Fang Song

Capital institute of Pediatrics, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (31)18.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Approximately 90-95% of SMA patients have a homozygous deletion of SMN1, and 5-10% of patients are believed to have subtle mutations. The molecular diagnosis of SMN1 subtle mutations is hampered by highly homologous SMN2 gene. It is important to establish a rational molecular diagnostic procedure for SMN1 subtle mutations. We analyzed the SMN1 mutations in nine nonhomozygous patients by the following procedures: multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, genomic sequencing, T-A cloning on cDNA or genomic level, and/or real-time quantitative analysis. By the above molecular diagnostic procedure, six SMN1 subtle mutations, including c.5C>G(p.Ala2Gly), c.22_23 insA (p.Ser8LysfsX23), c.40G>T(p.Glu14X), c.43C>T(p.Gln15X), c.683T>A(p.Leu228X), and c.56delT(p.Val19GlyfsX21), were identified in nine Chinese patients. p.Glu14X has not been reported previously. Compared with the level of full-length SMN1 transcripts in the healthy carriers (14.1±4.5), the patient with p.Ala2Gly had no significant reduction (13.9±3.64, p=0.955). However, the levels in the patients carrying other mutations were significantly reduced (0.27±0.139 to 13.9±3.64, p=0.000-0.004). We present a reliable and rational diagnostic procedure for SMN1 subtle mutations, which would be helpful in molecular diagnosis of SMA compound heterozygotes. Our work extends the SMN1 mutation spectrum.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 07/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is the most severe type of hereditary unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the UDP-glycuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) on chromosome 2q37. Two patients clinically diagnosed with CN-I were examined in this paper. We sequenced five exons and their flanking sequences, specifically the promoter region of UGT1A1, of the two patients and their parents. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the UGT1A1 gene copy number of one patient. In patient A, two mutations, c.239_245delCTGTGCC (p.Pro80HisfsX6; had not been reported previously) and c.1156G>T (p.Val386Phe), were identified. In patient B, we found that this patient had lost heterozygosity of the UGT1A1 gene by inheriting a deletion of one allele, and had a novel mutation c.1253delT (p.Met418ArgfsX5) in the other allele. In summary, we detected three UGT1A1 mutations in two CN-I patients: c.239_245delCTGTGCC (p.Pro80HisfsX6), c.1253delT (p.Met418ArgfsX5), and c.1156G>T (p.Val386Phe). The former two mutations are pathogenic; however, the pathogenic mechanism of c.1156G>T (p.Val386Phe) is unknown.
    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 05/2014; 15(5):474-81. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To detect homozygous deletions of survival motor neuron (SMN) gene with genomic DNA sequencing, and to assess the value of genetic testing for the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for amplifying SMN gene in 100 SMA patients and 110 controls. Four different bases (g.31957, g.32006, g.32154 and g.32269) between SMN1 and SMN2 within the amplified segments were identified with genomic DNA sequencing. Homozygous deletion of SMN1 or SMN2 was determined by the presence or absence of base peaks at such four sites. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was carried out to confirm the results of genomic DNA sequencing. In the 100 SMA samples, only SMN2 specific base peaks were detected at the four sites, for which the copy numbers of SMN1 and SMN2 was 0:2 or 0:3, suggesting homozygous deletion of SMN1 gene. By contrast, only SMN1 specific base peaks were detected in 5 samples, for which the ratio of SMN1:SMN2 was 2:0, indicating homozygous deletion of SMN2. At four different sites, SMN1/SMN2 heterozygous peaks were detected in the remaining 105 samples, for which SMN1:SMN2was 2:2, suggesting non-deletion of SMN1 or SMN2. The results of sequencing were consistent with those of MLPA. Genomic DNA sequencing is a rapid, accurate and economic method for the diagnosis of homozygous deletion of SMA.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 08/2013; 30(4):410-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by lack of function of the maternal copy of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. In our study, 49 unrelated patients with classic AS phenotypes were confirmed by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) analysis, short tandem repeat linkage analysis, and mutation screening of the UBE3A gene. Among the Chinese AS patients, 83.7% (41/49) had deletions on maternal chromosome 15q11.2-13. Paternal uniparental disomy, imprinting defects, and UBE3A gene mutations each accounted for 4.1% (2/49). Two AS patients were confirmed by MS-PCR analysis, but the pathogenic mechanism was unknown because their parents' samples were unavailable. Of the 2 described UBE3A gene mutations, i.e., p.Pro400His (c.1199C>A) and p.Asp563Gly (c.1688A>G), the latter has not been reported previously. Mutation transmission analysis showed that the p.Pro400His and p.Asp563Gly mutations originated from asymptomatic mothers. The patients with the maternal deletion showed AS clinical manifestations that were consistent with other studies. However, the incidence of microcephaly (36.7%, 11/30) was lower than that in the Caucasian population (approximately 80%), but similar to that of the Japanese population (34.5%). Our study demonstrated that the occurrence of microcephaly in AS may vary among different populations.
