[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently described navigator proteins have a multifaceted role in cytoskeletal dynamics. We report here on the relevance of one of them, navigator 3 (NAV3), in colorectal cancer (CRC).
We analysed changes in chromosome 12 and NAV3 copy number in CRC/adenoma samples of 59 patients and in 6 CRC cell lines, using fluorescence in situ hybridisation, loss of heterozygosity, and array-CGH. NAV3 target genes were identified by siRNA depletion, expression arrays, and immunohistochemistry.
NAV3 deletion and chromosome 12 polysomy were detected in 30 and 70% of microsatellite stability (MSS) carcinomas, in 23 and 30% of adenomas and in four of six CRC cell lines. NAV3 amplification was found in 25% of MSS samples. NAV3 alterations correlated with lymph node metastasis. In normal colon cells, NAV3 silencing induced upregulation of interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R) and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor. In MSS and microsatellite instability tumours, IL23R immunoreactivity correlated with Dukes' staging and lymph node metastases, whereas nuclear beta-catenin correlated with lymph node metastases only.
NAV3 copy number changes are frequent in CRC and in adenomas, and upregulation of IL23R, following NAV3 silencing, strongly correlates with Dukes' staging and lymph node metastases. This suggests that NAV3 has a role in linking tissue inflammation to cancer development in the colon.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2011; 106(3):517-24. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum and secretory IgA concentrations have been suggested to be inversely associated with allergic symptoms in children. Furthermore, low maternal milk IgA concentration has been suggested to be associated with the development of cow's milk allergy.
Our aim was to explore whether the serum IgA concentrations in infancy and the IgA concentration of maternal milk predict atopic manifestations in childhood and up to age 20 years.
A cohort of 200 unselected full-term newborns was prospectively followed up from birth to age 20 years with measurement of serum total IgA at ages 2 and 6 months. The mothers were encouraged to maintain exclusive breastfeeding for as long as possible. Total IgA concentration of maternal milk was measured at birth (colostrum, n=169) and at 2 (n=167) and 6 (n=119) months of lactation. The children were re-assessed at ages 5, 11 and 20 years for the occurrence of allergic symptoms, with skin prick testing and measurement of serum IgE.
Children and adolescents with respiratory allergic symptoms and sensitization had a higher serum IgA concentration at age 2 months than the non-atopic subjects. Colostrum and breast milk IgA concentrations were not associated with the development of allergic symptoms in the recipient infant. However, maternal milk IgA concentration at 6 months of lactation was inversely associated with elevated serum total IgE and positive skin prick test to tree pollen in the offspring at age 20 years.
Increased serum IgA concentration at age 2 months is associated with the development of subsequent allergic symptoms and sensitization in childhood and adolescence. Maternal milk IgA concentrations are not associated with subsequent allergic symptoms in the recipient infant. The present study provides novel information on the role of IgA in the development of respiratory allergy and sensitization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest an association between an altered lipoprotein profile and atopy. The association has been hypothesized to be due to alterations in the dietary fat intake, a factor possibly contributing to the increase of allergic diseases in industrialized countries.
We aimed at assessing whether there is an association between the serum lipid levels in infancy and subsequent development of allergic symptoms in childhood and adolescence.
A cohort of 200 unselected newborns was prospectively followed up from birth to age 20 years (from 1981 to 2002) with repeated measurements of total cholesterol from birth and throughout the first year of life. The subjects were re-examined at the ages of 5, 11 and 20 years, with assessment of the occurrence of allergic symptoms, skin prick testing (SPT) and measurement of total IgE and of the total, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Children and adolescents with allergic symptoms, SPT positivity and an elevated IgE had lower total cholesterol levels in infancy and childhood than the non-atopic subjects. The difference was not detectable in cord blood, but became significant from age 2 months onward.
