced expected on the basis of donor age. This review explores the distinctions to be drawn among these various descriptive terms.
Cell-mediated arterial lesions due to T-cell cell-endothelial interactions and antibody-mediated lesions, due to antiendothelial cell antibodies, show many common features: myofibroblasts, some of recipient origin, laying down extracellular matrix. However, they differ in that cell-mediated intimal lesions initially have a prominent leukocytic component, usually absent in antibody-mediated lesions. The antibodies most frequently implicated are antihuman leukocyte antigen class I and class 2 antibodies. With the exception of a sometimes more cellular intima and initial absence of dense collagen and elastic fibers, these latter lesions resemble those of arteriosclerosis of aging.
Many instances of lesions designated as transplant arteriopathy are morphologically similar or identical to typical renal arteriosclerosis and could equally be regarded as accelerated arteriosclerosis.
Current opinion in organ transplantation 11/2009; 15(1):11-5. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Septic shock is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury. The mechanisms of this injury remain mostly unknown notably because of the lack of data on renal histological lesions in humans.
Kidney biopsy was performed immediately post-mortem in consecutive patients who died of septic shock. Comparisons were made with specimens from eight patients who died of trauma on scene and nine ICU patients that died of non-septic causes.
Nineteen septic patients were included, 11 were male, and age was 72 +/- 12 years. Anuria occurred in all patients 2.2 +/- 1.4 days before death. Seven patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. In all patients we observed (1) acute tubular lesions whose intensity correlated with blood lactate concentration; (2) intense infiltration by leukocytes, mainly monocytic, in glomeruli and interstitial capillaries as compared to controls; (3) presence of tubular cell apoptosis proved by the presence of apoptotic bodies (2.9% of tubular cells) significantly more frequently than in controls and confirmed by TUNEL and activated caspase-3 staining. Arteriolar/arterial thromboses were observed in only 4 of 19 patients, without any association with presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Kidney lesions in septic shock go beyond those associated with simple acute tubular injury, notably capillary leukocytic infiltration and apoptosis. Vascular thrombosis, however, did not appear to play a major role in the majority of patients. The extent to which these lesions are specific to sepsis or are common to all multi-organ failure independent of its cause is yet to be elucidated. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-009-1723-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 11/2009; 36(3):471-8. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During sepsis, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is abundantly secreted; the main mechanism regulating its size involves specific proteolysis by the metalloprotease ADAMTS-13.
To determine whether ADAMTS-13 consumption due to its binding to, and/or cleavage, of VWF contributes to its decrease during sepsis and whether abrogating or enhancing ADAMTS-13 activity influences sepsis outcome.
ADAMTS-13 activity was evaluated in a model of sepsis induced by cecum ligature and puncture (CLP) in wild-type and Vwf(-/-) mice. Sepsis outcome was studied in those mice and in Adamts-13(-/-) mice. Finally, survival was studied in wild-type mice injected hydrodynamically with the human ADAMTS-13 gene.
In wild-type mice, CLP-induced sepsis elicited a significant ADAMTS-13 decrease, and a strong negative correlation existed between VWF and ADAMTS-13. In Vwf(-/-) mice, CLP also induced severe sepsis, but ADAMTS-13 was not significantly diminished. Notably, Vwf(-/-) mice lived significantly longer than wild-type mice. In contrast, Adamts-13(-/-) mice and wild-type mice were comparable with regard to thrombocytopenia, VWF concentrations, absence of thrombi, and survival. Hydrodynamic hADAMTS-13 gene transfer with the pLIVE expression vector resulted in high and stable ADAMTS13 activity in CLP mice; however, no impact on survival was observed.
VWF secretion is a major determinant of ADAMTS-13 decrease in the CLP model, and plays an important role in sepsis-induced mortality, but the complete absence of its regulating protease, ADAMTS-13, had no detectable impact in this sepsis model. Furthermore, increasing ADAMTS-13 activity had no impact on survival.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2009; 7(5):843-50. · 6.08 Impact Factor