    Clinical Genetics 04/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disorder resulting in death during childhood. Around 81 ~ 95% of SMA cases are a result of homozygous deletions of survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) gene or gene conversions from SMN1 to SMN2. Less than 5% of cases showed rare subtle mutations in SMN1. Our aim was to identify subtle mutations in Chinese SMA patients carrying a single SMN1 copy. METHODS: We examined 14 patients from 13 unrelated families. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was carried out to determine the copy numbers of SMN1 and SMN2. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and clone sequencing were used to detect subtle mutations in SMN1. SMN transcript levels were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Six subtle mutations (p.Ser8LysfsX23, p.Glu134Lys, p.Leu228X, p.Ser230Leu, p.Tyr277Cys, and p.Arg288Met) were identified in 12 patients. The p.Tyr277Cys mutation has not been reported previously. The p.Ser8LysfsX23, p.Leu228X, and p.Tyr277Cys mutations have only been reported in Chinese SMA patients and the first two mutations seem to be the common ones. Levels of full length SMN1 (fl-SMN1) transcripts were very low in patients carrying p.Ser8LysfsX23, p.Leu228X or p.Arg288Met compared with healthy carriers. In patients carrying p.Glu134Lys or p.Ser230Leu, levels of fl-SMN1 transcripts were reduced but not significant. The SMN1 transcript almost skipped exon 7 entirely in patients with the p.Arg288Met mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals a distinct spectrum of subtle mutations in SMN1 of Chinese SMA patients from that of other ethnicities. The p.Arg288Met missense mutation possibly influences the correct splicing of exon 7 in SMN1. Mutation analysis of the SMN1 gene in Chinese patients may contribute to the identification of potential ethnic differences and enrich the SMN1 subtle mutation database.
    BMC Medical Genetics 09/2012; 13(1):86. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) gene can lead to tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), a relatively rare autosomal recessive disorder. To date, no molecular genetic defects of HT1 in China have been described. We investigated a Chinese family with a HT1 child to identify mutations in FAH. DNA sequencing was used for mutations screening in FAH gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the FAH gene expression level. To confirm the presence of degradation by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (NMD), the fragments containing R237X mutations were analyzed by primer introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) and cDNA sequencing. Finally, the effects of the mutations reported in this study were predicted by online softwares. A boy aged 3 years and 8 months was diagnosed clinically with HT1 based on his manifestations and biochemical abnormalities. Screening of FAH gene revealed two heterozygous mutations R237X and L375P transmitted from his mother and father respectively. In this pedigree, the amount of FAH mRNA relative to a healthy control was 0.44 for the patient, 0.77 for his mother and 1.07 for his father. Moreover, both PIRA-PCR and cDNA sequencing showed significant reduction of the FAH mRNA with R237X nonsense mutation. The missense mutation of L375P was not reported previously and prediction software showed that this mutation decreased the stability of protein structure and affected protein function. This is the first case of HT1 analyzed by molecular genetics in China. The R237X mutation in FAH down- regulates the FAH gene expression, and the L375P mutation perhaps interrupts the secondary structure of FAH protein.