The inverse association between the cholesterol level in infancy and subsequent manifestations of atopy seems not to be due to atopy-related dietary alterations, because it was already present in early infancy, when virtually all the infants were on a similar diet, i.e. on exclusive breastfeeding.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to characterize clinical features, laboratory findings, concomitant autoimmune diseases, and smoking habits of lupus erythematosus subgroups in genetically homogeneous patients from two Dermatology Departments of Finnish University hospitals. One hundred and seventy eight discoid lupus erythematosus, 55 subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and 77 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were enrolled using patients' charts from institutional database (1995-2006) and during routine control visits. Clustering analysis was performed to reveal natural groupings. Smoking at the onset of disease was significantly more common in all subgroups (57% for discoid lupus erythematosus, 35% for subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and 34% for systemic lupus erythematosus) compared with the age/gender-matched prevalence in the Finnish population, suggesting smoking to be a trigger factor for cutaneous lupus. Leukopenia (38%) and lymphopenia (52%) were observed more often in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than reported previously. Photosensitivity characterized all groups, especially patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (87%). Of the autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome was the most common (22% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus), followed by autoimmune thyroid disease (13% of patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus). The clustering analysis showed environmental factors (smoking) to be more involved in disease development in discoid lupus erythematosus, whereas immunological factors were more significant in initiating systemic lupus erythematosus. The high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, together with photosensitivity, and the clustering profiles suggest that lupus erythematosus subtypes, especially discoid lupus erythematosus, are heterogeneic in their pathomechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue destruction, regeneration, inflammation and apoptosis and several of them are upregulated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in skin. Although some MMPs associate with organ manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), their role in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE) is elusive.
Our aim was to evaluate the expression of MMPs in SLE, subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE) and discoid LE (DLE) skin lesions and their relation to apoptosis and epidermal changes.
Lesional skin biopsies from 20 patients with SLE, 20 with DLE and 17 with SCLE, and from UVA/UVB-photoprovoked skin of healthy volunteers were immunostained using antibodies to multiple MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling) method was used for detection of apoptosis.
MMP-3, -10, -19 and -26 were abundantly expressed by keratinocytes in SLE, DLE and SCLE skin samples. MMP-7 was detected in keratinocytes in regions of oedema and vacuolization especially in SLE and SCLE, while MMP-14 was only occasionally observed in keratinocytes. Photoprovocation did not induce MMP-10 or -26 expression in skin of healthy volunteers. Epithelial TIMP-1 expression was low while occasional positive fibroblasts were seen in the dermis. TIMP-3 was abundantly expressed in the epidermis, endothelial cells and macrophages.
Different subtypes of cutaneous LE are fairly similar in their MMP expression profile. MMP-3 and -10 mediate both epidermal changes and dermal tissue remodelling but are not present in lymphocytes. Low expression of TIMP-1 suggests that lupus skin is characterized by proteolytic events, and targeted action using selective MMP inhibitors may reduce lupus-induced damage in inflamed tissues.
British Journal of Dermatology 12/2007; 157(5):970-80. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin A has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and its deficiency results in impaired specific and innate immunity. Vitamin A is essential for inducing the gut-homing specificity on T cells.
As an impaired gut immune response in early infancy may contribute to the development of atopic sensitization, we looked for an association of plasma retinol concentrations and the subsequent development of allergic symptoms in healthy infants.
A cohort of 200 unselected, full-term newborns were followed up from birth to age 20 years. The plasma retinol concentration was determined in cord blood (n=97), at ages of 2, 4 and 12 months (n=95), and at ages 5 years (n=155) and 11 years (n=151). The subjects were re-examined at the ages of 5, 11 and 20 years with assessment of the occurrence of allergic symptoms during the preceding year, skin prick testing and measurement of serum total IgE.
subjects with allergic symptoms or a positive skin prick test (SPT) in childhood or adolescence had lower retinol concentrations in infancy and childhood than symptom-free subjects. The difference was most pronounced at age 2 months. Retinol concentration at 2 months correlated inversely with positive SPT at ages of 5 and 20 years, and with allergic symptoms at age 20 years.
