[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes may be more virulent in pregnant women, discriminating between them appears valuable. Currently, the main genotyping method is based on single copy microsatellite markers, which limit direct genotyping from amniotic fluids (AFs) to samples with a high parasitic load. We investigated whether the multicopy gene B1 could type the parasite with a higher sensitivity. To estimate the amplifiable DNA present in AFs, we first compared three different PCR assays used for Toxoplasma infection diagnosis: the P30-PCR, targeting the single copy gene P30; the B1-PCR, targeting the repeated B1 gene; and RE-PCR, targeting the repeated element.
Of the 1792 AFs analyzed between 2008 and 2011, 73 were RE-PCR positive. Of those, 49 (67.1%) were P30-PCR and B1-PCR positive, and 14 (19.2%) additional AFs were B1-PCR positive only.All 63 BI-positive AFs (France n = 49; overseas n = 14) could be genotyped based on an analysis of eight nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the B1 gene. Following high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, minisequencing was carried out for each of the eight SNPs. DNA from six reference strains was included in the study, and AFs were assigned to one of the three major lineages (Types I, II, and III). In total, 26 genotypes were observed, and the hierarchical clustering distinguished two clades in lineages II (IIa, n = 30 and IIb, n = 4) and III (IIIa n = 23 and IIIb n = 6). There was an overrepresentation of overseas isolates in Clade IIb (4/4, 100%) and Clade IIIa (8/22; 36.4%) (p <0.0001), whereas medical interruption and fetal death were overrepresented in Clade IIb (2/4, 50%) and Clade IIIa (4/23, 17.4%) (p = 0.049).
Although the current genotyping system cannot pretend to replace multilocus typing, we clearly show that targeting the multicopy B1 gene yields a genotyping capacity of AFs around 20% better than when single copy targets are used. The present genotyping method also allows clear identification of genotypes of potential higher virulence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between the azole preexposure of 86 patients and the genotype, azole susceptibility, and cyp51A polymorphisms of 110 corresponding Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was explored. Isolates carrying serial polymorphisms (F46Y and M172V with or without N248T with or without D255E with or without E427K) had higher itraconazole MICs (P = 0.04), although <2 μg/ml using the EUCAST methodology, were associated with two genetic clusters (P < 0.001) and with voriconazole preexposure of patients (P = 0.016). Voriconazole preexposure influences the distribution of A. fumigatus isolates with selection of isolates carrying cyp51A polymorphisms and higher itraconazole MICs.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2012; 56(9):4948-50. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and (1→3)-β-d-glucan determined in 70 serum samples from immunocompromised patients were compared to fungal load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both serum biomarkers are influenced by pulmonary fungal load, which should be taken into account when diagnosing Pneumocystis infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal rhesus D (RhD) status determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma or serum is now recognized in Europe as a reliable and useful tool. A few countries are presently using this test in their management policy of rhesus D negative patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of this test on the costs of managing RhD-negative pregnant women, whether or not they are allo-immunized.
A prospective follow-up of rhesus D negative women during their pregnancy was performed in three French obstetric departments. Non-invasive fetal RhD genotyping was performed in the first trimester and pregnancies were followed The costs of all procedures (biological tests and medication) associated with patient management in relation to their RhD-negative status were calculated according to different management options.
A comprehensive follow-up, including medical and biological monitoring, was obtained for 99 of the 101 patients included in the study. Patients were separated into two groups: the "Adverse Event" group (AE, n=23) for which a potentially sensitizing event occurred and the "No Adverse Event" group (NAE, n=76). Fetal RhD status was accurately determined in all cases. The mean cost per patient was estimated at 237€ (range: 115-644) with differences observed depending on the group, notably 331€ (range: 236-644) for the AE group and 208€ (range: 115-366) for the NAE group. Various cost simulations were performed according to various policies of allo-immunization antenatal prophylaxis. Variations ranged from +36.2% to +105.3%.
This study demonstrates that fetal RhD genotyping early during pregnancy is not an effective cost-reduction strategy whether or not antenatal prophylaxis is given. The economic issues could, however, be overcome by the fact that there is a major clinical benefit to offering the test systematically to all RhD-negative pregnant women while avoiding unnecessary testing and immunoglobulin injections.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 03/2012; 162(1):28-32. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the multicopy B1 gene and AF146527 element for the amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA raises the issue of reliable quantification for clinical diagnosis. We applied relative quantification to reference strains using the single-copy P30 gene as a reference. According to the parasite type, the copy numbers for the B1 gene and AF146527 element were found to be 5 to 12 and 4 to 8 times lower than the previous estimations of 35 and 230 copies, respectively.