    Chinese medical journal 06/2012; 125(12):2132-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the applicability and limitation of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). PCR-RFLP was applied to detect potential deletion in exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 gene in 935 suspected cases with SMA. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) was carried out to analyze dosage alteration of SMN1 gene in 339 of such cases. To confirm the accuracy of PCR-RFLP method for homozygous and heterozygous deletions detection, the consistency of PCR-RFLP and MLPA results were assessed with a Pearson Chi-square test. Homozygous deletion of exon 7 of SMN1 was detected in 590 suspected cases. The rate of diagnosis was therefore 63.1% (590/935). For the 339 suspected cases, PCR-RFLP and MLPA respectively identified 194 and 196 homozygous deletions in the exon 7 of SMN1 gene, suggesting a good consistency (98.9%)(Chi-square = 0.2, P = 0.88). However, only 4 of 339 cases was found to carry a heterozygous deletion of SMN1 exon 7 by PCR-RFLP, in contrast with 17 detected by MLPA. The consistency only reached 23.5%, for which statistical significance was detected (Chi-square = 8.29, P< 0.01). Although PCR-RFLP is a simple, specific and efficient method for SMA diagnosis, it has obvious limitation for the diagnosis of 5%-10% SMA patients who have carried a compound heterozygous mutation.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 02/2012; 29(1):34-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the type and frequency of gene conversion from SMN1 to SMN2 in Chinese patients affected with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and to explore the relationship between gene conversion and clinical phenotype. Non-homozygous deletion of SMN1 gene exon 8 was screened among 417 patients with SMN1 exon 7 homozygous deletions. To analyze and verify the types of gene conversion, genomic DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and gene subcloning and sequencing were carried out. Thirty-one patients (7.4% of all) with non-homozygous deletions of SMN1 exon 8 were detected. Through series of experiments, the fusion genes SMN1/SMN2 in all cases were delineated. Five types of gene conversions were identified, which included SMN2-I7b/SMN1 E8, SMN2-I7a/SMN1 I7b, SMN2-E7/SMN1 I7a, SMN1 I6/SMN2 E7/SMN1 I7a and SMN2-E7/SMN1 I7a/SMN2 I7b. Such conversions were found in the type I-III patients. For 10 patients with type I-III SMA and 3 copies of SMN2 gene produced by conversion, the average survival age was 5 year and 4 months. Partial conversions of SMN1 gene have been found among Chinese SMA patients. The type of conversion and frequency seem to be different from those of other races. Gene conversion to some extent may impact on survival time and rate of SMA patients, especially type I SMA.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 12/2011; 28(6):606-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors retrospectively studied the natural history of 237 patients with infantile spinal muscular atrophy in China. The onset ages (mean ± SD) for types I to III were 3.1 ± 2.7, 8.7 ± 3.8, and 21.1 ± 11.7 months, respectively. The survival probabilities for type I patients at 1, 2, and 5 years were 44.9%, 38.1%, and 29.3%, respectively, and for type II patients, the probabilities were 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively. All type III patients were alive. Type I patients with onset age after 2 months had significantly increased survival than those with onset before 2 months (P < .05). It should be noticed that survival probability at 2 years in type I patients in our study was close to that in other Asian samples of spinal muscular atrophy, but slightly better than that among whites. Patients accepted minimal proactive interventions other than antibiotics for pulmonary infection, so our study provides reliable baseline data of natural history of spinal muscular atrophy in China.
    Journal of child neurology 09/2011; 27(4):471-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder. About 80% - 90% of SMA patients are missing both copies of SMN1, and 5% - 10% of patients are compound heterozygotes. In the present study, we aimed to analyze survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene mutation in three patients with spinal muscular atrophy and their families to explore the effect of mutation on SMN protein function and the relationship between mutation and clinical phenotype. According to the international criterion, all patients were diagnosed by a neurologist. Patient 1 is a 5 years old boy with SMA type II. Patient 2, female, 2.5 years old, was SMA type II. Patient 3, female, 9 years old, was SMA type III. The brother of patient 3 was SMA type II, too. The age at last examination was 14 years. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using standard phenol/chloroform method and total RNA was extracted from whole blood with QIAamp RNA Blood Mini Kit. PCR/RFLP was used to detect the homozygosis deletion of the SMN1 exon 7, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed to analyze the gene dosage of SMN1 and SMN2 for each patient and his/her family members; reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and clone sequencing were conducted for identifying the point mutation of SMN1 in three patients. The sequencing of genomic DNA and MLPA were carried out in the 3 families members to confirm the transition of mutation. No homozygous deletion of the SMN1 exon 7 was observed in any member of the 3 families. Case 1 and case 2 had one SMN1 copy compound with c.400G > A (p.Glu134Lys) mutation on it and SMN2 was two copies, respectively. Case 3 and her brother also had one copy of SMN1 and two copies of SMN2, and a mutation c.689C > T (p.Ser230Leu) occurred on the retained SMN1. All point mutations were from their fathers and deletion come from their mothers for SMN1 gene. In this work, p.Glu134Lys and p.Ser230Leu mutations were identified in three unrelated families and p.Glu134Lys from two patients was first discovered in Chinese SMA. The p.Glu134Lys mutation within the SMN Tudor domain prevents the binding of SMN and Sm. The fact that p.Ser230Leu results in a polar amino acid substituted for non-polar amino acid possibly affects the structure of SMN and then damages its function. SMN1 point mutation analysis is not only advantageous to the diagnosis of those patients with heterozygous deletion of SMN1, but will be beneficial to the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for their families.