Retinol concentration in young infants is inversely associated with the subsequent development of allergic symptoms. We propose that an inborn regulation of retinol may play a role in atopic sensitization, possibly through regulating the intestinal T cell responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiology of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) has been poorly understood. CTCL patients show a large variety of non-clonal and clonal chromosome aberrations, but no specific aberration has been found until recently. This review describes cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings and their relevance to diagnostics and etiology in two of the most common forms of CTCL, mycosis fungoides (MF) and the leukemic CTCL, Sézary syndrome (SS).
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2007; 118(2-4):353-61. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization and considered allergy preventive. However, it is not known whether prolonging exclusive breastfeeding for over 6 months provides further benefit in allergy prevention.
The aim of this prospective 20-year follow-up study was to find out whether the allergy protective effect can be enhanced by prolonging strictly exclusive breastfeeding for > or =9 months of age. A total of 200 unselected healthy newborns were enrolled in the study. Their mothers were encouraged to maintain exclusive breastfeeding for as long as possible. The number of infants on strictly exclusive breastfeeding was 167 at 2, 116 at 6, 36 at 9 and 7 at 12 months of age. Of the 200 infants, 42% had a family history of allergy. The children were re-assessed at ages 5 (n=163), 11 (n=150) and 20 years (n=164) with clinical examination, skin prick testing, and parental and personal structured interviews.
Exclusive breastfeeding prolonged for > or =9 months was associated with atopic dermatitis (P=0.002) and symptoms of food hypersensitivity (P=0.02) at age 5 years, and with symptoms of food hypersensitivity at age 11 years (P=0.01), in children with a family history of allergy.
Prolonging strictly exclusive breastfeeding for > or =9 months was not helpful in atopy prevention, instead, it was associated with increased atopic dermatitis and food hypersensitivity symptoms in childhood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by periodic attacks of fever and inflammation, due to mutations in the gene coding for the TNF type I receptor (TNFRSF1A). A 16-year-old patient with the diagnosis of TRAPS was admitted to hospital because of fever and abdominal pain. Initially, the symptoms were interpreted as manifestations of another TRAPS attack, but the patient's condition worsened, despite treatment with corticosteroids and antibiotics. A repeated computer tomography revealed an intra-abdominal abscess, which necessitated urgent surgical intervention. This case stresses the importance of differential diagnostic vigilance when dealing with patients with rare genetic diseases.
Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2006; 259(2):209-13. · 6.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the hypothesis that low-penetrance mutations in genes (TNFRSF1A, MEFV and NALP3/CIAS1) associated with hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFs) might be risk factors for AA amyloidosis among patients with chronic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), Crohn's disease, undiagnosed recurrent fevers and HPFs themselves. Four of 67 patients with RA plus amyloidosis had MEFV variants compared with none of 34 RA patients without amyloid (P value=0.03). The E148Q variant of MEFV was present in two of the three patients with TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) complicated by amyloid in two separate multiplex TRAPS families containing 5 and 16 affected members respectively, and the single patient with Muckle-Wells syndrome who had amyloidosis was homozygous for this variant. The R92Q variant of TNFRSF1A was present in two of 61 JIA patients with amyloidosis, and none of 31 nonamyloidotic JIA patients. No HPF gene mutations were found in 130 healthy control subjects. Although allelic variants in HPFs genes are not major susceptibility factors for AA amyloidosis in chronic inflammatory disease, low-penetrance variants of MEFV and TNFRSF1A may have clinically significant proinflammatory effects.
Genes and Immunity 07/2004; 5(4):289-93. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a novel mutation of the TNF receptor type 1 gene (TNFRSF1A) in a Finnish patient and her mother, both suffering from periodic fever.
Soluble TNFRSF1A in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbancy, and induced TNFRSF1A shedding from monocyte cell surfaces was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Mutation detection was performed using PCR amplification and sequencing of the ten exons of TNFRSF1A.