Journal of clinical microbiology 01/2012; 50(4):1452-4. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopy for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We therefore developed a qPCR assay and compared the results with those of a routine immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and clinical data. The assay included automated DNA extraction, amplification of the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA gene and an internal control, and quantification of copy numbers with the help of a plasmid clone. We studied 353 consecutive BAL fluids obtained for investigation of unexplained fever and/or pneumonia in 287 immunocompromised patients. No qPCR inhibition was observed. Seventeen (5%) samples were both IFA and qPCR positive, 63 (18%) were IFA negative and qPCR positive, and 273 (77%) were both IFA and qPCR negative. The copy number was significantly higher for IFA-positive/qPCR-positive samples than for IFA-negative/qPCR-positive samples (4.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.1 ± 1.1 log(10) copies/μl; P < 10(-4)). With IFA as the standard, the qPCR assay sensitivity was 100% for ≥2.6 log(10) copies/μl and the specificity was 100% for ≥4 log(10) copies/μl. Since qPCR results were not available at the time of decision-making, these findings did not trigger cotrimoxazole therapy. Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and IFA-negative/qPCR-positive BAL fluid had a worse 1-year survival rate than those with IFA-negative/qPCR-negative results (P < 10(-3)), in contrast with solid-organ transplant recipients (P = 0.88) and patients with hematological malignancy (P = 0.26). Quantifying P. jirovecii DNA in BAL fluids independently of IFA positivity should be incorporated into the investigation of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The relevant threshold remains to be determined and may vary according to the underlying disease.
Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2011; 50(2):227-31. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii have identified three main distinct types according to virulence in some hosts. Several methods have been developed to differentiate genotypes currently dominated by microsatellite markers targeting single-copy loci. We analyzed the possibility of using the 35-fold repetitive B1 gene via high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis. Sequencing of the B1 gene of 14 reference strains (four Type I, six Type II, and four Type III strains) identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Primers were designed to amplify eight of them for HRM analysis and for relative quantification of each nucleotide variation using SNaPshot mini-sequencing. Genotyping with five microsatellite markers was performed for comparison. Two to four HRM profiles were obtained depending on the SNP tested. The differences observed relied on the different ratios of nucleotides at the SNP locus as evidenced via SNaPshot mini-sequencing. The three main lineages could be distinguished by using several HRM profiles. Some HRM profiles proved more informative than the analysis based on five microsatellite markers, showing additional differences in Type I and Type II strains. Using HRM analysis, we obtained at least an equally good discrimination of the main lineages than that based on five microsatellite markers.
Journal of microbiological methods 09/2011; 86(3):357-63. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cytochrome b (cytb) gene quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to diagnose malaria in travelers. First, manual and automated DNA extractions were compared and automated DNA extraction of 400 μl of blood was found to be more efficient. Sensitivity was estimated using the WHO international standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA and compared to that of a previously published qPCR targeting the 18S rRNA coding gene (18S qPCR). The limit of detection of the cytb qPCR assay was 20 DNA copies (i.e., 1 parasite equivalent) per 400 μl of extracted whole blood and was comparable for the two qPCR assays. Both qPCR assays were used on blood samples from 265 consecutive patients seen for suspicion of malaria. There were no microscopy-positive and qPCR-negative samples. Positive cytb qPCR results were observed for 51 samples, and all but 1 were also 18S qPCR positive. Eight (16%) of these 51 samples were negative by microscopic examination. The 8 cytb qPCR-positive and microscopy-negative samples were from African patients, 3 of whom had received antimalarial drugs. Three non-P. falciparum infections were correctly identified using an additional qPCR assay. The absence of PCR inhibitors was tested for by the use of an internal control of mouse DNA to allow reliable quantification of circulating DNA. The high analytical sensitivity of both qPCR assays combined with automated DNA extraction supports its use as a laboratory tool for diagnosis and parasitemia determination in emergencies. Whether to treat qPCR-positive and microscopy-negative patients remains to be determined.
Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2011; 49(6):2191-5. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. To investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from Niger identified by their karyotype was used as a DNA source for Trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qPCR assay. Of the invasive black rat, Rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were PCR positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native African rodents. Sequences of ~400bp of the SSU rDNA gene identified phylogenetically close Trypanosoma lineages. Trypanosoma lewisi was present in all positive black rats and the sequences displayed 100% similarity with T. lewisi-infected humans in Senegal. T. lewisi was also detected in one Acomys johannis, suggesting a possible transmission to native species. In addition to improved knowledge of Trypanosoma diversity in rodents, our data underscore the introduction of the potentially pathogenic T. lewisi kinetoplastid through the human-mediated invasion of black rats all over West Africa.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three gene polymorphisms, interferon-lambda-3 (IL28B), inosinetriphosphatase (ITPA) and bilirubinuridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) are associated with treatment (interferon and ribavirin) efficacy and adherence in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The hypothesis was that fibrosis stage estimated with FibroTest instead of biopsy was still an independent predictive factor of sustained virologic response (SVR) when these new polymorphisms were assessed.
Patients receiving standard of care treatment were retrospectively analyzed with determination of IL28B, ITPA, and UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Baseline prognostic factors were combined using logistic regression analysis in a training group (157 patients) and validated in avalidation group (79 patients).
The combination of the five most predictive factors (HCV genotype 2/3, IL28B genotype, FibroTest, ActiTest and viral load) in the training population had AUROC for SVR=0.743 (0.655-0.810; P<0.0001 vs. random), which was validated in the validation population, AUROC=0.753 (0.616-849; P=0.0007 vs. random, not different from training P=0.88). FibroTest remained significant [OR=4.20 (2.59-12.50); P=0.03] after assessment of the IL28B CC, HCV genotype and viral load.
Fibrosis stage assessed by FibroTest is an independent predictor of SVR, after accounting for the IL28B genetic polymorphism. A combination of five baseline biomarkers could simplify the baseline prediction of SVR.
Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 02/2011; 35(3):204-13. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increase in invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported for 10 years. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of azole resistance in isolates prospectively collected in patients with haematological diseases.
One hundred and eighteen isolates were collected from 89 consecutive patients over 4 years. Fifty-one patients had proven or probable IA. Species identification was ascertained based on β-tubulin gene sequencing. The MICs of azole drugs were determined using Etest(®), and the cyp51A gene and its promoter were sequenced to detect mutations.
All isolates were identified as A. fumigatus and all of them but one had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs of ≤ 2 mg/L and posaconazole MICs of ≤ 0.25 mg/L. An isolate for which the itraconazole MIC was high (itraconazole MIC = 16 mg/L; voriconazole MIC = 0.38 mg/L; and posaconazole MIC = 0.25 mg/L) was recovered from a patient naive to azole treatment and had a new G432S substitution. To establish whether this mutation existed in other isolates, the 1426-2025 bp cyp51A locus was sequenced for all. G432S was not found.
In A. fumigatus, the prevalence of azole resistance is currently low in the haematological population in the Paris area. Surveillance programmes for azole resistance to adapt antifungal treatments are warranted for clinical isolates of A. fumigatus.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2010; 66(2):371-4. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of the etiologic agent responsible for sinus fungal ball (SFB) is rarely obtained due to either the culture of patient specimens not being ordered or if cultures were inoculated they proved to be negative. Obviously, this has a significant impact on the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. We investigated whether paraffin-embedded (PE) tissues, the only materials often available, were suitable for the correct identification of the responsible fungi. We obtained PE tissues of SFB from 16 different patients who had risk factors for invasive fungal infections. DNA was extracted using an automated extractor and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequenced following amplification with two sets of primers designed to amplify >300 bp fragments. This was attempted in parallel with a real-time quantitative PCR assay targeting Aspergillus spp. mitochondrial DNA designed to amplify <150 bp fragments. ITS sequencing succeeded in appropriately identifying the etiologic agents in 10 of the 16 samples (nine Aspergillus fumigatus, one Lewia spp.). In contrast, the <150 bp PCR assay amplified all specimens correctly except the one involving Lewia spp. If fungal identification is warranted to understand the pathophysiology of SFB and guide clinicians, we cannot rely only on ITS sequencing of the DNA obtained from PE tissues. The main reason is probably due to the fact that formalin prevents amplification of long DNA fragments and consequently, frozen or fresh tissues should be employed.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 10/2010; 49(3):329-32. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human health effects of inhaled mycotoxins remain poorly documented, despite the large amounts present in bioaerosols. Among these mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin is one of the most prevalent. Our aim was to study the metabolism and cellular consequences of sterigmatocystin once it is in contact with the airway epithelium. Metabolites were analyzed first in vitro, using recombinant P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2A13, and 3A4 enzymes, and subsequently in porcine tracheal epithelial cell (PTEC) primary cultures at an air-liquid interface. Expressed enzymes and PTECs were exposed to sterigmatocystin, uniformly enriched with (13)C to confirm the relationship between sterigmatocystin and metabolites. Induction of the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes upon sterigmatocystin exposure was examined by real-time quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Incubation of 50 μM sterigmatocystin with recombinant P450 1A1 led to the formation of three metabolites: monohydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M1), dihydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M2), and one glutathione adduct (M3), the latter after the formation of a transient epoxide. Recombinant P450 1A2 also led to M1 and M3. P450 3A4 led to only M3. In PTEC, 1 μM sterigmatocystin metabolism resulted in a glucuro conjugate (M4) mainly excreted at the basal side of cells. If PTEC were treated with β-naphthoflavone prior to sterigmatocystin incubation, two other products were detected, i.e., a sulfo conjugate (M5) and a glucoro conjugate (M6) of hydroxy-sterigmatocystin. Exposure of PTEC for 24 h to 1 μM sterigmatocystin induced an 18-fold increase in the mRNA levels of P450 1A1, without significantly induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. These data suggest that sterigmatocystin is mainly detoxified and is unable to produce significant amounts of reactive epoxide metabolites in respiratory cells. However, sterigmatocystin increases the P450 1A1 mRNA levels with unknown long-term consequences. These in vitro results obtained in the porcine pulmonary tract need to be confirmed in human epithelial cells.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 10/2010; 23(11):1673-81. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) typing is a PCR-based method used for genotyping of the diploid yeast Candida albicans. However, MLP is subject to homoplasia which can hamper the accuracy of the results. We combined fragment length analysis, high-resolution DNA melting (HRM) analysis, and SNaPshot minisequencing after a single amplification of the CDC3 locus to study 95 epidemiologically independent C. albicans isolates. HRM analysis for a given electrophoretic group led to a maximum of three different curves due to the presence of a SNP upstream of the tandem repeat which could be characterized using the SNaPshot assay. The combination of the three methods had a discriminatory index of 0.88 in complete congruence with previous MLP typing (Mantel test R=0.99, P<10(-)(4)). HRM is a useful tool of adding resolving power to MLP genotyping in identifying SNPs.
Journal of microbiological methods 03/2010; 80(3):306-9. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precise genotyping of the intron 8 poly(TG) and poly(T) tracts of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is of clinical relevance in CFTR pathology. The (TG)(m) locus influences the penetrance of the (T)(5) allele, which may be associated with male infertility by congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) or other CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RD), in particular in the context of (TG)(12) and (TG)(13). Simple and accurate genotyping of both loci should thus be routinely offered in laboratories.
We designed a new single test method relying on multiplex allele-specific fluorescent PCR: (T)(5)-, (T)(7)-, and (T)(9)-specific primers, labeled with different fluorophores, in combination with a common primer. Each fluorescent PCR product was identified on a capillary sequencer by its fluorescence color, specific for (T)(n), and size, indicative of the (TG) length. We first validated the assay in 2 different laboratories on 52 DNA samples with already known genotypes. We then evaluated the method prospectively, compared with sequencing, on 62 samples from healthy individuals and 108 samples from patients with CBAVD or other CFTR-RDs.
We observed a 100% match in both validation steps. Results found in CBAVD and CFTR-RD patients are in keeping with data in the literature.
The assay proved to be simple, rapid, and accurate for single-test (TG)(m)(T)(n) genotyping and suited for analysis in clinical laboratories.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coelocentesis may represent the ideal technique for early prenatal diagnosis. This study aimed to quantify the number of cells in coelomic fluid and to investigate the feasibility of interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in uncultured coelomic cells for chromosomes X and Y in 12 samples of 0.4-0.8 ml of coelomic fluid obtained by transvaginal puncture at 8-9 weeks of gestation. It was found that the density of cells in the coelomic fluid was low and variable ranging from 0 to 10,600 cells/ml. The FISH analysis failed in three cases because of the absence or remarkably low number of cells. Among the remaining nine cases, FISH analysis led to an unambiguous result in all the samples except two in whom the FISH analysis clearly demonstrated a high count of maternal cells whereas the fluid was apparently not blood stained. The presence of such maternal cells, while their source and nature remaining unexplained, stressed the question of the absolute necessity to prove the fetal origin of the cells analysed. Whatever the cytogenetic analysis performed on coelomic fluid, combining a systematic exclusion of significant maternal contamination is recommended, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction for short tandem repeat analysis to cytogenetic analyses.