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 06/2011; 49(6):411-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the point mutations in survival motor neuron gene 1 SMN1 gene and confirm the existence of compound heterozygous mutations in Chinese patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three unrelated patients were diagnosed and clinically typed according to the criteria of proximal SMA established by the International SMA Consortium. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was carried out to measure the copy numbers of SMN1, SMN2 and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene (NAIP)in the patients. The point mutation analysis of SMN1 gene was performed by reversed transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloning sequencing. The MLPA assay and point mutation analysis were also performed in the family members to confirm the transmission of the mutations. Two point mutations were identified in the present study, i.e., the p.Leu228X in one patient and p.Arg288Met in two patients. The mutation p.Arg288Met was first reported in Chinese and p.Leu228X was first reported in Mainland Chinese. The case carrying p.Leu228X mutation was diagnosed as SMA I with 2 copies of SMN2, and the cases with p.Arg288Met were diagnosed as SMA I and SMA II , respectively, with 3 copies of SMN2 gene. The mutations p.Leu228X and p.Arg288Met caused severe clinical phenotypes, SMA I or SMA II. This study suggested that the compound heterozygous mutations of SMN1 existed in Chinese SMA patients, which was rarely reported previously in Chinese. It was necessary to detect the point mutation in SMN1 for genetic diagnosis of those patients with heterozygous deletion of SMN1, which would be beneficial to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling in these families.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 04/2011; 28(2):121-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder. Approximately 90% - 95% cases of SMA result from homozygous deletion of survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) and 5% cases are caused by compound heterozygous mutation (a SMN1 deletion on one allele and a subtle mutation on the other allele). In this research, two unrelated patients were clinically diagnosed according to the criteria of proximal SMA. Genetic diagnosis was performed to detect the homozygous deletion of exon 7 of SMN1 by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and genomic sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was carried out to measure copy numbers of SMN1, SMN2 and neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein (NAIP) in the patients. Further sequencing of SMN1 allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and SMN1 clones were also performed to analyze the point mutation of SMN1 gene. Additionally, the pedigree analysis of these two families was carried out to identify the transmission of the mutation. The inconsistent results using PCR-RFLP and genomic sequencing showed homozygous deletion of exon 7 of SMN1 and heterozygous deletion accompanied with a suspicious mutation in SMN1 gene, respectively. MLPA analysis of these two cases exhibited one SMN1 copy deletion. One identical c.863G > T (p.Arg288Met) mutation was found in two cases by sequencing the SMN1 clones, which confirmed that both cases were SMA compound heterozygotes. One case showed partial conversion to form hybrid SMN (SMN2 I7/SMN1 E8) identified by clones sequencing and another case carrying 3 SMN2 implied complete conversion from SMN1 to SMN2. p.Arg288Met is more a disease-causing mutation than a polymorphism variation, and children with this mutation may have more severe phenotypes.
    Chinese medical journal 02/2011; 124(3):385-9. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by an expression defect of the maternally inherited copy of ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene from chromosome 15. Although the most common genetic defects include maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13, paternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defect, mutations in the UBE3A gene have been identified in approximately 10% of AS patients. A Chinese girl of 28 months presented clinical manifestation of AS. Genetic diagnosis and molecular genetic defects were studied by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and linkage analysis by short tandem repeat (STR). We further performed sequence analysis of all the coding exons and flanking sequences of the UBE3A gene. The novel mutation screening was also performed in 100 unrelated healthy individuals to exclude the possibility of identifying a polymorphism variation. The MS-PCR analysis of the patient showed biparental inheritance of chromosome 15 with a normal methylation pattern in the 15q11-q13 region. And STR analysis revealed that the patient also inherited biparental alleles for six microsatellites. A novel mutation, cDNA1199 C> A (p.P400H), in exon 9 of the maternal UBE3A gene, was identified in the patient. Meanwhile, the mutation was observed in the patient's mother who had a normal phenotype. It is necessary to perform the UBE3A gene mutation analysis in non-deletion/non-UPD/non-ID patients with AS. The clinical picture of the patient is concordant with that observed in previously reported AS patients with UBE3A mutation.