Low levels of soluble TNFRSF1A were detected in both patients between attacks. Sequencing revealed a missense mutation in exon 3 in the second extracellular domain of TNFRSF1A, resulting in a substitution of cysteine with arginine at residue 73 (C73R), confirming the diagnosis of TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). We were unable to demonstrate a distinct TNFRSF1A shedding defect.
In patients of Nordic descent, affected by dominantly inherited recurrent fever, TRAPS is a diagnosis worthy of attention. All TNFRSF1A mutations hitherto described in the Nordic countries have been different.
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 02/2004; 33(3):140-4. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic autoinflammatory disorders are hereditary diseases with symptoms of acute inflammation and a rise in serum acute phase proteins as a consequence, but with no signs of autoimmunity. By the end of the 1990s, four types of hereditary periodic fever had been described in the medical literature: familial Mediterranean fever, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS) and Muckle-Wells syndrome. Since then, the number of diseases classified as systemic autoinflammatory disorders has increased to eight. In patients of Nordic descent, cases of HIDS and TRAPS have been reported. We provide an overview of the genetic background and main clinical aspects of the different autoinflammatory disorders, with an emphasis on TRAPS.
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 02/2004; 33(3):133-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) show chromosomal aberrations in skin and blood lymphocytes.
To evaluate the significance of peripheral blood clonal or non-clonal chromosomal abnormalities in comparison with the clinical course of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients.
Five patients with large-plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) or with follicular mucinosis, eight with mycosis fungoides and two with Sézary syndrome were followed for an average of 54 months. G-banding and enzyme-detected in situ hybridization (EDISH) were used to identify aberrations in chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13/21, 15 or 17, that had previously showed frequent aberrations.
The aberration rates of all chromosomes studied differed between patients with active disease and healthy or photochemotherapy-treated controls by EDISH or G-banding (P < 0.01 to P < 0.05). Patients in complete remission differed from healthy controls for aberrations of chromosomes 1, 6 and 11, and from patients with active, progressing disease for chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 11 and 17 (P < 0.01 to P < 0.05, EDISH or G-banding). All 11 samples representing active, progressing disease showed elevated levels of chromosome 8 aberrations in EDISH. The change in chromosomal aberration rate and clinical condition between two consecutive samples agreed for chromosomes 1, 8, 9 and 15 (G-banding) and for chromosome 17 (G-banding and EDISH; kappa > 0.5-0.6). Six of seven patients (five CTCL, one LPP patient) with clonal chromosomal aberrations by G-banding showed continuously active disease and four of them, but none of the other patients, died within 30 months of the detection of the clone.
The rate of chromosomal aberrations associates with the activity of CTCL, and has prognostic significance. Aberrations of chromosomes 1, 6 and 11, although increasing with activity of the disease, seem to be a hallmark of existing disease, detectable even in remission. Aberrations of chromosomes 8 and 17 especially associate with active or progressive disease.
British Journal of Dermatology 01/2003; 148(1):55-64. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lesions, both reactive T cells and malignant T cells intermingle. The disease progression is mostly slow. Recent evidence suggests that even if clinical remission is reached, malignant cells persist and a relapse follows sooner or later. To wha extent tumour cell apoptosis occurs in the skin lesions either due to the reactive T cells or t therapeutic efforts is not known.
To determine the extent of tumour cell apoptosis and the expression of proapoptotic an antiapoptotic markers in serial skin lesion samples from patients with CTCL, and to compare th findings with those in patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP).
Thirty-four skin samples were obtained from 12 patients with CTCL at the time o diagnosis and at a mean of 1.6, 3 and 6 years later. The patients received psoralen plus ultraviolet (PUVA), electron beam or cytostatic treatments. In addition, fresh post-treatment samples fro three patients with CTCL undergoing PUVA therapy were obtained. For comparison, skin biopsies o five patients with LyP were studied. Immunohistochemical demonstration of the expression of th following markers was performed on formalin-fixed skin sections: Fas (CD95), Fas ligand (FasL) bcl-2, granzyme B, the tumour-suppressor protein PTEN and the effector caspase, caspase-3. Th malignant cells were identified morphologically, and apoptotic cells were identified with th terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling method on parallel sections.