    Chinese medical journal 01/2011; 124(1):84-8. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laron syndrome, also known as growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with severe postnatal growth failure, and normal and/or elevated growth hormone. This disease is frequently caused by a point mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR). Here, we identified a novel homozygous substitution mutation (E42K: GAG-->AAG at codon 42 cDNA) of the GHR gene in a Chinese girl with Laron syndrome. This mutation was predicted to impair the GHR binding affinity to human growth hormone (hGH), and was responsible for low levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and GH binding protein (GHBP) in serum.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 01/2011; 16(8):1183-9. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To diagnose and detect the molecular defect in a suspected patient with Prader-Willi syndrome. Genetic diagnosis and molecular genetic analysis were performed by using chromosome karyotype analysis, methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR), and linkage analysis using short tandem repeat (STR). The karyotype of the patient was 45, XX, der(5), t(5;15)(q35;q13), -15, and the parents were 46, XY and 46, XX, respectively, implying that the unbalanced translocation t(5;15) in the patient was de novo. Furthermore, MS-PCR and STR linkage analysis confirmed that the patient's 15q11-13 deletion was resulted from unbalanced translocation on paternal chromosome 15. Genetic analysis should be applied in suspected patients with Prader-Willi syndrome to confirm the diagnosis. Cytogenetic and molecular techniques would be helpful in clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 12/2010; 27(6):664-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that maps to 15q11-13. The primary phenotypes are attributable to loss of expression of imprinted UBE3A gene within this region which can arise by means of a number of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to make a genetic diagnosis and to analyze the clinical features in suspected patients with AS. A total of 17 cases were diagnosed clinically as AS including 7 males and 10 females. The age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 8 months to 5 years. Genetic diagnosis was made by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR), linkage analysis by short tandem repeat (STR) and chromosome karyotype analysis. According to the international diagnostic criteria of AS, the related characteristic clinical features of the AS patients with deletion of 15q11-13 were analyzed and summarized. Deletion of 15q11-13 was confirmed by genetic diagnosis in 17 AS patients. No abnormal findings were observed when they were born. Developmental delay in movement, speech impairments and happy disposition were observed in 100% (17/17) AS patients. And the severe speech deficit was much easier and more obvious to observe than movement. About 80% (14/17) - 90% (15/17) AS patients presented frequent clinical characteristics, such as seizures and abnormal EEG. However, microcephaly could only be observed in 35% (6/17) AS patients. Regarding the associated findings of AS, 41% (7/17) - 77% (13/17) AS patients could be observed with flat occiput/occipital groove, prognathia, wide mouth, wide-spaced teeth, frequent drooling, excessive mouth behaviors, hypopigmented skin, light hair compared to parents, flexed arm position during ambulation and sleep disorder etc. These features occurred at a higher frequency in those patients of > 2 years old group than that of < 2 years old group. The testing strategies of MS-PCR and STR linkage analysis combined with chromosome karyotype analysis were appropriate to the molecular genetic diagnosis of AS. In our analysis of clinical features, there was a lower rate of small head circumference (HC) in 35% patients compared with 80% patients in Caucasian with microcephaly, which might be attributable to the phenotypic heterogeneity in different races. And the birth history, movement and speech development and main clinical features of the Chinese AS patients were consistent with those of other studies. Clinical analysis in patients of different age groups showed that findings associated with AS would be more easily observed with the age increasing. Genetic diagnosis should be performed in clinically suspected AS patients.
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 12/2010; 48(12):939-43.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical manifestations and EEG characteristics of Angelman syndrome in children, and to strengthen the recognition of this disease. Fourteen children with Angelman syndrome received video EEG monitoring, head MRI/CT and gene test, 11 patients received the metabolic investigations (e.g., lactic acid, ammonia, GC/MS and MS/MS). Eight patients received Gesell test. The patients were followed up for 1-3 years. Of the 14 cases, 4 were male and 10 female, their age was from 8 months to 3 years and 7 months. The clinical characteristics included prominent lower jaw and wide mouth, fair skin and yellow hair, light-colored iris, paroxysmal laughter, astasia and language backward. Twelve patients had epileptic seizures; 10 patients displayed non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), 9 patients displayed myoclonic, atypical absence, and non-convulsive seizure simultaneously; myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic seizure and complex partial seizure in 1 each; 4 patients had fever in early seizures. The EEG showed paroxysmal middle-high amplitude 2-3 Hz spike and spinous slow-wave in 8 patients. Four patients showed paroxysmal frequently middle-high amplitude 2-3 Hz slow waves mixed with sharps. The other 2 patients showed a normal EEG. All the patients were diagnosed with genetics testing. The results included maternal deletion of chromosome 15q11-13 in 12, paternal uniparental disomy in 1 and imprinting defects in 1. There are characteristic clinical manifestation and craniofacial features in Angelman syndrome patients. Some patients have specific EEG patterns. Abnormal region of chromosome 15q11-13 is the basis of diagnosis.
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 10/2010; 48(10):783-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the genetic diagnosis of Angelman syndrome(AS), and provide information for clinic diagnosis and counseling to AS families. Methylation specific-PCR (MS-PCR) was used for primary diagnosis of 16 clinically suspected AS cases, and linkage analysis by short tandem repeat (STR) was applied to detect the molecular genetic defect in the nuclear families. In this study, 10 AS patients were identified by MS-PCR, and 9 of them with maternal deletion in chromosome 15q11-q13, 1 with imprinting defect in chromosome 15q11-q13 were confirmed by STR linkage analysis. Most of the AS patients could be confirmed by MS-PCR. And STR linkage analysis can detect the molecular defect of AS. It is very important for disease diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to perform the related genetic diagnosis.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 10/2009; 26(5):495-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the characteristics of the PAH gene mutation in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) in Xinjiang area. The mutations in exons 3, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12 and the flanking intronic sequence of the PAH gene were detected by PCR/SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing in 46 PKU patients. Twenty different mutations were found in 68/92 alleles (73.9%). The prevalent mutations of R243Q, EX6 96A>G, R111X, Y356X and V399V were similar to that of Northern China populations. The mutations F161S, L255S, P281L, and R413P were significantly different from that in other Chinese populations. It was the second time that E280G and A434D mutations were reported in the world, that L255S, P281L, R261Q, and I65T mutations were found in China. Thirteen different mutations were first found in Chinese Uygur, which showed a distinct ethnic characteristics. The study showed not only a distinct and conservative, but also a crossed and syncretic genetic characteristics in Xinjiang Uygur population. The results suggest that Xinjiang could be an ideal genetic resource repertoire for studying diversity of gene mutations, heterogeneity of PAH gene, human origins and migration.
    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 02/2009; 26(1):26-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting due to degeneration of the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The clinical picture of SMA is variable and childhood SMA has been classified into 3 types on the basis of the age of onset and clinical course. The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene was mapped to chromosome 5q13. The SMN1 gene has been recognized to be responsible for SMA because of homozygous deletions or intragenic mutations in SMN1 results in childhood onset of SMA. The main objective of this study was to determine the deletion frequency of SMN1 gene and to apply gene analysis in children patients with SMA. The SMA patients were diagnosed and clinically typed according to the international diagnostic criteria, following up cases, and gene analysis. The PCR enzyme assay was used to detect the homozygous deletion of SMN1 gene in SMA patients. A dosage assay that combined multiplexed allele-specific PCR and DHPLC was used to determine the copy numbers of the SMN1 and SMN2 and detect SMN1 heterozygous deletion. (1) A total of 267 patients with SMA were diagnosed from 338 suspicious cases and 143, 82, and 42 cases were typed as types I, II, and III, with the percentages of 53.6% (143/267), 30.7% (82/267) and 15.7% (42/267), respectively. (2) Results of the present study showed that 68.5% (183/267) of SMA patients had homozygous deletions of exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 gene and 12.7% (34/267) had homozygous deletions of only exon 7 of SMN1 gene. The SMN1 heterozygous deletion was confirmed in 12.4% (33/267) of SMA patients. Non-deletion SMA patients accounted for 6.4%(17/267). The homozygous deletions of only exon 8 of SMN1 gene could not be detected. (3) The rates of homozygous or heterozygous deletion in types I and II were very similar. The rate of homozygous deletion was lower in type III than that in type I or II and rate of heterozygous deletion of type III was higher than that in types I or II. (1) The frequency and pattern of deletions in the Chinese children patients with SMA are significantly different from that observed in Caucasians populations. Further gene characterization and subtle mutations within the SMN1 gene need to be studied in order to define the molecular basis of SMA in the Chinese population. (2) The gene diagnosis is a special and non invasive method as compared with other methods. A total of 80% patients can be diagnosed through the analysis of the homozygous deletion of SMN1 gene. (3) The clinical diagnosis and gene detection need to be studied in future for the SMA patients with type III.
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 01/2009; 46(12):919-23.