In untreated CTCL lesions, apoptotic lymphocytes were extremely rare, and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed after any of the treatments used. In LyP, apoptotic cell were more frequent, comprising on average 5% of the infiltrate. The apoptosis-associated marker Fas, FasL, caspase-3 and granzyme B were expressed by morphologically neoplastic cells in CTCL and by large atypical cells in LyP, with no significant differences. However, only a few reactive cell in CTCL infiltrates expressed granzyme B while about 10% of the corresponding cells were positive in LyP. The expression of antiapoptotic bcl-2 was more frequent in CTCL than in LyP, while PTE expression was high in both instances. The number of bcl-2 + cells tended to decrease after therapy When comparing the findings between the first and the last samples, a decrease in the number of bcl-2+ cells and an increase in Fas+ cells was associated with disease progression, despite therapy, while the opposite was true for remissions.
Apoptosis was found to be a rare event in CTCL lesions irrespective of precedin therapy During patient follow-up, no significant differences in the expression of apoptotic marker was observed while in most cases a lower level of antiapoptotic bcl-2 expression was observed after all types of therapies and in association with disease progression when compared with high expression in the untreated lesions. The absence of apoptosis and high expression of bcl-2 together with a low expression of apoptosis-inducing granzyme B in the reactive lymphocytes in CTC could explain the chronic nature of the disease and the poor response to therapy, while th more frequent occurrence of granzyme B and apoptosis together with a lower level of expressio of bcl-2 by the large atypical cells in LyP could contribute to the favourable outcome of the latter.
British Journal of Dermatology 01/2002; 145(6):928-37. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity of a self-replicating DNA-vector containing HIV-1 nef gene (pBN-Nef) was characterized using various DNA delivery methods. In addition, gene gun immunisation was used for assessing immunogenicity of two other HIV-1 genes (rev and tat) given in the same vector. The pBN-Nef was the most immunogenic raising both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice; these responses lasted for up to six months. The pBN-Nef vector was immunogenic also when given intramuscularly or intradermally. The pBN-Rev construct did not elicit humoral responses but did elicit proliferative as well as CTL-response against the corresponding protein. The pBN-Tat was a poor immunogen in all respects. The antibodies elicited with various DNA delivery methods belonged to different antibody subclasses; however, two main epitopes in Nef were frequently recognized by all of them.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous T cell lymphomas are considered to represent a clonal malignancy of mature T lymphocytes of the T helper memory subtype. A method enabling the direct identification of clonal malignant cells in tissue and, at the same time, identification of the surface molecules they express has not been available, however. We have developed an application of the FICTION technique (simultaneous fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics) to be used on fresh blood, skin, and lymph node samples. A prerequisite for this method is the characterization of a moleculocytogenetic clone in order to select the proper probes. With this method, we demonstrate that the true malignant cells express CD3, CD4, and CD45RO in the blood, skin, and lymph nodes of two Sezary syndrome patients. The majority of these cells express also CD45RA (albeit of varying intensity) and CDw150. The cytokine expression pattern of the clonal cells in skin and lymph nodes was interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma negative and interleukin-4 positive. Interleukin-10 expression varied. The malignant cells did not express granzyme B, thus indicating that they do not have cytotoxic properties. Clonal cells with the same constant phenotype could be found even in lymph nodes with not yet morphologically identifiable malignant cells. This is the first report of the FICTION method applied directly on skin tissue. With this method we demonstrated that the chromosomally clonal cells in these two cases of Sezary syndrome could be intermediate forms between naïve CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ Th2 cells.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 02/2001; 116(1):188-93. · 6.19 Impact Factor